Florida dispatch
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000068/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida dispatch
Uniform Title: Florida dispatch
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Ashmead Bros.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: March 27, 1882
Publication Date: 1869-1889
Frequency: weekly
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1869)-n.s. v. 9, no. 4 (Jan. 21, 1889).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of North Florida
Holding Location: University of North Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0497
oclc - 08331006
System ID: NF00000068:00001
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch, farmer & fruit grower; farmers alliance

Full Text

New Series.--Published by ASHMEAD BROTHERS, Jacksonville, F]

Monday, March 27, 1882.

(See Illustrations.)
The writer, (who has had unusual opportu-
nities for attending Agricultural and Horticul-
tural Fairs and Exhibitions, in the different
States, during the past thirty years,) made sev-
eral visits to the February exhibition held here
under the auspices of the "State Park Associa-
tion;" and, after a vgry careful examination of
all the more important departments, came away
with the satisfied and comfortable impression
that Florida had at last given a very encour-
aging intimation of her capa-
bilities, and that a long stride
had been made, and a point
gained in advance of all pre-
vious exhibitions.
This has been the almost
unanimous verdict of the press
of our own State, and of the
leading journals of other
States who serit correspond-
ents here; and we make room
for one such article, copied
from Frank Leslie's Illustra-
ted Newspaper, of March 11:
Nothing could well seem
more absurd to the Northern
mind than the idea of holding
an agricultural fair in the last RU
month of Winter, yet a very
successful exhibition of this
sort has just taken place in 'Fiorlda. The
annual fair of the State Park Association,
which opened at Jacksonville on the 21st of
February and lasted through the 25th, rivaled
in the variety and extent of its display the
show expected of a society in the Eastern or
Middle States at the close of the Summer sea-
son. The illustrations published in this issue
will give our readers some idea of the exhibits
of a Winter fair in the Everglade State. Be-
sides the exhibition of horses, cattle, swine and

of Ilorii a (a d the $tuth.

la. Ph 50its.

$1.00 per Year, in advance; pobtage free.

poultry, always expected at an agricultural Florida-raised hogs, which equal :theproduc-
fair, Northern visitors found an excellent col- tions of the West; upland cottonof fmetexture,
election of the tropical fruits which flourish in cotton stalks loaded, with .pen: bolls, Florida
Florida in such great profusion. One entry tobacco which would stand comparison wih
from Orange county, for instance, included the best raised in Virginia, besides superior
pine-apples in bud, blossom, green and ripe, corn, oats, rice and other products "too nuier-
which had been growing all Winter; nine ous to mention.".
varieties of lemons, seven of oranges, four of The "new process" of raising oranges wasil-
citron and thre-.of limes-all in the different lustrated by a.small tree not over three feet in
stages of growth from bud to ripe fruit; cocoa- height, which was full of blooms, though only
nuts and sweet potatoes which were planted in two years old.
September. The Florida exhibit which was The Fair drew a larger, atteadanee of visi-
sent to the Atlanta Exposition last Fall attract- tors,iboth nativeaid strangers, than any preyi-
ed much attention, comprising as it did the bale ous one in the society's history,-and cannot
Shave failed to:impress, people
,from abroad -with ,a new..ideat
of Florida's capbailitiers o To
.dther Soutthern-: tate is inow
making more: mrpid, ai vene-
Smenti o.Ev erv wlit ei fids a
larger number vibitods from
.the- Northi. w ho seek .iiAef
from snow an d iein .itsIbal-
my: climate,.: The experience
of thousands has proved4hmat
no other section isso healthful
for the large lass::of, pi.i le
with an inherited or.aicuiied
-tendency to ,pulmonary tied-
ble, while the person ofleis-
..ure has to look long and fiar e-
fofehe tinds a more charming
place :for winter residence.
Jacksonvilldis theo !giat
i headquarters s for visitors, ad
0 Al number oflarge hotels:have
:f een erected- there within
O lie last few years, which are
gth' ell patronized from the latter
)art of autumn..till- the ap-i
ofcotton which took the first premium.at the preach of te following summer.: TheI
Georgia capital, cane and hemp which alsotook street view in: that city, which. appears:
first premiums at Atlanta, samples of starch among our illustrations, will be familiar to
made from the cassava root, marl and phosphate many readers who have visited the qWaint
deposits fromnDuval County, coal and sponge old town, and- willgive those who have'notbdeen
from the coast, building stone, iron ore and ai so fortunate, ai glimpse: of its- qmiet beAfty.
large variety of the Florida woods. The ex- IEverybody who goes to Florida of. course malt es
hibit from Leon County, which is in the heart the trip up the St. Johns river, and no. Amehi-
of Middle Florida, showed the possibilities of can stream offers the tourist a wider range- of
agriculture in that fertile region, among its picturesque scenes and novel experientmie. For:
features being -bacon, hams, and lard from nearly one hundred miles from its mouth theft

'oL 1--No. 1. .

Dteoted to the Aricult'ral, 1tanufacturingj and Industrial Industries

_ _


~ic~-l.- ~7_m-;~Ci~-- ---1 -~--m-I.----I_--_ -.---1-- --- ~-- -~--_ -- .I__~~ _~___-- I ~ ____ _____ _



steadily increasing success., The population of
;the% State grew from 187,748 to 269,493, or
nearly 45 per cent,, in the ten years from 1870
to 1880, and the rate of increase during the
present decade promises to be still larger. The
history of Florida was long one of war and dis-
order, but it is now becoming distinguished for
the triumphs of peace and prosperity.
TRUTH AND SARCASM.-Jim Webster sighed
heavily. What's de madder, Jim ?" asked
Uncle Moze, in a sympathizing tone. "I have
made up my mind to quit de chicken biziness.
I'se tired beina arrested and hirin' lawyers and
habin' folks ask whar's my chickens?' when I
.passes down on Galveston avenue. I am gwine
to go inter a biziness whar I'll be respected and
wharde police will nebber bodder me no moah."
"What biziness am dat, Jim ?" Gamblin'."
--Galveston News.

'SL Johns is a wide, sluggish sheet of water,
-more nearly resembling a lagoon than a river,
'and in more than one place widening into a
lake. Its banks are lined by the palmetto and
- ahost of other tropical trees and shrubs, while
the alligator is often to be seen sunning himself
.on a log. At various points along the shores
are catteed the winter homes of Northern set-
?tlirs. The most interesting of these is Mrs.
:JI ritt IBeecher Stowe's place at Mandarin, a
eafat : cottage, where the famous authoress
.Jtas sapnt the winter season for a number of
years past. .It is a beautiful home, shaded by
some grand old trees, and a very pretty picture
it. i which our artist furnishes of the family
taking their ease in the shade on a warm win-
-te day, The view on the Ocklawaha river
:furnishes some idea of the luxuriant profusion
o f tropical plants which is so often encountered
on.a Florida stream.
.'But.it is not visitors alone from the North
who6A Florida attracts. The advantages of the
State a place of residence are yearly draw-
ig larger numbers of permanent settlers. Al-
: ough the winters are so mild, the summers do
i uet bring the tropical heat which might be ex-
pected, and many people who have gone there
Sfrom'the North declare that they do not suffer
more in Summer than. they: did in their old
homes. Northern capital is pouring into the
State, and :many new railroad lines and other
improvement schemes are under way. One re-
markable project is that which was started not
many months ago by a number of Philadelphia
capitalists, and which contemplates the opening
to settlement of a vast tract of land in the
Southern peninsula. In, the centre of this re-
giori is the great Lake Okeechobee, which cov-
ers over a thousand square miles, and receives
the drainage of nearly the whole peninsula.
Although this lake has many inlets, it has no
outlet, and consequently when a rainy season
comes, it overflows its banks and turns all the
surrounding. country into a swamp.: The Phil-
adelphia company proposes to provide. an arti-
ficial outlet to the Gulf and oceanby a system
of canals, which, will prevent 'the' overflow of
the lake, and is expected' to' reclaim :illions of
acres of land which are now entirely 'valueless.
The most notable undertaking, however, for the
development and settlement of Florida is the
recent purchase of four'nmillibn acres of land in
one body by the Florida' Lind and Improve-
ment Company, 'of which Mr. Hamilton Diss-
torn, of Philadelphia, is president, and which
'hb '-headi offices in that city, with branches in
New York and Jacksonville, .Fla. These lands
Include some of the most fertilee and desirable
:in the State, and from the choicest Mr. Disston
has generously presented homesteads of forty
~eres each to the destitute Jewish families
:lately arrived in this country, fleeing from
: usian persecution. Aside from this yast
scheme many lesser projects for attracting im-
migration are 'being diligently pushed with

ble and timely current market reports; in re-
gard to the comparative reliability of Northern
commission houses, and reporting all well au-
thenticated cases of shortcoming.
Last, though not least, it is to be hoped that
after a successful organization, with a numer-
ous membership, any representations it may be
deemed advisable to make to the agencies of
the different transportation companies may
meet with a more favorable consideration when
emanating in the form of resolutions from a
number of its fellow-citizens than if offered by
individuals, for any measures which will tend
to foster the truck business must benefit these
companies by increasing the freight. You are
aware that last season several thousand crates
of vegetables had to be dumped into the ocean
by the returning steamship, owing to a glut in
the market, and that a meeting of the commis-

Organization of a Truckman's and Shippers' Asso-
ciation--Interesting Information for Growers and
From the Savannah News, March 17.
In accordance with a call published in the
Morning News of yesterday, a meeting of truck
farmers and others interested in the shipping of
early vegetables to Northern markets, was held
at Metropolitan Hall, yesterday afternoon at
three o'clock. There were present, Dr. A.
Oemler, W. D. Simkins, G. M. Ryals, John
Schley, A. W. Harmon, J. Gardner, O. L. Til-
ton, Henry Meinhard, J. W. McAlpin, Charles
S. Hardee, Savannah and vicinity; Wm. Dun-
can, representing W. H. Pillow, of Jackson-
ville; R. E. Cochrane, of New York, a com-
mission dealer; W. T. Burrows, of Burrows &
Ely, commission merchants, New York.
The meeting was organized by the election
of Dr. Oemler as Chairman and W. D. Simkins
as Secretary.
The chair stated that he had given the mat-
ters on which they were interested considerable
thought, and considered the formation of an as-
sociation most desirable, and in its results very
beneficial. He had prepared a paper setting
forth what he regarded as the objects of the
association, which he read as follows:
The object is the organization of an associa-
tion to promote the manifold interests of the
producers and shippers of truck in and from
this vicinity, but as they will be incidentally
served of those who only forward their produce
from a distance through our port, it is to be
hoped that when needed we may have their co-
operation. It is certainly neither for want of
intelligence nor energy, but merely on account
of the absence of co-operation that a movement
of this kind has not been initiated before, and
no one will deny either its desirability or neces-
Successful horticultural clubs and agricul-
tural associations, with similar objects in view,
and under circumstances less urgent, with a
smaller number of intelligent farmers in the
surrounding country fiom which to secure.
memberships, have 'been formed all along the
coast. I know not how many exist in Florida,
but I have a list of six of them. The interests
are so various that I can only name such as
occur to me now-others will arise and become
apparent with the existence of the association.
They are the interchange of ideas among its
members in regard to seed and the best and
most reliable sources of supply and comparative
value of varieties; in regard to commercial fer-
tilizers, their value, reliability and modes of
application; in regard to the cultivation of"
crops; in regard to farm labor and improved
farm implements; in regard to the best manner
of packing and preparing produce for market;
in regard to destructive insects and their reme-
dies-for it is correctly said horticulture is a
war with insects; in regard to the different
markets for our produce and procuring relia-

Mr. Gardner stated that the views as ex-
pressed by the chairman demonstrated the ne-
cessity of the organization of an association and
he would therefore move the following, which
was adopted:
"We, the undersigned, agree to form a
trucker and farmers and shippers of produce
association, the name to be hereafter definitely
This was signed by all the gentlemen pres-
ent, save those from New York and Jackson-
On motion, a committee of three were ap-
pointed to select officers for a permanent or-
The chair appointed J. Gardner, John Schley
and S. P. Goodwin, who thereupon retired to
perform the duty assigned them.

I .


sion merchants and transportation companies
was called by the latter to devise some means
for preventing the recurrence of so deporable a
loss of property and freight. If, apart from the
unprecedented season which matured the crops
in different latitudes at the same time, the uni-
versal complaints of disaster and poor returns
from Florida and here was owing to any one
cause, it was the sailing of the steamer on
Wednesday instead of Tuesday, and it was so
urged, I think, by several of the commission
merchants at that meeting. The New York
Market Index and Journal states, a dealer
who receives perishable goods on Saturday too
late for market considers himself stuck! To
enable the retail dealers in Brooklyn, Williams-
burg, Newark, Jersey City and other adjacent
and more distant points to offer their supplies
to customers on Saturday our shipments should
be in the hands of the consignees on Friday,
for the wholesale market opens at 3 o'clock and
closes at 9. A part of the produce arriving
ever so early on Saturday will remain over to
Monday, and the retailer who makes a pur-
chase then will not be apt to make a large one,
if any, from the freight of the steamer which
arrives next day. The consequences are obvi-
ous. To give an instance: Last season the
City of Columbus sailed in the afternoon of
Wednesday, July 6th, with over 17,000 melons,
and arrived too late for satisfactory sales, and
the City of Augusta threw 31,455 on the mar-
ket before the former had been sold by the
retail dealers, causing a glut. Freight and
wharfage on the two lots was $41.18. Partly
through my instrumentality some of the New
York commission merchants addressed a joint
letter to the agency of the Ocean Steamship
Company on this subject, which merely resulted
in the promise of the half measure that no
steamer should sail on Wednesday later than
),oon, but even this was not adhered to during
the season. Two years ago the application for
a change was denied on the ground that it was
in conflict with the wishes of Florida shippers,
who would be compelled to prepare their pro-
duce on Sundays. Last year I addressed our
Florida fellow truckers in the Southern Farm-
er's Monthly, and stated it would be better for
them to dig and pick on Saturday rather than
have their goods, if only in part, lie over until
Monday on the New York dock.
Another matter of much interest to the pro-
ducer and shipper is the more careful handling
on the wharf and shipboard of packages and
lemons. Doubtless many of you who reside in
the city or nearer than myself, have witnessed
instances of treatment rough enough to damage
the quality of produce before it left the wharf.
Some discussion ensued on the proposition
to request the steamship agents to change the
day of sailing from Wednesday to Tuesday in
order that the truck might reach New York by
noon on Friday in readiness for the Saturday
Remarks in favor of the change were made
by Captain J. W. McAlpin and Mr. R. E.

, , , , ,, J J .. : . . . ..

Tihe statement was made by several of the
gentlemen present that the movement was gen-
erally favored, and that every one spoken to
had expressed a desire to become members of
the association.
The Committee on Nominations presented
the following:
For.President-Dr. A. Oemler.
For:Secretary and Treasurer-Major Chas.
S. Hardee.
Major Hardee stated that his duties would
prevent his accepting the position, and whilst
deeply interested in the objects of the associa-
tion, he had to decline the office with regret.
On: motion, Mr. J. Gardner was elected Sec-
retary and Treasurer.
After some remarks a resolution was passed
appointing as a committee to prepare suitable
by-laws and regulations for the government of
the association, the following, to-wit : President
Dr. Oemler; Secretaries, J. Gardner, and Mr.
& P. Goodwin.
Mr.John Schley moved that the same com-
mittee be requested to see the agent of the
Ocean. Steamship Company and endeavor to
have the day of sailing changed from, Wednes-
to Tuesday.
Mr, Goodwin moved an amendment, which
was carried, that a petition be prepared on the
subject, to be signed by all the members of the
association, and presented to the agent of the
steamship company.
Dr. Oemler stated that he had written to the
President of the Florida Truck and Fruit-Grow-
ers' Association asking their co-operation in the
movement of the association, but had not yet
heard from him.
Mr. Goodwin stated that it had been alleged
by the steamship company that a change in the
day of sailing would not be acceptable to many
of the Florida shippers, and it would be well to
learn something on that subject.
Mr. Duncan, of Jacksonville, said that offici-
ally he could advance no opinion on the matter,
but he was satisfied from what he had heard
that they would readily agree to anything that
was for the general good, but suggested that it
would be well to interview the officials of the
Savannah, Florida and Western Railway in
reference to a change, the road acting for or
representing the truckers.
Mr. Simkins was of the opinion that as soon
as the Florida shippers were apprised of the ad-
vantages to be gained by having their truck in
New York'by Friday noon, they would be glad
to have the day of sailing changed.
Mr. Cochrane, of New York, was called upon
for information in regard to the truck farms in
Virginia and North Carolina. He stated that
he was only in Norfolk a short time, but in
conversation with friends there learned that the
prospects were quite encouraging, and that about
the same acreage had been planted. In North
Carolina, particularly around Newbern, where
the planting was unusually heavy, he learned
that there was this season about one-third acre-

age less than last year. He thought that from
the knowledge he had gained since his arrival
here, and what he had seen of the truck, there
was no doubt that all the shipping would be
through with before the Virginia and North
Carolina produce was started for the Northern
market. He further expressed the conviction
from the experience of his own firm and what
he had learned from others, that taking'the year
round, at least fifty cents more per package
would be obtained for truck received before
Friday noon, than that which reached them
Friday night or Saturday morning; that the
Florida shippers had been notified by New
York merchants of the advantages of having
their truck reach there by Friday noon, and
recommended to have their truck shipped by
rail instead of by Wednesday's steamers; that
when. the steamship reached New York on Fri-
day night the freight was not touched until

Saturday morning, as there were no lights on
the dock and no facilities for unloading at
night. On the contrary. the steamers of the
Old Dominion Line and the Charleston steam-
ers were unloaded as soon as they arrived, no
matter at what hour of the night. Hence it
was important to have the day changed in or-
der that goods sent by steamship should reach
there as early as Friday afternoon at least. It
was a matter of dollars and cents to the shipper,
and a practical question for them to consider.
Mr. Duncan suggested that great good might
be accomplished by sending copies of the ac-
count of the proceedings of the meeting, which
he understood would be published in the Morn-
ing News, as there was a representative of that
paper present, to the various fruit-growers and
officers of the association of Florida.
Mr. J. W. McAlpin thereupon offered the
following, which was adopted:
Resolved, That all produce growers and ship-
pers in Southern Georgia and Florida who ship
to Northern ports be requested to co-operate
with this association, and that the public ga-
zettes of those sections be requested to repub-
lish the account of this meeting as it appears in
the Savannah Morning News, and that they
further be requested to correspond with the offi-
cers of this association.
Mr. Burrows, of New York, made some re-
marks, setting forth the advantages of having
the truck arrive in New York earlier in the

I- : \ "ig-

are thousands who were present who will re-
turn home pleasantly impressed with. courtesies
of the hospitable city.
A notable occasion was that of the -banquet,
which afforded so many good things of this life
in the gastronomic line and brought together
in social conversation so many prominent and
distinguished citizens of our State.
Jacksonville should feel proud of the good
opinions expressed for her future welfare and
As Others See Us. "'
A correspondent of the Cedar Falls (Iowa,)
Gazette has been here, and he writes his paper,
under date of Feb. 26, 1882:
Immigration is at full tide in Florida. The
fever of planting orange groves rages and th6u-
sands of trees are planted annually;' and all of
the groves are receiving better care,; hith,
with the universal white, sandy soil and alMost
tropical climate, is absolutely indispensable, as
is the constant use of commercial fertilizers.
This State has the great advainages of a most,
desirable climate and beautiful senti-tropieal
foliage of charming and lukuriarit growth.
Most attractive locations for residences abound;
on the coast and line the inland streams,, epe-;
cially the St. Johiis river. This river is in
locality to the South what :the Noirth o:r Ho d-
son river is to its section. The disa;diuitages
are as great, so that it may be truly- said that
Florida has more disadvantages and more ad-



,, R ,/ ...

/ F .R ~ vantages than any other section of the tnion.
i K Most of the unimproved land can be purchase
.../ an an average, for two and fe-half Iollars pe'r
~acre, or less, and a very large popoition of thk
week than at present, and corroborating the acre, or less, and a very large p option of th
statements of Mr. Cochrane. land is unimproved .
Some further discussion ensued on matters They raise here the luxuries of emn pical
pertaining to the general interests of the associ- fruit, but much of their hay, corn and o.thr
action, and the careful handling of the freight necessaries come from the North. The stock
on the wharves here by the Ocean Steamship of horses, hogs and cattle is inferior in size and
Company was highly commended, Mr. Duncan, grade, especially in the warmest part of the
State. Railroads are constructing: more than
Major Ryals, Dr. Oemler, and others, speaking etate. Railroads are costrcting more tan
from personal experience on this subject. ever before and they cost less and otan be
S__ maintained at less expense than in. any other
OUR "STATE FAIR." place we have visited in the United States. At
The Quincy Herald of March 4th, bears tes- present they must pay equally small dividends
timony to the attractiveness and interest of our locharge extreme rates. nqe ly The
late Fair, and says a good word for the mer- "Florida cracker" is unquestiormibl-y a-
late Fair, and says a good word for the mer- anomaly. One told your representative that
chants' banquet: he had seen one orange tree produce 11,000
The general verdict is that the late Fair, at oranges in one season. This would be over
Jacksonville, was a decided success, in every three tons of fruit; eighty and more boxes which
respect, though the display was not as large as at four dollars per box, would return Abo0dt
it might have been expected to be, from the three hundred and fifty dollars, '
failure of several counties to be represented. It The laws enforce a very high litense.fr.tl4e
was an improvement upon its predecessors, and sale of liquors, and twenty-five dollars a year to
this fact is encouraging, as it shows a growing commercial travelers and sewing machine
interest. agents, so that there is no plausible explana-
In the particular of the efforts of the worthy tion to be given for the "cracker's':" tory, un-
citizens of our popular Florida city, to make less this is the direct result of the' teifhings of
the time of the large concourse of strangers Eli Perkins, who has lately visited the Stite anid
pleasant and agreeable, not a word can be said reported himself to be fascinated W' ith- lhrida
except that of praise and commendation. There and especially the cracker." :-' :


_ _ _ _ _,__ _i .

ht a 0roe.-- ~Ii jrpchd, &[.

Peach Cutlture,
In answer to the' inquiry of a subscriber (P.
K. L.), we would say that the peach does not
flourish very wll in the "low country" of
Florida and other Gulf States; but that it can
be raised in.great perfection on the high and
rolling lands of the interior. It is almost use-
less to planri the finer budded sorts in East or
South Florida; but seedlings, native, and to
the "manner born," generally do well.
The peach originated in Persia and Northern
India, and is of the same genus as the almond.
The nectarine differs from the peach-only in
being smooth, while the peach is downy. It is
a mere variety, probably produced and assur-
edly preserved by cultivation. The freestone
peach of the French is their peclie, while the
cling stone is their pave. A remarkable va-
riety, of Chinese origin, has the fruit com-
pressedi and flattened, and is known as the
"Pien-To." The peach is cultivated widely in
Southern Europe, in many parts of the East,
in South America and Australia, though it has
never, it is believed, attAined the perfection of
the fruit in the UJaited States. New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Deawre, Maryland and Ohio
raise large W'titice of peaches, 'and have or-
chards coitaiui g from 20j000 to 25,000 trees.
But the peah attains its highest perfection in
that potkrto of theSouthern States lying be-
tween C(Ahtbia, S. C., anid Montgomery, Ala.
The quality :of dried peaches is reported to be
steadilyitBrer ing, while peach brandy is 'di-
dimini isg. Peach water, obtained by bruis-
ing the6:letes of'thb tree, mixing the pip -with
water, &pd ditilliig is not only emplyet 4or
flavorin$,k 4' medicine as wa sedative and
vermifiuge. 'erstone6 of the fruit is very like
the bitter t.. ir id ini ii doperties, and the
blossoms are ase in thie pianufacture of 'a liq-
uor ca.lTT TPersico.:Tii The Ord World there
are it i~s id;, itnie than oiQe hundred vatrietie
of the ide~icous 'friit,. and DOWNING, our great
pomologist enumerates over four hundred vaxte
ties of the peach and nectarine, in thie latest
edition' of his "'Fruits and Fruit frees of


The following article on Figs, from the St.
James (English) Gazette, will not be unaccepta-
ble to our readers. We do not think it possi-
ble, at present, to enter into successful competi-
tion witli Turkey in the article of dried figs;
but we feel quite certain that fresh figs will
form a regular article of shipment to the North
ere' long, packed like strawberries in the Bowen
or other refrigerating chests. Our Col. Elliott
has already tried the Northern market for fresh,
ripe figsi and the experiment was altogether
satisfactory. The Fig is one-of our too-much-
neglected fruits, and we shall have more to say
on its culture and uses, hereafter :
The export season for the dried fruits of the
Leyant is now in full activity. In one fort-
night lately no fewer than 195,000 barrels,
cases, bgs, boxes, drums, and baskets of figs
and raisins were shipped at Smyrna. The
fruit of the fig tree may be reckoned among the

staple foods of man for ages before cereals were
cultivated by any settled agricultural popula-
tion. In the temperate regions, where it thrives
best, it fills the place of the banana of tropical
climes, and yields its fruits, during several
months of the year. In Asia Minor, where the
tree is found wild and where the best figs of
commerce are chiefly grown, the fruit begins to
ripen in the end of June, and the summer yield,
which gives employment to a large population,
comes to market in immense quantities in Sep-
tember and October. The trees often give even
a third crop, which ripens after the leaves have
fallen. The best figs for drying come from the
valley of the Meander and the Kaistros, to the
south of Smyrna, where the trees are planted
regularly with care, and the ground is dug and
hoed from four to six times during the summer.
The Smyrna and Aidin Railway now affords
great facilities for the transport of the fruit,
which formerly had to be brought long dis-
tances on camels, carrying about five hundred
pounds each. When the figs reach Smyrna
they are sorted by women and packed in boxes
by men. They are best when newly packed,
and as the months go by get drier and harder in
the warehouses and grocers' shops. No one
who has not eaten them in the Levant at the
commencement of the season, packed in the
ornamental pasteboard drums with glowing
pictures on the top, in which they are sold for
local consumption, knows what the best figs are
like. The cardboard for these boxes is sup-
plied chiefly by Belgium and Austria. Fifty-
four thousand camel loads of four kintals each,
or nearly twelve thousand tons, had reached
Smyrna on the 22d of October this year, and
the production increases annually. Fifteen
years ago not more than halfthat amount was
recorded for the whole season. England and
America take by far the larger proportion of
the exports; France, where the smaller and
much inferior figs of the Mediterranean are
chiefly consumed, taking little or none of the
fine fruit of Smyrna. The facility of transport,
-which has so much increased the stocks brought
to market, has also brought down prices, which,
taking averages,/ranged ten years agQ from 16s
.the kintal of 124 pounds for Aidin figs to 36s
for elemes; while the very best (ekmis) some-
times brought 79s, or nearly 8d a pound. Now
the average prices are as low as 12s; and the
small parcels of excellent quality bring only
27s the kintal, or, 2id a pounds. The total.
aigae of the crop is now, perhaps,; not far from
140,000. It is not among "things generally
kftown"' that a considerable quantity of the in-
ferior kinds: find their way to the Austrian
chiccory-makers and the French brandy dis-

Early Bearing .Orange.
An instance of early bearing in a budded orange
tree could have been seen last week at the store of
Hixon, Justi & Co., on Washington street. A small
tree in full f-ruit had been brought up from the

orchard of J. i1. Smith, located about two and one-
half miles eastward from Orange toward the foothills,
near the famous'Lotspeich Bros'. orchard. The tree
was thirty months old, from. the bud,. and had been
set in the orchard but ten months. It held twenty-
nine perfectly matured oranges, large size, and beau-
tifully clean-the tree and fruit being perfectly free
from smut or scale. The little .tree and its big fruit
was greatly admired.-Pacific Rural Press.

THE SUNFLOWER-(NO allusion to Oscar Wilde)
-The Journal of Applied Science says: The sun-
flower can be cultivated very readily, an acre of land
sustaining 25,000 plants at twelve inches distant from
each other. The flowers are very attractive to bees,
and furnish a great deal of honey. Th6 average pro-
duction of seeds may be estimated at fifty bushels to
the acre, yielding fifty gallons of oil. This is'said to
be equal to olive oil for table use, and is well adapted
to burning in lamps, soap-making and painting. The
refuse of the above quantity of seed will produce 1,500
pounds of oil cake."

The Philadelphia Press, of late date, says:
John L. Hill has returned to this city from
Florida, whither he went on business relating
to the recent large purchase of land in that
State by Hamilton Disston and others, and in
which Mr. Hill is interested.' The particular
object of Mr. Hills-Southern trip, however, was
to obtain possession of several thousand acres
of the best portion of the main purchase for the
purpose of converting ..it. into an immense
orchard for the cultivation of tropical fruits.
This tract of land has been set: aside from the
main purchase, and will be-operated by Ham-
ilton Disston, John L. Hill, William B. Huey,
and several others. It is on the west side of
the main tract, near the Gulf, and is said to be
admirably adapted to the purpose intended.
The land and climate are all that could be de-
sired for the raising of oranges, lemons, bananas
and other tropical fruits. The only drawback
at present is the limited facilities for transporta-
tion. This difficulty, however, Mr: Hill pre-
diets, will be removed before the orchard has
yielded its: first crop. Three years ago only
three steamers were running on the St. Johns,
which is adjacent to the property.. Not there
are fifty-four, with three steamboat :companies
in process of organization.

Florida Tea Garden.
"0. A. G." the agent who has just:located and
planted the "He-No-Tea Garden of Baltimore," upon
the De Bary estate on Lake Monroe, near Enterprise,
writes :
De Bary Hall is the show place of the State. It
comprises 1,500 acres, divided into three parts, the to-
tal estimated value of which is $400,000; and no idea
may be formed of what is being done when it is
known that, while the original cost of the land of the
home place was but $2,500, the improvements on it
to date are $150,000. It was in such a place that I
was invited to locate the He-No Tea Garden of Bal-
timore," which is the title by which the garden is
known, and every facility has been furnished me;'
this, too., without the hope df any prospective profit,
but simply that the experiment may be fairly tried.
An inspection of the plants on their arrival discovered
them to be in excellent condition, and ground was at
once selected for the site of the garden. This was a
spot recently thoroughly drained. .It was very rich,
yet. very light, and quite moist enough to induce a
luxuriant vegetation. The plants'were set out' in rows
of clusters, (each cluster four plants), -and :with ten
feet between each row.: Each cluster was surrounded
by shingles, driven in the ground on .the south and
west sides, thus protecting the young plants from the
sun. Finally, at the head of aill was.planted thA iron
sign, so that all 6 would 'read the naIme ad' d title' ,"ith
an emphasis on the "of Baltimore arid if-:this en4
terprise is ever again credited to a city other:tIan our
own, it will be by .a blind man.
It is a source of regret that I cannot carry away
with me a photograph' of the garden and 'sufround-
ings, for it is a scene of surpassing beauty. It is in
gently rolling ground. At the back and to the east
is a grove of 3,000 orange .trees, now in the full. luxu-
riance of their bloom, the perfume of which, wafted
by the gentle breeze, is so suggestive bof thlie tropics,
In front and to the west is a grove of: tall palinettos,
whose round palmy tops and gaunt': truriks bend in
picturesque poses while under and'between there is
seen the blue waters of the lake beyo.n.d, ..: !

...What will. be the result of this experiment it ic
hard to say, but never was enterprise started undet
niore favorable auspices,'and no pains or rioney will
be spared to make a success of it if possible. I purr
posely selected a site where soil varies from a sandy
loam so rich in decayed vegetable matter that it is
quite as black as ink to. one quite sandy, and so I ani
quite sure to find out which is the very best. To the
patron of this Baltimore undertaking, Fredk. de Bary,
too much credit cannot be given, aid if it-be- true
that nothing succeeds like success, then this gardeni
will succeed, because Fred de Bary never failed in
anything he ever undertook.
In leaving the South I cannot speak too kindly of
the reception which I have uniformly met with, nor
can I see how any candid observer can form bIit one
conclusion concerning the probable future of this land
of promise, and that is, that nowhere wi:U industrious
labor receive such an abundant harvest as in the
South. What she needs most to-day is rot capital,
but an' industrious immigration, the man whose
wealth is his wife and children, to whom steady, per-
sistent work is a habit, and to all such a hearty wel-
come is extended.

I': _________________________________________________________

i.. . .-...- .....- .~. ~..... .. .

r 11



An enthusiastic correspondent of the Catholic
Review, writing-from the Atlanta Cotton Ex-
position, says:
kansas was awarded the first premium for
finest agricultural display, and Florida was de-
claredto stand. next in honor, thus, as among
all the uthern States, awarding
SboApe this may have something to do with
setting the question so often asked by anxious
friends: "But, can you raise anything else in
Florida, besides oranges ?"

Well, I should say we could! South Caro-
lina has by many been supposed to be the home
of the rice plant, yet Florida took the first pre-
mium for upland rice.
Louisiana has been talked of by some as a
good place for sugar, yet Florida took the first
premium for Ribbon cane, the queen of all sugar
Missouri has been noted for its hemp (as
also, in the last few months, for the need of it
along its railway !lines), yet Florida took the
first premium for Sisal hemp!
Several States have boasted of their jute, the
material of which thirty or forty million yards.
are consumed every year for cotton balls and

various kinds of sacking, yet Florida fook the
first premium for jute.
Of course we did not compete with anybody
on oranges, lemons, bananas, dates, pineapples,
cocoanuts, and things of this ilk, for, as to those,
Florida stood alone, but, on the showi-g of
potatoes, beets, pumpkins, squash, corn, rye,
oats, tobacco, cotton, and such like common'
truck, Florida ranked all the other Southern
Now! You doubting Thomases, wh itf-
agined that Florida was nothing but a sand'
bar and a cane brake." What do you think
of that?

- - ---

I 1




hirk Agora Goa't.
Mr. Joseph P. ;fevine, a stock raiser in
Texas, writes as:follows to the National Asso-
ciation of Wool Minufacturers, Boston, Mass.:
There are millions of acres of rocky, hilly
undergrowth of live oak in Western Texas and
other States also, that will not support one
sheep to twenty acres, one cow to forty, acres,
or one horse to fifty/acres; in other words, that
are utterly worthless for any use on God's
green earth except for goats. Now if there is
a good and sure -sale for mohair, there is no
doubt but the common goat can be made to
produce, in five or six removes, a fleece equal
nearly to any pure blogd hair in luster and
length, and in- weight ir. ihore, by breeding
from a pure brkd billy, every time and always.
To sum up th4 advantages of goats over other
stock, they casi be herded with perfect safety
and to advantage in flocks, of 2,000; for I now
have one hera of 2,050 graded Angoras, herded
by one Mexican. They can be located in sum-
mer eight miles from their watering place, and
drink once in three days, returning to camp
same day-a great item in this dry country-
they can be raised and thrive best on land
worth fifteen to twenty-five cents per acre; they
are subject to no disease whatever, that I know
of; they will protect themselves, that is the
grown, against wolves or dogs; and last, but
not least, they comeome five times in six, if
lost on the range. Then there is not a more
agreeable or pretty. pursuit in the world than
raising Angora goats. That you may not think
I am too partial to Angoras, allow me to say I
am breeding cattle, horses, and have 3,400 head
of Merino ewes; and if I had a'little more en-
couragement as to the future of the Angora,
namely, regular saIe and fair price for hair of
first quality, I would, if forced to give up all
my interest instock exceipt-ne, keepmy pretty,
intelligent and valuable Angoras; and let
sheep, hogs, etc%, go to grass.

MtlUktln-Care of tCotvea Teats.
I began to milk Nhen I was .iht years old, which
is sixty-four years a4o, and' thbre has not been more
than two in all of the sixty-four years, but what I
have every day had something to do with cows. And
perhaps I know as much about cows as any boy who
is no older than I am. I have hadv some experience
with cows' cracked teats!: At night I wash the teats
with water (I prefer to have it warm), then, with a
brush such as painters haie, having in a tin basin
some pure hog's lard melted,\1 give the cracks a good
greasing. Then I would feed, the cows with some-
thing that they like to eat, which diverts their atten-
tion. '
I commence stripping down the teats with my
thumb and finger; I do not clasp my whole hand
harshly round the teat, for by so doing the cracks
will open and hurt the cow. If the cow is inclined

to kick do not whip her. I have long since found it
better to pat them on their shoulders and card their
cheeks, speaking gently to them, than to use all the
goadsticks one can get hold of. It takes some longer
to milk this way, as I milk in a long quart measure,
with one h)i4n,-goipg round, taking only. one quart
at each time out of each teat. When I get all the
milk I strip into one hand and apply it to the teats,
leaving them quite soft and moist. Then I have a
two qtart tin dish, with a handle, with about a pint
offlour in it, and press the dish up to the bag with
the teas .enclosed; shake the dish, and the flour will
Sadhere to the cracks. I have been told that those
who tend gristmills do not have their hands crack.
A wash' made of milk and molasses, of equal parts, is
good to keep:the teats&moist while milking, and to be
applied before the dish of flour is applied. To pre-
vent the:teats.from cracking, I grease the cows' legs
with,, arid where they rub against the teats when the
cow is traveling.' In using these prescriptions it
ddrnt affect the milk or butter, as oil and some other
ingredients, used by some other people. The flour
acts as a kind of paste on the cows' teats.
Now there is a good deal of fussing with cows, but

what other animal can we any better afford to fuss
over than the cow? We are deriving some benefit
from the cow every day in the year on the farm.
When she does not give milk, she is breeding, and
her manure is on the farm, and not on the highways,
as is that of the oxen and horses.-Correspondent in
Maine Farmer.
Harnessing Horses Correctly.
When harnessed correctly, a strong horse is a pow-
erful animal; but by an imperfect adjustment of the
gearing, many strong teams are shorn of half their
strength; and many are often worried more by an im-
proper fit of the harness, or by a decidedly bad attach-
ment to the vehicle they are drawing, than by all the
service they perform. But few teamsters have even
been taught how to harness a horse correctly; and
fewer still have learned that there is a right way and
a wrong way to hitch a team to a carriage. When a
harness is taken from the.shop, every part should be
adjusted to fit the horse that is to wear it. The back-
band should be let out or buckled up, until it will be
neither too long nor too short when the animal is
drawing a load. Many a good horse has had a large
sore made on his back simply because the back-band
of the harness was buckled up too far. The breech-
ing should also be adjusted properly, so that the horse
will not seem like a man in a boy's coat, nor like a
colt wearing the harness of a full-grown horse. The
collar should never be so long that a man can thrust
his arm easily between the neck of the animal and the
lower end of the collar. Many horses-especially old
ones-when thin in flesh require collars so small that
they cannot be put over the heads of the horses that
wear them. It is of eminent importance that the pro-
prietors of teams should see to such minor points and
provide collars that are open at the top or bottom'.
Every horse should have his own collar and harness,
as much as every man his own boots and coat. The
lines are often adjusted in such a manner, that the
heads of both horses are hauled away from each other
so far that the team cannot travel easily.' At other times
their heads are drawn too far inward, toward each
other. The, lines should be adjusted so that the heads
may be held just as far apart as the length of the dou-
ble whiffle-tree. When a team is attached to a car-
riage, or lumber wagon, the breast-straps, stay-chains,
or neck-yoke should be so adjusted that the pole or
tongue cannot strike either horse. The tongue is of-
ten allowed to have so much play, that it whangs the
arms or shoulders of the team with terrible force,
when the vehicle is being drawn over rough ways.
JThe neck-yokes, straps, or tongue chains, should be
drawn up so as to elevate the tongue between the
shoulders, where the lateral jerking or thrusting
will be received by the gearing on the necks of the
animals, rather than against the unprotected arms or
shoulders of the team.-Practical Farmer.
Sheep Hzusbandry.
The farmer who makes sheep husbandry profitable
is the man who carefully selects his breeding ewes,
annually culls out the old and inferior stock to fatten
for the market, and constantly keeps thoroughbred
rams for breeding. If he cannot afford to start with
purely bred ewes, he can, by judicious selection, have
a floCk nearly equal to those composed of thoro gh-
bred ewes. To be successful it is necessary to keep
the stock young, thus giving the best wool. Liberal
feeding will increase the weight of the fleece a pound
or two, as compared with indifferent feeding.
The English flockmaster has settled two points in
British experience, first that mutton is more profita-
ble than wool, and second that among English mut-
ton consumers there is a decided preference for Down
or black-faced mutton. Tender, juicy flesh, with a
fine grain and a rich flavor, ripe and yet carrying
plenty of lean meat, is that which suits that which suite English
market. A combination of'these qualities is found

to most perfection in some of the black or gray-faced
breeds or their crosses. This preference on'the part
of buyers is so marked that the butcher is enabled to
give at least two cents per pound more for dark-faced
mutton than for any of the white-faced and long-
wooled sheep.
-Dead animals possess great fertilizing properties,
and should all be utilized on our farms and in our
gardens. They are especially valuable for grape
vines, fruit trees, etc., and may be applied simply by
cutting up into pieces and burying near the roots. In
a discussion on this subject before the New York
Farmers' Club, a member once stated that he could
illustrate the advantage of animal flesh as food for
trees, by stating that during a late visit to the farm of
Mr. Quinn, two pear trees were pointed out, one of
which was very inferior to the other in size and thrift-
iness. On inquiry he learned they were planted at
the same time, but it happened that the carcass of a
pole-cat rested at the root of the one, while the other
was not similarly favored. These two pear trees have
been bearing for the past six years; the one yielding
one bushel, the other two bushels, a proportion which
is likely to be kept up for twenty years longer. This
fact shows what a pole-cat may do for a pear tree.

A correspondent of the Canandaigua (N. Y.)
Times having indulged in some unjust and in-
vidious flings at Florida, 'our friend Rev. T. W.
Moore, the well known author of" Orange Cul-
ture," thus presents the other side of the ques-
FRUIT COVE, FLA., Marcl 1, 1882.
To the Editors bf the Times:
DEAR SIRS: One of your subscribers has
sent me, clipped from your paper, ihe letter of
Mr. John Van Arsdale, and asked as to the
truth of certain statements therein contained. I
certainly think the readers of your paper are
entitled to the "pros" as well as the "cons"
with reference to Florida.
A traveler recently returned frQm Texas
stated as to what he saw, to-wit: Bucks with
horns branching six feet, and trees the biggest
he ever saw, and standing as thick as his fin-
gers all over the land.' The listener said : "But
ow did the bucks get through the trees!"
Oh," said the traveler, "That is their look-
out." On reading the letter of Mr. A., I was
instantly reminded of the Texas traveler. I
could not quite reconcile the stateinent that
"land is so poor as not abl. ttolproduce cow-
peas without shaking them up obce a week and
setting in fresh heds,"could yet produce timber
so heavy as to cost from $25 to $40 per acre
to clear it." The soil of the very lake region
he describes, Ovido, rests upon a substratum of
lime stone. This is true of all the lake regions
of Florida, and of all other countries I know.
But such land has the base of the best soil.
But dropping the spirit of the controversy, I
confine myself to a statement of facts. I have
lived in, and traveled over the State of F or-
ida for fourteen years, and know .it quite thor-
oughly. While there is much poor land in
Florida, and wholly unadapted to the growth of
the orange, there is a great deal of land which
will compare favorably with the best land of
any of the States. I have land of vegetable de-
posit solely from three to four feet deep. I have
often seen land where this deposit is from six to
eight feet deep.' These are our muck beds, and
abound throughout the State. Where these
deposits are not found is the'exception. So we
have abundant: aterisal for manure.
As to what can be done in the way of crop
'growing, I ~ll state that oiily a fev hours ago
I met onthe streets of; Jacksonville an old
friend, Mr. IJamep Harris, from Orange Lake,
Marion county, who commenced budding a wild
grove about.nine years ago. :When I first knew
him about ten years ago, his entire' living was
a salary of $1,200 per annum, as clerk of the
county. I asked him "how anany oranges he
shipped the present year ?" He answered, "Ten
thousand boxes." Think of this, an income of
from $40,000 to $50,000 per year as the work of
ten years by a young man. Mr. H. is about
thirty years of age. His crop the year before

was about twelve thousand boxes, and the year
before that, six or eight thousand bQxes.
As to the cost of planting, I just asked a
young friend who is engaged in setting out
groves for others, and who-'is entirely:responsi-
ble and capable, for what amount per acre'he
would agree to furnish good land, clear, fence,
and set out in four-year-old trees ?" H.e prompt-
ly answered, "for $100 per acre, and for cu'ti-'
vating, $20 per acre per annum.
It is true that many who have attempted 'tog
grow oranges have failed, but it is because' the
were ignorant of lands and the best methods of:
Tell your friends to come to Florida. .We
will give them a hearty welcome, and the State
offers them ample means of a beautiful home,
aud large competency.
Yours truly, T. W. MOORE.

I -- --y
____ ___ __ __~_~__~__~____~




A ttbHIra Afi .lla

Herr Heinrich Semler, a German who has
recently passed some months in this country,
making special observations, upon our agricul-
tural methods and capacities, has recently pub-
lished, in his own country, a work embodying
the results of his observations, and comparing
what he has seen here, of the condition of the
agricultural classes, with the state of affairs to
which he has been accustomed at home, the
comparison being in most respects largely in
favor of the American farmer, and of his way
of doing things.
The first thing which strikes this observer is
the intense practicalness of the American. He
has no particular attachment to old ways, or to
old implements, but constantly seeks to find out
how they can be improved or brought to per-
fection. Every improvement is at once adopt-
ed, not only by the prosperous and well-to-do
farmer, but by every one who has even the
smallest interest in the cultivation of the soil.
The Americans are more prudent and more ac-
tive than the Germans; if the small farmer
cannot afford to have thrashing and mowing
machines, and similar expensive tools of his
own, he hires them from somebody else, or they
are bought by associated capital. American
tools also are of the best materials and construc-
tion, in great contrast to those of Germany, so
that it requires less labor to use them and keep
them in repair.
Another point of superiority in America is
the absence of class distinctions. The rivalry
of nations, which becomes more intense every
year and challenges their whole intellectual
power, can no longer be led exclusively by the
educated classes. The masses must bear their
share in it, and that nation will win whose
masses take the largest share. The class pride
of the Germans is a national fault and misfor-
tune, for it is a great hindrance to the intellec-
tual and material deVlopment of the people,
not existing in America. If class feeling in
Germany were-less strong, if German workmen,
by intercourse with the better educated classes
had become more enlightened and intelligent,
the socialistic movement that is now a peril to
the country would never have attained its pres-
ent importance and bitterness.
Herr Semler thinks that a large part of the
prosperity of American farming life is due to
the farmers' wives. The farmer's wife in
America does not work so hard as her German
sister ini the same rank of life. She does not
trouble herself about the cattle, neither does she
herself fetch the wood, coal, and water. But
nevertheless she is a pattern of a housekeeper.
The good arrangements of kitchen and stove,
and all sorts of time and labor-saving household
machines afford an ease and facility of work

unknown in German households. The Ameri-
can is not only clever in his housekeeping, in
the treatment of his work-people, and in his
business, but also in the choice of the products
which he cultivates. The same kind of moors
that on the North sea coast of Germany are
considered valueless and unredeemable, are
planted, on the coast of Massachusetts and New
Jersey, with cranberries, which yield ten times
as much profit as corn grown on the richest
soil. There are lime-stone mountains in Ger-
many that miserably support a poverty-stricken
population. The same species of country in
Vermont and Maine grows forests of the sugar-
bearing maple, which yearly yield twenty-eight
million pounds of sugar and a million gallons
of treacle, both of excellent quality.
The co-operation of farmers and merchants,

is another American idea which seems strange
to our author, who, says that the two classes in
Germany are utterly careless of each other's
advantage. American merchants inform the
farmers what agricultural products are most in
demand in the markets of the world, and how
they must be cultivated and packed in order to
be rendered capable of exportation. The mer-
chants know that they can import only when
successful export puts their fellow citizens into
a position to buy. At first the exportation of
apples, fresh meat, and living cattle to England
was a failure, but the merchants did not rest
until by advice in the papers, in circulars, and
in meetings they had educated the producers
and shipowners into resorting to the measures
which would lead to the desired results. The
American chambers of commerce regard the
opening and securing of the world's market to
agriculturists as their first task. There exist
in America numerous companies and societies
in which scientific men, merchants, and farm-
ers, each adhering strictly to his own depart-
ment, co-operate unanimously and successfully.
German Agricultural Science is very learned
and very exact in the matter of salts and acids
and the like, but this kind of thing is rather
over the heads of the working farmers, who
would be better served by societies which
should make it easier for them to find markets
for their produce, and get proper remuneration
for their labor, a hint which perhaps might be
of value even here in America.-New England
Value of Cotton Seed.
The agricultural editor of the New Orleans
Times-Democrat says the cotton seed produced
on an acre of land has, for feeding purposes, a
money value equal to the corn which would be
produced on the same land, while the manure
from the stock fed on cotton seed is worth four
times as much as that from corn-fed stock. It
has been demonstrated that cotton may be
grown for an indefinite period on the same land
without falling off in yield, provided the stalks
leave and seed are returned to the soil.
How to utilize in the most economical man-
ner all the valuable products of cotton seed is a
problem that the planter may well study, as
upon its solution will depend his welfare for the
future. If the planter regards his cotton seed
as a legitimate agricultural product, which he
must market for money, he should put it in a
merchantable shape, in order to obtain a fair
price for it. This can be done by buying a cot-
ton-seed decorticator, the value of which is from
$123 to $175. It will decorticate about four
tons of seed per day, which will yield one-half
hulls and one-half decorticated seed, reducing
the bulk more than one-half. If the decorti-
cated seeds are kiln-dried sufficiently to evap-
roate the water from them, they may be sacked
and shipped to England with perfect safety.
In the cities of Hull, Dover, London and

Liverpool are oil mills with the finest machin-
ery in the world. They work linceed, rape,
poppy seed, and all other oil-bearing seeds, be-
side the cotton seed which comes from India,
and they obtain a much greater per cent. of oil
from cotton seed than our best mills in the
United States. Capital is not wanting in Eng-
land for any industrial enterprise, and the oil
companies are satisfied with a profit of 3 per
cent. on their invested capital, (here the oil men
are not content with 30 per cent.,) hence they
will pay a high price for the cotton seed, and
the planter, having reduced the bulk and cost
of ocean transportation, will net a reasonable
amount for this valuable crop. The hulls can
be returned to the soil, and a crop of cow-peas
ploughed under will supply, in part at least, the
nitrogen of which it was robbed by selling the

This system is mnch better than the one
which now prevails, and proper rotation of cot-
ton crops with peas and returning the cotton
stalks, leaves and hulls would, in a measure,
preserve the fertility of the soil, but we only
recommend this as a temporary policy, until
such time as a permanent plan may be got un-
der way, that will give the planter the full
value of this wonderful product, which is just
beginning to be appreciated by the world.
In every little village throughout Germany'
are numbers of little mills called oil strikers,"
which are run by one-horse power. The press-
ing is done by a wedge, driven by the blows of

an automatic hammer, which rises and falls as
the old horse walks around the circle. The
mills are built entirely of wood, and one man
can attend to a number of them. The miller
takes toll of the various farmers who bring their
oil-yielding seeds to the mill, and by this means
the rural people obtain their supply of oil for
culinary purposes, and for illumination. The
principle upon which the pressing is done is
the same as that now in use by the Chinese, and
which has been used by them for hundreds of
years. The entire apparatus can be built of
hard wood by an intelligent mechanic for a few
dollars, and it is wonderful how well it will do
its work. Our ponderous oil mills will squeeze
out thirty-five gallons of oil from a ton of cot-
ton seed, while the little "oil striker" will ex-
tract only thirty gallons. But think of the
comfort it will bring to the plantation The
flocks of fat sheep and bales of fleecy wool; the
herds of fine cattle, and the firkins of golden
butter; the fat beeves; the fatter land and
never-increasing crops, which will return pros-
perity and wealth again to the Southern plant-
er, and happiness to our whole people.
It is not proposed that every planter or far-
mer shall set up an" oil strike," but let the
planter who is located in a favorable cotton
centre put up his decorticator and mill and
grind and press for his neighbors, charging a
reasonable toll" for his work.
We do not think that the hammer of the
"oil striker" would be heard long in the land
without -attracting the army of Yankee invent-
ors, each one of whom would rise up with a
"plantation oil mill" that would do the work
cheaper and better.
Mr. Atkinson did not exaggerate when he de-
clared that if it were possible to grow a "lint-,
less cotton "at the North which only produced
seed, it would be the most valuable agricultu-
ral production which the farmer could culti-
vate. In England cotton-seed meal is worth
$35 per ton. A ton of cotton-seed meal ma-
nure is worth $10. Refined cotton-seed oil is
worth $1 per gallon-$35 for the product of a
ton of seed-and the value of the hulls would
swell the total beyond $100.
Think of this, ye improvident farmers, who
have sold so many tons for $6 and less.
How to Measure an Acre.
It is desirable, in fact, indispensable for good
work, says an exchange, that a farmer should
know how many acres each field contains, for

otherwise he cannot apportion seed or measure
for it, nor can he tell how much time it should
require to be plowed. A measuring cord should
be part of the furniture on every farm. To make
one, procure sixty-seven feet of strong rope, one
inch around ; make a loop or fasten a ring or
a bar at each end, and make these precisely
sixty-six feet apart. This is four rods. Then
tie a piece of red rag in the centre. One acre
of ground will be a piece four of the cords
(chains) long and two and one-half wide, equal
to sixteen by ten rods, making :160 square rods
to one acre. The advantage of.the ring or loop
is that one person can measure alone by driv-
ing a stake in the ground to hold the rope
while he stretches it out. The rope should be
soaked in tar and dried, which will prevent it
from shrinking when wet.




aubserlption $1.00 penr anntmn, in advance.
,SQUARES. 1 TIME. 1 MO. 3 MO. 6 MO. 1 YEAR
One......................... $1 00 $2501 $550 $1000 $18 50
TW ................... 200 500 100 18 00 4 00
Three................... 00 7 00 14 00 25 00 4600
Four....................... 400 900 17 50 3000 5800
Eight................... 8 00 1650 30 00 5000 100 00
Sixteen ......,..... 1600 30 001 5000 80 00 150 00
Ten linesqsolid nonpareil type make a square.
The FLORIDA DISPATCH h&as a very large circulation
in Florida and South Georgia, and is by far the best ad-
vertising medium for reaching the merchants and fruit
and Vegetable growers of those sections. All business
correspondence should be addressed to
ASHMEAD BROS., Publishers, Jacksonville, Fla.
The Dispatch has the largest circulation of any
paper in Florida; it is therefore the best adver-
tising medium in the State.

Florida Dispatch.
New Series.
We trust the old readers of the DISPATCH,
(as well as the many new ones whom we feel
sure of obtaining,) may find our present "form"
and dress pleasing and attractive; and that
all who are desirous of advancing the best in-
terests of Florida will at once assist us in ex-
tending our circulation and widening our influ-
The editors and publishers of the D1rPATCH
are determined to make a paper fully worthy
of a liberal support; and, in the light of the
new era of prosperity now beaming upon this
favored land, they launch the new DISPATCH-
enlarged, improved, refitted and refurnished-
with the full hope of a successful and prosper-
ous voyage.
The New "Dispatch."
,Hlf a dozen reasons why it must have a large
list of utscribers and readers:
1. The "new issue "-present number-starts
with a list of several thousand subscribers, in all
parts of the State and elsewhere, and in its
present size and form is the cheapest paper in
2. It aims to be a practical, progressive, wide-
awake weekly journal, devoted to the industrial
interests of Florida and the neighboring States ;
and keeping fully posted on all new modes
of culture-new plants, of economic value-fer-
tilizers--live stock, poultry, bees, etc., etc. In
short, a'paper which few, if any, country resi-

dents will willingly be without.
3. It will contain, each week, after this, a
fual and correct report of the Jacksonville and
New York Produce Markets, which, in the
course of the year, will be of great value to all
farmers, gardeners, fruit-growers, etc.
4. It will have a special Transportation De-
partment, setting.forth the best modes of pick-
ing, packing aad shipping vegetables and fruits
-also railroad and steamboat schedules, cost
ofshipping per chr-load and single'box, or crate,
etc., etc.
5. It will in all possible and proper ways
promote Immigration to Florida, and aid the
new settler in achieving that success which here

surely awaits all earnest and persistent effort.
6. It will strive to "improve the soil and the
mind" in every way: serving no clique, party
or faction, and catering only to the best and
highest tastes of its readers.
A Fair Offer I
The new and improved series of" THE FLOR-
IDA DISPATCH "-a sample of which is now be-
fore you-is to be issued weekly from the Pub-
lishing House of Ashmead Bro.'s, of this city, at
the very low price of One Dollar per year; and
the Publishers desire to state, that, if any sub-
scriber decides, after reading the paper a year,
that is is not worth at least twice its cost, they
will cheerfully refund the amount paid for sub-
scription. Nothing can be fairer than this, and
we hope many will subscribe on this safe plan,
at once.
Florida Pictures.
It is scarcely necessary to call attention to
the graphic illustrations of our late Fair, etc.,
published in this number of THE DISPATCH.
The pictures generally are very striking and
correct; and the article elsewhere copied from
"Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper" evinces
a gratifying appreciation of the present status
and future prospects of our highly-favored State.
Other appropriate illustrations will adorn our
pages from time to time; and we shall spare
neither labor nor expense in our efforts to fur-
nish a paper which may be regarded as the
truthful exponent of Florida life and progress.

Notice to Subscribers I
The present number of THE FLORIDA DIS-
PATCH is the beginning of our new series and a
good representative of what we shall endeavor
to make it.
It will be run on business principles and can-
not be sent to any one unless subscription is
paid in advance.
A sufficient time will be allowed those in
arrears to "square up," and the names of those
persons who have not done so will be taken off
our list.
The price-one dollar per year in advance,
postage free, is very low, and unpaid sub-
scribers and those wishing it, will please send
in their greenbacks!
Our "Constituency."
We are candidates for the countenance and
support of all classes of people throughout the
State,of Florida; and we hope, also, to enter
upon our new mail-books the names of a great
many persons in other States who desire truth-
ful and reliable information in regard to this

highly favored land.
It is our intention to make THE FLORIDA
DISPATCH interesting and useful to the farmer,
gardener, fruit-grower, stock-raiser, merchant,
mechanic, lumberman, bee-keeper, poultry-
raiser, florist, housewife, &c., &ct.-in short to
all classes of people here and elsewhere who
wish to keep fully abreast of the times, and
thoroughly posted on the progress of rural art
and science in this land of sunny skies, golden
fruits and perennial flowers.
We do not ask "patronage." We intend to
give full value for all we receive from the pub-
lic and expect only such success as we may
fully merit. [See "FAIR OFFER" in another

Hints for April.
Tomatoes.-Set out, and pinch back those
which are growing, to make them strong and
" stocky."
Beans-Pole and Snap.-Plant now, and
work those already growing.
Sweet Potatoes.-Plant out draws, if ready.
Use leaf-mould and ashes, or stable manure, as
fertilizers. Break up deep, but do not ridge
too high.
Cotton and Corn.-Bring to a good, clean
Rice.-Plant on good upland, and keep
Irish Potatoes.-Dig, and sow the land out at
once in cow-peas, or some other crop.
Melons, Pumpkins, Okra, &c.-Should now
be planted. Manure-manure-manure!
Branching, Sorghum, Teosinte Millet, &c.-
Should be sown in drills, lightly manured, to
produce a full supply of forage for summer, and
hay for winter. If you have no seed of the
above, sow common corn in the drill, dropping
about forty or fifty grains evenly to the foot,
and cut when in tassel. (See notice of
" Branching Sorghum Premium," elsewhere.)
Egg Plants, Peppers, &c., should now be set
out. Make the ground rich and mellow.
Arrow-Root, Ginger, Tanyah and Cassava
may now be planted. These have no objection
to rich and well-cultivated land.
Guinea grass and Para grass may be trans-
planted-the former on dry upland, well
manured, and the latter on low, rich, moist
land, even on the edge of swamps, lakes and
streams. It will thrive in such situations, and
yield a large quantity of nutritive forage.
Orange trees should now be examined and all
insects destroyed; the young leaves attract in-
sects of all kinds, which hatch on the approach
of warm weather. Six pounds of whale-oil soap
dissolved in a barrel of iPater, in which tobacco
stems have, been soaked, well sprinkled over
the tree and foliage with a good garden pump,
will be found an effectual remedy, and will
also benefit the trees.
Shipping Vegetables.-Be careful in shipping
vegetables that there are no defective or over
ripe ones; have the quality as even as possible;
pack in neat crates, plainly marked, and ship
to reliable houses only. Cucumbers should be
picked the day before shipping, put in an open
frame to dry; then wipe carefully and wrap in
paper; have them as near one size as possible
in each crate; ship none under four inches in

length, and see the crates are well packed to
prevent shaking. Tomatoes should not be
picked until they show signs of turning ; smooth
fruit sells the best; put no defective ones in the
crate; wrap each tomato in paper. Peas and
snap beans must be perfectly dry when packed,
never put them in the crate with the dew on.
Short, pithy and practical communications
on matters of general rural interest, are respect-
fully solicited. All subjects pertaining espe-
cially to the progress of Florida are open for
fair discussion in our pages,
The Reporter, of Lake City, was inadvert.
ently omitted from our list of Florida papers,
a few weeks since, and we now take pleasure in
saying that the Reporter is one of our spright-
liest and most attractive weeklies, and well
worthy of liberal and generous support,

-~.... ,. --~- ~----~- __ __ __ -- .-

Vegetables for New York Market Via
Steamers from Savannah.
We are in receipt of correspondence and pro-
ceedings of meeting and organization of vegetable
growers association at Savannah, Ga. The lead-
ing question for consideration was the day on
which matter should be delivered in New York
to secure the best sales day, which was conceded
to be Saturday. The complaint on the part of
commission merchants and producers south of
and including Savannah, was that the ships
sailing from Savannah on Wednesdays did not
arrive in New York in time to market the mat-
ter on Saturday, and they ask that the sailing
day be changed by the Ocean Steamship Com-
pany from Wednesday to Tuesday.
Florida producers are asked to join them in
petition to that effect. While we concede the
necessity of arriving in time for Saturday's mar-
ket, we fail to see how Florida producers can
pick and pack their matter properly and
connect with a steamer sailing from Savannah
on Tuesday. Some schedules will admit of
making connections Tuesday evening, but could
not on a tide that serves for the ships sailing
Tuesday morning. It is very difficult to ar-
range a schedule to conform to sailing hours of
steamers that are governed by the tides, which
is the case at Savannah. We are glad to see
this organization of these interests, and can as-
sure the Georgia growers of the hearty co-
operation of Florida market gardeners in any
effort looking to the protection and advance-
ment of this industry.
As we have other routes available, we trust
their steamer connections will do all in their
power to further their interests and not con-
sider the Florida producers wants as conflicting
with those of Savannah.
Shipments of Vegetables from Florida
Southern Railroad via Florida Tran-
sit Railroad and Callahan.
It will, no doubt, be very gratifying to the
shippers from above section to know that their
produce can be sent daily via Florida Dispatch
Line by above route, making connections at
Callahan for all points North and West. The
rates from points on Florida Southern will be
the same as from Transit or Peninsular Rail-
Use the stencils of the Florida Dispatch Line
and ship daily at the rates to be found published
SAVANNAH, GA., March 25th.
D. H. ELLIOTT, Jacksonville:
Gate City arrived in New York at 9 o'clock last night,
discharged, and begun delivery of vegetables at 2 o'clock
this morning.
JAS. F. TAYLOR, Gen. Freight Agent.

The above shows delivery in time for Satur-
day's market in New York city by steamers
sailing from Savannah Wednesday.
Bermuda Grass.
The Crawfordville (Ga.) Democrat gives a
conversation with Frank P. Jones, an exten-
sive Georgia farmer, who, in speaking of Ber-
muda Grass, says that it is "a blessing, after
all," and that it "not only makes fine pastur-
age, but you can plow it up and use the roots
for hay. Suppose you have fifteen or twenty
tons of roots to the acre. If you plow it up
and put it into a barrel of water, or a small
stream, the dirt will readily sink to the bottom,
and you can dry it and lay it by. When you

do this you have all the hay you want. Then
the plowing up of the land will do it good.
"I could go into greater details and give you
figures to show how I make my system pay in
other ways.
What I said, however, will give you a good
general idea. The farmers around me begin
to see its advantage. Several have tried my
plan and will testify to its good results. My
theory is summed up in a few words. Culti-
vate a small quantity of land, and cultivate it
well, raise your own supplies, and keep out of
debt. In my opinion this is the truest secret
of successful farming."
.- .
Florida-The Dispatch, &c.
A correspondent of the Cedar Falls (Iowa)
Gazette, (" LEx,") has been among" us
"takin' notes," and he discourses thus pleas-
antly of the productions of Florida, our pub-
lishers and the DISPATCH. Thanks! Mr.
FARNSWORTH !-come again:
"Florida can produce good crops of rice,
sugar-cane, sea-island cotton, vegetables and
fruits, especially oranges, the finest of these be-
ing grown on the southeastern coast on the In-
dian river. In the extreme southern parts of
the State pineapples, bananas and other tropi-
cal fruits grow in perfection. Here hundreds
of thousands of cattle are fed and fattened for
the Cuban market, on the wild, natural grass.
The quality of feed and cattle are both below
that usually marketed at home.
in the northeastern portion of the State, twenty-
five miles from the Atlantic coast, is the princi-
pal city. To this point commerce and travel
centers. Being on the beautiful St. Johns
river the attractions are many to tourists. It
has a population of 20,000 of mostly live east-
ern people, and many fine hotels. Your repre-
sentative is indebted to Ashmead Brothers for
copies of Gardening in Florida," by J. N.
Whitner, "The Culture of the Orange," by G.
W. Davis, and on the same subject a beauti-
fully bound book by W. T. Moore, and a com-
plete volume by Barbour, on Florida for
Tourists; Invalids, and Settlers." This enter-
prising firm of Jacksonville is reliable in every
way. They print a weekly, the FLORIDA DIS-
PATCH, devoted to Southern agriculture."
Branching Sorghum--Premium.
Our friend, Dr. GEO. W. DAVIS, (author of
the well-known work on Orange Culture,")
has kindly placed at our disposal a liberal
quantity of fresh seed of the Rural Branch-
ing Sorghum," to be mailed in packages of half
ounce each, free, to every NEW subscriber to
the FLORIDA DISPATCH. The Doctor, and
others who have cultivated this particular
variety of sorghum, speak of it in the highest

terms as a rapid-growing and valuable forage
plant, and the seed-of which an acre will pro-
duce a great quantity-is unsurpassed as food
for chickens, pigeons and all gramnivorous
domestic animals. 'J All NEW SUBSCRIBERS
who desire the seed of this valuable plant, will
please mention the fact when they send in their
names for the paper. (Directions for planting
and cultivating in our next,)
PLAIN DIET.-The general food of the Nor-
wegians is rye bread, milk, and cheese. As a
particular luxury peasants eat "sharke," which
are thin slices of salt hung meat, dried in the
wind, but this indulgence in animal food is very
rare indeed. A common treat on high (lays
and holy days consists of thick hasty-pudding
or porridge of oat meal or rye meal, seasoned
by two or three pickled herrings or salted

Professor Riley in Florida.
This distinguished scientist, entomologist to
U.S.Agricultural Department,Chief ofU. S. En-
tomological Commission, Washington, D. C.,
and State Entomologist of Missouri, arrived in
Jacksonville, Monday evening, registering at
the St. James.
He is continuing the investigations of orange
insects for the Agricultural Department, so
ably begun by its former occupant, Prof. J.
Henry Comstock.
The Professor has had a .thorough Ento-
mologist, Mr. Hubbard, stationed here all sum-
mer, studying up orange insects, and who has
made many interesting discoveries; among
which is his working up of the life history of the
rust mite, (Phytoptus Oleivorus, Ashmnead,)
corroborating our statement that it is the cause
of rusty oranges.
Orange growers will be pleased to learn that
the Professor has a remedy to kill and prevent
its ravages in the future, which we hope to ob-
tain and publish for the benefit of readers of
Immigration to Florida.
To the Public.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., March 18th, 1882. J
The "Florida Immigration Association," just in-
corporated for the purpose of encouraging a larger
immigration of a good class of agriculturists and
others from our sister States and Territories, as well
as from all parts of Europe, and to provide for their
settlement in our different counties, has established
its headquarters at No. 8, Astor Block. The reputa-
tion of its officers and directors is a sufficient guar-
antee that its business will be carried on fairly, and
with the interests of the settlers and the State fully in
view. The directors will make it imperative (and
the rule will not be deviated from), that new comers
will first be advised in reference to government and
State lands, and afterwards in reference to railroad
and private lands. Colonies will be organized in
every county in which the Association can obtain the
necessary amount of lands for such purpose.
Information will be received concerning the loca-
tion of government, State, railroad and private lands,
their products, value, distance to market, accessi-
bility to railroad or water communication, etc., etc.
This enterprise is one in which every citizen of this
State and our sister States is interested, and we de-
sire not only your approbation, but your active aid
and co-operation in our efforts to open the way for a
vast influx of a good class of settlers from the United
States and Europe, who will, by their thrift and en-
terprise add wealth to our State.
With this view we solicit your answers to the fol-
lowing inquiries, assuring you that the information
we may thus derive will be of great service to our
Association, and eventually benefit others.
First-Can you give us any information, plats,
etc., of any unoccupied government or State lands in
your county.
Second-Information about railroad and private
lands, and the chances for a colony, location, price,
Third-The nature of the climate in your section,
especially with reference to health.
Fourth-The opportunities for mechanics, farm
hands and laborers of all kinds.

Fifth-The facilities for education, number of
schools and churches, societies, etc., etc.
We invite the co-operation of all in this great
work for the reason that it will not only befriend the
stranger arriving in our borders, but will ultimately
be of great benefit to every section of our State.
Respectfully submitted by the Board of Directors.
WM. H. MARTIN, Gen. Manager.
soot from a chimney or stove where wood is
used for fuel, put it in an' old pitcher and pour
hot water upon it. When cool use it to water
your plants every few days. When it is all
used fill up the pitcher again with hot water.
The effect upon roses that have almost hope-
lessly deteriorated is wonderful, in producing a
rapid growth of thrifty shoots, with large thick
leaves and a great number of richly-tinted


0~~~~~~ TH LRD IPTH

many others in the broader field now open to us, and
that we may do something to help onward the good

Can Electricity be Used as a Motor?
Though no great feat of hauling, or heaving, or
pushing has yet been performed by electricity, we
know the force can be made to push and haul and
heave. A man has driven about Paris in an electric
tricycle; a girl has sewed a shirt with sewing ma-
chine moved by the same power; a bit of rock has
been attacked by an electric borer; a toy boat runs
about in a lake driven by electricity ; and, best of all,
Messrs. Siemens are now carrying passengers in a
" tram," which has no other motor than the electric
' fluid," or modification of motion, or whatever it
ought to be called. It is not only probable, but cer-
tain, that many of the difficulties now impeding the
application of the force to heavy work will be dis-
solved, under the pressure of the brain power now ap-

Cie iFic |p` rt m( .

We contemplate giving, in this department, such
articles as in our judgment will be most likely to in-
terest the general reader; but especially is it our in-
tention to confine ourselves to scientific topics and
discoveries bearing more particularly upon the agri-
cultural, horticultural and industrial interests of
Florida and the South.
To keep our readers informed of all important dis-
coveries and inventions of interest or practical utility.
A subject of vast importance to our readers-is the
knowledge of the chemical properties of the soil they
have on their places; its mineral or chemical con-
stituents, which of these it is deficient in and in
which it most abounds--a knowledge almost absolutely
necessary to one who wishes to plant crops best
adapted to it, and to know what kind of manure
ought to be used to supply the deficiency and bring
it to a proper degree of fertility.
A graduate in chemistry from John Hopkins'
University, Baltimore, has offered his services to
analyze all soils, or minerals sent to this department
for that purpose, or to Prof. W. B. Clarkson, of this
This is a rare opportunity for one who desires in-
formation on the above subject, and we trust our
readers will avail themselves of it.
A large space in our colums will also be devo-
ted to Entomology in its practical aspects; description
of beneficial and injurious insects-and remedies for
removal or destruction suggested.
To the agriculturist and horticulturist, the subject
is of vast and vital importance.
Millions of dollars are annually lost from the depre-
dations of insects.
Orange trees are infested and destroyed by scale in-
sects; the cotton-plant by the cotton moth; the ap-
ple tree by the codling moth, and a hundred other in-
sect pests; the potato bug, a few years ago, swept the
country ; the rocky mountain locust or grasshop-
per" appears in clouds, hiding the sun, and like the
recorded plague in Egypt, they devour every green
thing, keeping the Kansas farmer in a continual
dread for his crops.
Are not the above examples a constant reminder
to the fruit-grower, gardener and planter of the im-
portance of the study of entomology ? Should any fa-
vorite plant, shrub or fruit tree become infested with
insects, or seriously threatened from their attacks, ad-
vise us, sending specimens, and we shall cheerfully de-
scribe their habits and give or suggest remedies when-
ever it is possible.
Our columns will be opened to correspondence in
all departments of Natural History, and we respect-
fully solicit contributions from those interested in any
of these subjects.
Sincerely thanking our friends in Florida for their
patronage and kind wishes, we trust we shall make

One man may direct the efforts of fifty
skilled workmen to the production of good
work, but fifty men cannot get good work from
one unskilled workman. Improved tools and
mechanical appliances will simply assist the
artisan in the production of fine work, but the
greater the refinements of these tools and ap-
pliances, the greater must be his skill. Instead
of relieving him of his responsibilities, which
would be in every sense a misfortune, they add
to them, which make him, in every way, the
better, in being able to meet them.
Altogether, the position of the skilled me-
chanic is in every way satisfactory, in its rela-
tion to improved machine production, and the
tools and appliances of the future, however re-
fined, can never usurp his place in the indus-
tries of the world, nor relieve him of the part
he is to play in future mechanical advance-

eased variegation, as in the coleus and begonia,
the alternanthera and the centaurea, and the
sickly colors of diseased trees and plants. Like-
wise a naturally weeping tree, as the birch and
willow, or the erect poplar, may be sparingly
introduced, when distorted and unnatural weep-
ers would not be admissible.- Country Gentle-
Agricultural and Famaily Papers.
One of our contemporaries very truthfully says,
that while all classes of newspapers are valuable-
worth far more than they cost-still agricultural
journals are more universally useful than any other
as mediums of knowledge, and contain matter re-
quired by a larger portion of the people than any
other; and hence are really the most advantageous
mediums for the great mass of business men to adver-
tise their business in.



z - -- ~'~ ''


plied to them from every corner of the civilized
world; and quite possible that in a year or
two a cheap method of generating elec-
tricity will be applied-not discovered, for we
know already that falling water, in governable
masses, is what is wanted-and that the storage of
the force will not only be a credible, but an easily ac-
complished process. That is not supposing more
than has occurred in the application of electricity to
message-sending, and that accomplished, and cost re-
duced, as science always reduces it, we should have
from the new agent at least two things-a light, full,
permanent and cheap, to be used wherever wanted,
in the street, workshop,. and house, as in the mine;
and a motor, manageable, tireless, light, and as
effective for small work in the hands of the individual
as for great work in the hands of a mighty company.
That which will drive a railway train will drive a
girl's sewing machine or a boy's mechanical horse;
that which will urge a rock-borer will help to carve
a sixpenny bloodstone seal. Electricity can be made
to perform all tasks that can be performed by unin-
telligent force.
Lightning !
The effect of lightning on trees near a telegraph
wire is thus described by a French savant: The
line under observation runs east and west. Of the
poplars bordering on the road those on the north side
suffered most, those on the other side being rarely
struck. Eighty out of five hundred trees were de-
stroyed. The instances multiplied with increased
elevation, and in the plateau at the highest point of
land reached the maximum. The injury was mostly
opposite and under the level of the wires. It is sup-
posed that while the wire is strongly electrified by
induction, the lightning does not strike it, but strikes
the neighboring poplars directly, which, wet with
rain, afford ali easier passage for the electric fluid to
the ground."
Skilled Mechanics.
Speaking of the position and prospects of the
skilled workman and mechanic, the American
lMachinist remarks:
No matter to what extent the refinement in
machine tools may be carried, it is in the end
the careful and painstaking operation of the
skilled mechanic that must bring the products
of these tools to a perfection that will meet the
requirements of modern demands. The lathe
will not turn so round that, in this respect, its
production cannot be improved by the hand
work of the skilled machinist, nor will the mill-
ing or planing machine produce surfaces so
true that he is not called upon to rectify them
with the file and scraper. Now, as ever, the
beautiful finish on iron and steel is the result
of the individual effort of the operator, rather
than of the perfection of tools.
Years ago, the opinion prevailed to a con-
siderable extent that the services of the highly
skilled mechanic would not be so much a mat-
ter of necessity in the future as in the past, but
those who built on such grounds built poorly.
The man will always be superior to the ma-
chine, and must always see better than he can


The Gardener's Chronicle quotes from the
address of John Robinson, of the Arnold Arbo-
retum, before the Massachusetts Board of Ag-
riculture, where he speaks of variegated or dis-
colored foliage as follows:
"The perpetuation of these monstrosities and
vagaries is no credit to those who pander to the
false taste which encourages such productions,
nor is it any credit to those who waste their
time and money in planting these sickly, eva-
nescent forms, where the healthy plant in its nat-
ural condition is in every way preferable. ** *
We have a long line of golden oaks, golden
ashes, golden lindens, striped-leaved, silver-
leaved or golden-banded varieties, hideous to
any lover of nature. Looking upon these sickly
plants, each seems by turns more ugly than its
neighbor. All should be sent to the rubbish
heap together. * *These plants are all the
result of some constitutional weakness, an im-
peded or irregular distribution of juices of the
plant, and like other abnormal forms, cannot be
long-lived. Nor can much be said:
of that class of horticultural productions known
as the weeping tree."
On these quotations the Gardener's Chroni-
cle makes the following comments, going, per-
haps, to the other extreme:
"This, to our thinking is the language of ex-
aggeration. Such plants as the purple syca-
more, beech, birch, or nut, the golden catalpa,
the golden oak (Q. concordia), the golden elder,
the variegated maple, and many others, are dis-
tinctly beautiful, and if used with discretion
and judgment have as much right in orna-
mental plantations as the white willows and
poplars, colchic maples; red-barked cornels, or
any other tree whose foliage being normally col-
ored would, it is to be presumed, be allowed,
by the critic we have cited,, to remain. If we
are to exclude from our plantations shrubs with
variegated or colored leaves, because such va-
riegation is sometimes a symptom of disease or
debility, we in England should have to banish
the common aucuba, the golden hollies, the
whole tribe of variegated ivies. We should have
to cast out parrottia persica, whose autumnal
foliage is in some autumns so superbly colored;
virgilia would have to go; the American oaks
must one and all be banished, for their glowing
tints are but the hues of approaching death.
The Amercian maples must be eschewed for a
similar reason, and the dull monotony of green
which creeps over our landscape as summer
comes on would be even more unrelieved than
it is now."
There is certainly much truth in Mr. Robin-
on's remarks, and landscape painters gener-
ally who have a true eye to the beauties of na-
ture, would mostly accord with them. The va-
rious shades of natural green and the changes
given to them through aerial perspective,
afford endless charms. It is proper, how-
ever, to discriminate between natural and undis-




The largest lake in the world is Lake Superior, be-
ing 430 miil6s long and 1,000 feet deep.
The largest valley in the world is the Valley of the
Mississippi, It contains 500,000 square miles.
The greatest cave in the world is the Mammoth
Cave in Kentucky, which contains a navigable lake
abounding in eyeless fish.
The greatest mass of solid iron in the world is the
great Iion Mountain in Missouri, It is 340 feet high
and two miles in circuit.
The greatest cataract in the world is the Falls of
Niagara, which plunges over.the rocks in two 'oii
umns to the depth of 170 feet each.
The greatest natural bridge in the world is the
natural bridge over Cedar Creek in Virginia. It ei.-
tends across a chasm eighty feet in width and 550
feet in depth.


A New York paper mentions a curious in-
strument invented by a young Japanese en--
gineer. It is a familiar fact to those acquainted
with the problems of surveying and engineer-
ing, that.the most tedious calculations associated
with professional services of that class arise
from the method of triangulation now in use,
and from the fatiguing and abtruse relations of
sines and cosines which enter into the work.
The necessity of an instrument capable of
measuring these relations with accuracy and of
experimentally solving the problems of .tigo-
nometry 'arising in the course of a survey, has
been long confessed by engineers. The inven-.
tion perfected by the young Japanese en-
gineer-nhot patented, by the way-consists
primarily of a steel or brass plate, near the bot-
tom of which is a graduated bar which may
represent the base of any given triangle. The
bar is graduated into ten equal parts with ex-
treme accuracy, and these sections are again
graduated until a'linear register of the utmost
conceivable finnesis is produced. At one end
of the bar is fixed a semicircular plate, the cir-
cumference of which is graduated into degrees,
minutes, and seconds, and the base of which is
parallel with the bar itself. At'the other end is
placed a quadrant, or quarter of a circle, grad-
uated in the same manner. At the center of
each of the circles of which these plates form sec-
tions a movable bar turns upon a pivot in the
same manner as the hands of a clock. Each of
these bars is graduated into ten equal parts of
the same length as those of the basis, and each
part is finely subdivided. The quadrant and
semi-circle plates are also so constructed as to
slide into.the fixed bar, thus forming a base-
line, of any convenient or assignable length.
With this instrument such problems as those in
which one angle and the adjacent sides, one
side and the adjacent angles, or one angle and
the opposite side are given, to find the other fac-
tors, may be performed instantaneously without
calculation. Having for example, one angle
and the adjacent sides given, the engineer re-
volves the graduated bar upon the quadrant if
the angle is less than a right angle, and upon
the semi-circle if it is obtuse, until the proper
angle is registered. He then revolves the sec-
ond bar until a triangle is formed whose sides
are exactly proportionate to those given, and
reads offthe second angle from the plate. To
find the third it is only necessary to subtract
the sum of the two already ascertained from
180, Ju the meantime, the ratio .of the third
side to the other has already been registered
upon the second movable bar. The problem is
consequently solved without reference to the
sines, cosines, and tedious logarithms with which
trigonometry abounds,
.- .
The "Biggest Thrins !"
The largest deposits of anthracite coal of the world
are in Pennsylvania.
The greatest river, in the .world is the Mississippi,
which is 4,100 miles long ..

allowed to break from the furrow; there is no
waste water to care for, and the entire amount
of water delivered to the tract is used; there is
no washing of the land, but there is a good
soaking up of the ground. The land requires
no leveling, as the rows are made at first to
conform to.the topography of the field.
This system will be extensively adopted the
coming season at Redlands. It gives entire
satisfaction to all who have'examined it.

The Dispatch has the largest circulation of
any paper in Florida; it is therefore the best ad-
vertising medium in the State.


There are few situations in Florida, where
regular irrigation is necessary, and our climatic
conditions are so different from those of Cali-
fornia that we are rarely obliged to resort to
any system of regular watering. Still, there are
suggestions of value- in the following from the
Riverside (Cal.) Press and Horticulturist, and
we give it a place in our columns;
The system of surface irrigation so generally
practiced of running water down a heavy grade
through an orchard or vineyard is very .bad in
many, respects. It is customary to run large
stream into the orchard on the upper side and
to. rum off at the lower side a large stream as
waste water, frequently-more than half the .size
of the stream run upon the land. This iaste
water is. always, heavily laden with the very
finest sediment and richest portions of thesoil,
and in this respect impoverishes the land faster
than the growth of the trees or vines. The.
waste water must be taken care of and is a dead
loss. The irrigator pays for double the water
used, which of itself is quite an item, to say
nothing of the trouble of the caring for waste
water and losing the richness of the soil.
Successful irrigation requires that all the
water that is runupon the land should remain
there. Where the land is absolutely level or
nearly so this is not a difficult matter, but such
tracts are seldom found: In fact very much of
the finest orchard -land in southern California
is onrthe sides of the valleys' where the slope iS
several feet across a ten-acre tract.
There is a way in which such land can 'be
irrigated without loss of water. Take, for
illustration, a twenty-acre tract of land sloping
heavily from east to west. From north to south
the land will generally be found to be uneven,
or at least not level. In planting -the orchard
run the rows of trees in straight and parallel
lines from east to west down the slope. In
running the lines from north to south the land
can be laid off at little expense by a survey or
so that the rows of trees shall follow the grade
of the land. 'If the supply ditch runs down the
north side of the tract the north end of the
rows 6f trees should not be to exceed five inches
higher than the south end of the row, and three
inches would be still better if the soil is clayey
loam, or what is known as red lands.
The north and south' rows will not, of course,
be straight, but the land can be plowed and
dross'plowed, as the rows will admit of plowing
this way as well as if they were straight.
When it comes time to irrigate, plow one' or
two or more deep furrows on each side of each
row of trees with a shovel plow. When water
is brought upon the tract turn it into the first
ditch until it is full the entire length; then
turn it into the second.the same way, and so
progress until the orchard is irrigated suffi-
ciently. If thought best after the furrows is
once filled a small stream can be left running--
just enough to supply the seepage so long as it
is deemed advisable. The water need never be

The iarmers YVocation.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, the great New Eng-
land transcendental philosopher, pays the fol-
lowing tribute to the farmer. It must be ad-
mitted, that a man "of deep thought and warm
imagination throws a glamour over all subjects
on which he writes. Emerson, probably, never
went though a year of practical farming and
encouiitered the little troubles and annoyances
which meet the farmer every day, or was sub-
jected to the long doubts and suspenses which
hang over him when & season in unpropitious.
He takes, in the following passages, a politico-
economic view of the farmers' position, but it is
well flavored with sentiment of poetry. Still,
it does not untruly exalt the farmers' vocation,
and the farmer who takes a pride in his calling
cannot but have his idea of the importance of
his position heightened after studying it:
The glory of the farmer is that, in the divi-
sion pf labor, it is his part to create. All trade
rest;at last on his primitive activity. He stands
close t9 Nature; he obtains from the earth the
bred and meat; the food which was not he
causes to be. The.first fairner was the first man,
and all historic nobility rests on possession and
use of land, The farmer's office is precise and
important, but you .must not try to paint him in
rose colors. You cannot make pretty compli-
ments to fate and gravitation, whose minister
he is. He represents the necessities. It is the
beauty of the great economy of the world that
makes his comeliness. He bends to the order
of the seasons, the weather, the soil, and crops,
as the sails of the ship bend to the wind. He
represents continuous hard labor year in and
year out, and small gains. He takes the place
of seasons, plants, and chemistry. Nature
never hurries:; atom by atom, little by little,
she achieves her work. The farmer ties him-
self to Nature, and acquires this livelong pa-
tience which belongs to her: he must wait for
his crop to grow.
His entertainments, his liberties, and his
spending must be on a farmer's scale, not a
merchant's. It were as false for farmer to use
a wholesale and massy expense as for States to
use minute economy.
He has great trusts confided to him. In the
great household of Nature the farmer stands at
the door of the bread-room, and weighs each
loaf. It is for him to say if men shall marry
or not. Early marriages and the number of
births are indissolubly connected with an
abundance of food. The farmer is a hoarded
capital of health, as the farm is of wealth, and
it. is from him that the health and power,
moral and intellectual, of the cities come. The
city is always recruited from the country. The
men in cities, who are centres of energy, the
driving-wheels of trade, and the women. of


beauty and genius-are the children and grand-
children of the farmer, and :are spending the
energies which their father's hardy silent life
accumumulated in frosty furrows.
He is a continuous benefactor. He who digs
a well, constructs a stone foundation, plants an
orchard, builds a durable house, reclaims a
swamp, or so much as puts at stone seat by the
wayside, makes the land so far lovely and de-
sirable, makes a fortune which he cannot carry
away with him, but which is useful to his coun-
try long afterwards.
Who are the farmer's servants? Geology and
chemistry, the quarry of the air, the water of
the brook, the lightning of the clouds, the cast-
ing of the worms, the plough of the frost. Long
before he was born the sun of ages decomposed
the rocks, mellowed his land, soaked it with
light and heat, covered it with vegetable film.
then with forest, and accumulated the shpag-
num whose decay made the peat of his meadow.






.. .... .. ........ .....~: ___~ ~ -r. --.-- --- ---- -- -- - -

STATES. Acres.
Alabama............... ......... 1111
Arkansas............... 893
California .................... 32,368 1
Connecticut..................... 64
Delaware...................... 125
Florida...................I..... 83
Georgia............................. 2,991
Illinois .......................... S,810
Indiana.............................. 3,851
Iow a ................................... 1,470
K ansas............. ................ 3,512
Kentucky ........................ 1,850
M aine ................................ 71
Maryland.......................... 699"
Massachusetts ................. 227
Michigan.................. 2,t66
Minnesota........................ 63
Mississippi ........................ 432
Miso ........ ...... 7,376
Nebra.ka ......................
New Jerseyy..................1.. l (,967
ew Mexico....................
New York................... ....... 12,646
North -Carolina............. 2,639
Ohio.......... ...... ..... .. 9,9
Oregon ............................... 126 '
Pennsylvania................ 1,944
Rhode Island..... ....... 55
SoUth Carolina................. 193
Tennessee.................... 1,28
Texas .............................. 80
Utah....................... .... .... 58
Virginia ........................... 2,099,
West Virginia.... .............. 46'
Wisconin.,,.................'. 217

GallonS. AmnoAnt.
.422,672 .399,705.00
72,750' 112,401.87
.3,557,155 4,0465,86.0
5,336 6,076.75
4,0(50 4,050.00
11,180 .15,416.004
902,244 1,335,521.63
1,047,875 809,547.20
99,l5(6 91,719.4
334, o70 346,398.6
:6,249: 190,230.75
81,170 80,908.75
1,500 2,850.00
21,405 :19,15LOX)
6,338 10,050.50
62;,81 75,611.30
2,31 .. 2,446,00
509,845 310,532.75
1,8 2L ,7 .1,3290^)0.40
5,767 8 9984.
215122 "' 2,28570
908,500- 9$0,250.,00
584,148 387,308.83
331701 268,819.25
1,632,073 1,627,9.26.
16,900 9,240.00
114,535 128,097.00
262 516.0
16,988 22,356.25
64,797, 90,796.00
3 ,525 44?704.87
1-14,975 175,825.00
262,47 2 200.045.25
71,026 61;461.$
10,968t 15,558.8&

Total.......................... 18,583 23,453,827 803,426,174,870
Later returns show that California's product
should be stated at 15,067,155 gallons, or nearly
two-thirds of all the wine made in: the United-
stable manure depends upon the quantity and,
quality of the feeding stuffs used, and..on the
amount of milk:or-other products obtained from
the animals, As a rule, but a small proportion
of the manurial elements of, the food are per-
manently retained in the body or excreted as
milk, etc., while the remainder passes into the
manure. As a consequence, the richer, the feed
the richer the manure.- Good feeding pays, not
only through increased production, by the; ai
mal, but through the improved quality of the
manure as well.
If confined in stables or close lots, .with
abundant feed, it is estimated that medium
sized animals will produce in a year the follow-
ing amounts of manure: Horse, exclusive of


Upland Rice.
The Cuthbert (Ga.) Enterprise says: The culture
of upland rice engaged, considerable attention at the
meeting of the Agricultural Society last Tuesday.
It was shown that it would make twice as many
bushels to the acre as corn~ whether the land be rich
or poor; that, it was s. easily cultivated as corn,. and
that it brought ready sale, always at prices ranging
from 80 cents to $1.60 per. bushel. Dr.. Godfrey has
ordered a few bushels of seed rice from Savannah,
and will try :four acres in it. In addition to its
profitableness in other respects, the straw makes
splendid food for cattle and' horse 'for wiinter. It is
eatex as readily by stock as northern hay. That our
farmers must diversify their crops is so. plain, that
everybody now admits it. We,propose upland rice
as one new thing for us to turn our attention to.
From the experience we have had with it ourselves,
as well as from our observation of this eCro), we can
safely say that where it is manager right, it is ob-,
liged to be profitable. It can be planted until May.


The Price of Honey.
The American Bee Journal editorially says in refer-
ence to the price of honey:
As we advised our readers in the early portion of
the season, prices for hohey are good, and the ten-
dency is upward. This is: not the result of a short
crop, for the crop is not short, but is fully 'up> to the
average; nor is it the natural sequence of a partial
failure in the California yield. It is the result of
an increased demand for good honey at home and
abroad. No longer does prime honey beg a market,
but is eagerly sought for and finds a ready sale. Every
price current, in each considerable mart, gives quota-
tions, and nearly all t.hexmetropolitan, dailies publish
prices in their market reports. That these prices fluc-
tuate and vary greatly with each other, cannot be at-
tributed to the absence of a demand, nor is it the fault
of the middlemen jobbers;. these men, with an eye to
business, 'will drive, the mqst advantageous bargains.
It is mainly attribitable'to a nervous anxiety on the
part of producers to sell.


American WiMe, Product.
Dr. McMurtrie, of .the Department of Agri-
culture, has. prepared a statistical report on the
grape and wine production of the country. The
figures are given as only approximately correct.
on account of the difficulty of getting returns
to his inquiries,, but they are probably less than
the actual amounts. Of his results he says:,
S"They are of value as showing the dimen-
sions the wine industry of this country has at-
tained, the consequent importance of giving
greater encouragement to this branch of agri-
cultural economy, the location of the produce
tion and local values of the product. They
Show that the consumers in any part of the
United States are conveniently near to the cen-
tres of production, and that little niecessity pre-
vails for looking to foreign cellars for supplies
of ordinary table wines at least Of- course: we
cannot: hope,. in :or comparatively young vine-
yards, and with. -our as yet comparatively un-
tried varieties, to produce wines tli6twill be re-
ceived with the same faor 'as' those:of- the
better vineyards of the old world'. 'But iwe are
constantly improving, and it is certain' that in
table wines of.low alboholie strength, we ai. e
now sure of obtaining from our o`:n vineyards
products more free from adulteration, and con-
sequently more healthy in general, 'thln the
wines ordinarily' impor Led in casks, and we nmay
hope in the very near future to render much of
the present importations unnecessary and even
undesirable. There is, it is true, much to be
done in the improvement of the culture of the
vineyards arid many reforms to be made in the
cellars of producers, yet even now good, 'sound
wines are not hard to find." The following
table shows the average annual yield of wine
and its value in each State:

,, I I II I II rllr ._.. - -- --


loss during work, nine tons; ox or cow, ten to
twelve tons; sheep (October, to May), three-
quarters of a ton, and a hog one and a quarter
to two tons.
t eW to Makle Cor'n,
Is thus described by Dr. J. M. Parker, the
great corn grower of South Carolina. His views
are sound and his practice 'worthy of general
1. Deep breaking up. "
2. Underdrainage on moist, flat land.
3. The judicious manuring .
4. That the first work should be deep; subse-
quent work shiillow and level.
5. The roots of the corn should not be dis-
turbed after it bunches to tassel.
Under the old method of culture, the ques-
tion has arisen whether or not corn can be
Made a refiiifierative eopl. I should say on
our old plantations it cannot. Oi: the other
hand, b iiprioved culture the effects of ddouth
0o scalding fr6m too iilueh raiih can be over-
cme, anid' instead' of liirvesting fity.per cent.
less than average crop, as is the cas the pres-
ent yetr, there would, doubtless, be an incieaae
of fifty per cent. bve6 the average of the past
ears, on the same area- f giouid. The qies'
tion would then be responded to affiiimatively,
siad demonstrated by evidences everywhere of in-
creased prosperity and domestic comforts. Pat
stock of all kinds would give evidence of full
barns, and the old adige would be verified : "It
takes corn to mike cattle and cattle to make
pgre; of the, IAes .
SDr, Lundy, of the Michigan College of, Med-
iHine, recently- gave. an instructive address on
"Hygiene in, its Relation to the Eve." The
gipto,f the lecture is.coutaiped in thefollowing
suggestions with which it closed :
1. Avoid reading aul study by poor light.
2. Light should come from the side., and not
from the back or from the front.
3. Do not read or stuly while suffering great
bodily fatigue, or during recovery from illness.
4. Do not read while lying down.
5. Do not use the eyes too long at a time for
near work, but give them occasional periods for
a rest.
6. :Readig and study should be done s4yte-
,7. During studyaoid tihe stooping position,
or whatever tendsto produce congestion of the
Shead and face. :;
8. Select well printed books.
9. Correct errors of refraction with proper

10. Avoid bad hygienic conditions, and the
use ofalcohol sand t bacco,
11. .Take sufficient exercise: in the open air,
12. 2Let the physical keep pace with the
mental culture, for asthenopia is most usually
observed: in those who are lacking in physical


The people of Chicago seem to be somewhat
dissatisfied with the lake water furnished by the
municipality, if we can judge by the following
miild extract from the Herald of that city :
"The Hell-Broth we 'ave to Dri-nk.!---There
is ho use iIn mincing matters; hllbrdthb is 'an
exceedingly appropia te: name.f6r the fiild ex-
tract ofiiastiness whi ch flws through the feed-
pipes in our houses, and goes by the name of
rinkinkg water.' That is the sole resource our
people have f0r quenching their thirst. An
almost unimaginable complexity of pollution
pours out-into the lake, mingles, with and be-
fouls the expanse of purity out there, and then
the vile, liaus`eating, poisonous dilusion rushes
bac :through the aqueduct, ihins, and supply
pipes, to pass down the.throats of"Qur, citizens.
Oyw 'can disease bb' avoided when such a
scourge must be taken into the ,stomach? Pure
-airp ure food aiad puie water are three essen-
tials to health. Sewer gas, the slmpke nuisance,
and the xhalation of Irmuck-covered' streets
an sidewalks prevent us frori having pure air;
the' unsicrupuloudiess oif money-getting scoun-
direlisr prevents ul: fomi having pure food,; and
f cirimiinali negleufe of mincipal. efficiency
provients u fro n u having pire water In con-
sequence of tHis triplecompouid of befoulment,
ad alteration, and delin'lqency, Chicago is in a
fair way to become a paradise of physicians, and
the source of uncounted wealth to the under-
liquid Mawure.
I have always spoken of the advantages of irriga-
tion in increasing garden or truck crops. To make
the profits larger'and -more sure, use liquid manure.
The. German proprietor of eight acres, referred to by
Mr. Morris in "Ten Acees Enough," Who trans-
formed the neglected farm of a drunkard owner into
a garden of immense productivenesss and- gfet profit,
furnishes an example of an inexpensive kind of tank,
made by sinking a. brick cistern in the barnyard,
into which the liquid manure from six cows and two
horses was conducted, as well as the wash from the
pig-pen and barnyard. The manure h eap'was always
under coverr, and ;kept thoroughly saturated by means
of a pump .in the cistern, which was also used for tll-
ing a hogsead placed upon wheels, and used fbr dis-
tributing the fertilizing liquid. The German- started
with a capital of $fi,pai.d ip labor for four pigs, and
from these and the refuse the fmiily made, ii buried
hoges.ead, suffleient liquid mature, appIliedbbymneansa
ofna wheelbarcrw, to. fftilize -his acres, osbtjA n mPr
'stock, and grow crop, enough in four years. to py'
$600: fod thi place, support his family, and ^gather
around' hfIn miany hoiuseihoild comfortss and frn' imim
elements and appliances:' Mr. Morris, acting upolr
the suggestion of the thriving German, built 'in his
own barnyard .a tank,, into which was conducted, the
wash from stable, pig-pen and yard. Once or twice
per week this was pumped up and distributed over
the manureheap and over a hugepije 6f leaves, the
whole mass being saturated wtit lrud" 'mnanunre and'
never allowed to become dry. In the spring both
heaps were found, to be 'e4i4ceL.to, a half-fluid mass.
The effects of this manure were marked, bringing
early vegetables to market ten days sooner than those
of neighboring gardens, and the fall crops enjoyedd a
still greater advantage, from the longer continuance
of the manuring.-Ben. Perley Poore.


Vegetable, otaft4ts.
March 18th, 1882.
DEAR SIR-We quote this day's sales of vegetables as
follows: Norfolk spinach per barrel, ;$2.00 to $2.50
Scotch kale per barely, -.$J5 t6 $2.00; iett4ce per b&rii,
$2.00 to $4.00; Flortda tomatoes per crate, $2.0( to $&.00;
Florida green peas, very poor; Florida cabbage per bar-
rel, $3.00 to $C4..: asparagus pr bunch, 40c. to Mc.; Sa-
nannah green peas, $3.50 to $4.00; string beans, $3.00 to
$4.00; cucumbers per 100, $10.00 to $20.00. Produce ar-
riving in good order bring top prices. Poor stock very
hard to sell. Yours respectfully,

FRIENDS, In various parts of .the country,
not already subscribers, to whom we send a
marked copy of this journal, are respect-
fully invited to add their names to the long
and: increasing list already .on our mailing-books.
Terihs-41 per year,, in advance.

-:. l$IT' E BISO.'S

Soluble Ground Bone,

Combined with POTASH and MULCHING will PRE-
For sale by
Agents for the State of Florida.

'~A-Analysis Guaranteed.
Send for Circulars and Price-List.
Jacksonville, March 25, 1882.

mar 27-6m



7 1

THE TIMES is the official paper of the city and the
leading paper of the State. It has the largest circulation
in Plorida, aud reaches all parts of it. It is notjaerely
a local newspaper, but aims to advocate the interests
andpdrom1ote the prosperity of Flaidd as a whole. .
: Its reputation outside the State is very high. It has
taken rank among those journals whose columns are
looked to for news, and whose comments are quoted
with respect throughout the country.
Its editors have hvad wide and varied experience in
journalism No th -s well as South' *its adtveitising
tronage is liberal and of the best character; and its re-
sources,, financial and other are ample. It will furnish
Florida with.a li'e, progressive, outspokene, and reada-
Sble ewt4aper, thepeer obf any.

THE TI mS hias secured by special contract the full
despatches of the ASSOCIATED PRESS. Besides this,
its Editor is Agent of the Associated Press for the State
of Florida, which gives him great advantages in obtain-
ing the freshest and most importantState news.

With representatives in the leading news centres of
the country, THE TIMES is well served in addition to
the regular Press reports. During the past winter it has
received a very large number of telegraphic "specials."

Its regular correspondence from Washington, New
York and Poston is of noteworthy excellence; and its
State .oM ronaideibe. ias a" attracted mAuch* attention.
This feature will be extended and improved; and to
rrespondence. containing, news or items of
ffn- faw.ln" of "any kind is solicited from all quarters.

"OLD SI." .
; In addition .this editorial work Mr. Small will write
.' larly forT .B TIM. and in its Sunday issues-the
fambus "01 Si" will fllSehinate wisdom in ohunks4
-to tr'Florida. tblic.. ..

Tjim. (VricQT ijin ^yaVtnc)9 O4e year, i$10; ;ix
months,; three months, $2.50; one month, $1. Sent
one Tintb on-trial for 50 oents,
SRemittance should be made by draft or post0flce
orner, or a registex'd letter. Address, .
mar 27-6m Jacksonville, Fa. -



Improvement of Florida Lands.

Lands Purchased, Cleared, Fenced, Planted and Attended to for Non-Residents.

Large Tracts of Land Furnished to Colonies or co-operative Settlers in any Part of the State at Low Prices.
Particular attention given to the Sale or Lease of City Prbperty, Rents Collected and Repairs Attenddd to.

Full Charge Taken Qf Groves or Other Property for Non-
l3To. 3 a3ry Street: Moor 1 .3 P:alnetto :Blookl,




F ]

. -AND- ': : "
I3T EC1EST ~ ^I - 'p .


Has been during the past season thoroughly tested by many of the first Orange Growers and Gardeners of the
State, and received their endorsement and approval. The material which forms the base of this Fertilizer, con-
tains potash, lime, phosphoric acid, anmonm a and the .teIer esienttial elements of Plant Food, making Aom
plete Fertilizer. Many who have tried it with Stockbridge, Baker & 1Bi&d.s, arid other high-priced Fertilizers,
say it is equal to them in the same quantity, and has the advantage of being an Insecticide.
This Fertilizer is put up in barrels containing 250 pounds, or 8 barrels to the ton. Price $4 per barrel, $32 per
All orders with remittance promptly filled and delivered free onboard carsor boats.
Gentlemen--I used oue-half ton of your Fertilizer, in connection with the same amount of Baker & Bro.'s,
New York, and Bradley's,,of Boston, last 'pbruary, using the same quantity of each on alternate rows through
out my grove. I find yoursgave as good results as the others, which are much higher priced fertilizers-costing
$50.50 per ton for B. & Bro.'s and $51.50 for 1iradley's, delivered here. I consider yours equal to either of the
others, and a great saving to the growers. Very respectfully, T. J. TUCKER.
WILCOX, ORANGE COUNTY, FLA., September 12,1881.
GOUJ & C LEESBURG, SUMTER Co., FLA., March 6, 1882.
.Gentlemen-Allow me to express my thinks for the promptitude with which you have directed your
agents.at this point (Messrs Spiter & Co.,) to deliver to me the premium of one ton of your valuable fertilizer,
so generously offered for the best display of vegetables grown under its fostering care, I having had the honor
to win the said premium. .
It was with very small hope of so substantial a reward, that I placed my vegetables among the exhibits
of our first county fair last month; but I wanted our people to know that we have at our own doors, as it
were, a fertilizer and insect destroyer better and cheaper.than any of the celebrated Northern brands,
, Gould's Fertilizer "kills two bird$ with one stone," inasmuch as it feeds the plant, and destroys its enemies,
at one ard the same time. I bave been testing it in the field, garden and orange grove for nearly two years, and
the result has been such that I feel independent of scale, leaf rollers, borers, and the other insect plagues, whose
name is.legion, while my plants are well fed anid vigorous, and exhibit the dark, glossy green of health and
thrift., .
For my part, I ask nothing better tl4an Gould s Fertilizer, and at our next county fair. if I live to see it, I
mean to show yet more of its handiwork.
Yours truly, HELEN HARCOURT.


Window, Picture and Carriage Glass.
Sand and Emery Papers, &ce.
300o6o, FIRE TE3S.
Jobhon'.s Prepared Kalsomine, Wadc-
or,th, Martinez, and Zo ind'"
Prepared Paints.
No. 40 West Bay St., Sigh of Big $arrel,

site Jpcksonville, keeps, twenty varieties of
pure-bred towls. Eggs for Hatching, 82 per
dozen. mar 25-3t

cent Show Plants during our summer and autumn,
for only a little, outlay, 50c. per dozen. VERBENAS,
all colors, same price,

"Marechal Niel," bright golden yellow.
General 'Jacqueminot," brilliant crimson.
"Perle des Gardin,'7 beautiful straw color.
Strong plants, front ive inchi pots, O0c. each.
A good assortment of ever-blooming Roses. The very
best Tearseented, from five inch pots, 30c. each.
Eu1&la1aL Sznd arntpaLs,
The most effective and stately of all the Ornamental
Grasses, 25c. each.

Japan Plums, 30, 50 and 75c. each.
Japan Persimmon, 75c. each.
Satsuma Orange, 81 each.
IBlack Hambutrg and White Sweetwater Grapes, 40c.
each; Figs, 25c. each.
Packing and boxing free. Address
mar Jacksonville, Fla.
mar St Jacksonville, Fla.

- ......

---;-- -- ----;------- --- --------- E


__ -- -~



BALTIMORE XP ... Through Tariff on Vegetables Only.




The steamships of this company
sail semi-weekly, as follows:
Every Wednesday-and Saturday,
Every Tuesday:and R1iday,- ai
l'uesday, March 2S, at 2 p. m.
Friday, M;P eh 3,'tf p ,- 3 ,-1'
Tuesday, A^iril 4t dat 8'a. -"
Friday, April 7th, at 10 a. m.
Tuesday, April llth, at 1 p. inm.
Friday, Aprll 14t h. at 3 p. m.
Tuesday, April 18th. at 8 a. in.
Friday, April 21st, at 10 a. m.
Tuesday, April 25th, at 1 p. m.
- -Fridcay^^ri I 8tl- a 3 p. '"n..
T be(ts3ani are ryi~tja* ij* ev*y A
attention will be given to passengers.
CABIN FARE from Savannah to B
Including Meals and Statei
For the accommodation of the Georg
this company has arranged a special s(
perishable freight As tranpoted ti
pointe In the WES'T and WUTHWJ
Baltli~ore. .. ^ k ,
By this route sh'ippers arke assured 1
will receive careful handling and quick
Rates of freight by this route will bel
column. - -
JAS't": WEST &-c
Savannah, January 8th, 1878.


..__ $1 _____ I a l



- --,- -*i7YTP : u-: fo S w-A

Passenger Trains will run over the Waycross Short
Line as follows;
Fast Mail. Jack'lle ExI
Daily. Daily.
Leave Jacksonville at................ 9:00 a. m. 5:40 p. m.
Arrive Jacksonville at................. 5:40 p. m. 8:15 a. m.
Leave Callahan at................................ 9:44 a. mi 6:45 p. m.
Arrive Waycross at......................11:57 a. m. 9i15 p.-m.
Arrive Jesup at............................ 1:40 p. m. 11:25 p. m.
Arrive at Brunswick at...........1. 6:00 p. m. 5:30 a. m.
Arrive Savannith at................... 8:40p. m. 2:3 a. m.
ArriveCharleston at............ .... 9:10 p. m. 905 a. m.
Arrive at Augusta at..................... 5:20 a. m. '1:30 p. m.
Arrive Macon at............... 7:50 p. m 7-)0 a. m.
Arrive Atlanta at.................. 8:50 a. m. 12:50 p. m.
Arrive Louisville at...... ............... 8:00 a. im.
Arrive Cincinnati at................. ............ 7:00 a. m.
Arrive Washiigton at............... 9:30 p. m. 9:10 a. m.
Arrive Baltimore at ....................12:2) p. m. 12:05 a. m.
Arrive New York (limited express)........... 3:50 p. m,
Arrive New Yrk P. R....... 8:4a. n. 5:20 p. m.
Arrive St Louis at.,............ ..........-.b 7:00 p. m.
Arrive Chicago at. .............................. 7:00 p. m.
To Savannah.................................................. 6:40 hours.
To New York.................................................. 45:45 hours.
To W ashington................... ..... ......... 36:30 hours.
To Chicago....... .......... ...........o4.. 49:00 hours.
To St. Loui .... .......,....... 49:00 hours.
*,Jacksonville to Savannah. .
W -Jacksonville to Louisville.
ir-Jacksonville to Washington.
s..Jackaenville to Cincrnnati.
A -RestaUrant and Lunch Comnter has been estab-
lished at Waycross, where passengers will be. bounti-
fully furnished at moderate rates.-
Passengers taking Savanah sleeper can remain in the
car until 7 o'clock a. m.
Parlor and Drawing-Room Car on morning train
from JacKsonville through to Savannah, connecting.
daily with through Pullman tldeper for New York.
The Dining Car attached to the- train between Savan-
nah and Charleston affords supper :to passengers going
North, and breakfast to those coming South.
Only.-oiwchailgS of.to:.'Ne Yr -".
Passengers going to eMoi gomife' af Ndv Orleans
take the evening train,
Passengers from line of Transit Railroad take the
train at Callahan. '
- --Passengers from lt.ne of Jackoayiule,-Peusacoia and
'Mobile Railroad-either takvtratn at -t-ive lAk, leaving
2p. m. and arriving atSavanniah at 2:35 a..rA., or train
at Jacksonville,'leavi-g at 9 -a. Th'.' arid arriving at Sa-
vannah at 3:40 p. inm. ,
Connecting at Savannah with steamers for New Yorfk,
Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore. .
Connecting at Charleston with steamers for New
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.'
Through Tickets sold to all points b Rail and Steam-
shipconnections, and Baggage checked' through. Also
Sleeping Car berths and sections secured at Com pny's
Office in Astor's Building, 84 Bay street,at Depot Ticket
Office. J. E. DRAYTON,
GEOe W, IHLVIN.S, Agent. [*] Ticket Agent.-

p_ .......... j .
FROM Per Box. 1 Per Bbl. I Per Box. I Per Bbl.
Jacksonville,. . .: .. ................. - 7 0 - i
Laidings on St. Johns River.. ........................................... .... .......... t 70
.tationsdn Florida TVanstt R. .;....... ................................................. 30 50 35 65
Tampa and M a atee.. ..... ............................ 45 75 50 90
Stations on the' .. P. & M R.R:............................................................ 30 50 35 65
Stations on S., F. & W Railway..................................................... 25 50 35 7

The dimensions of the Standard Box for Vegetables are 8x14x22 inches, and tire weight is estimated at 50
The Staidard Barrel is double the capacity of the Standard Box. "
Excess of capitaory over the above will be liable to pro rata excess of charges.
The Car-load is estimated at 21,000 pounds. Excess of this amioouiN fll- be diargifd fobp ..fAta. Car-load
shipmehts must be to one destination arid to bne consignee. -'- .:- "
Prepayment of freight will not be required, but good order and condition of shipments will be an absolute
requirement. ift is clearly understood between the ship)ets and t.i triet .brtation '.'npa lied-that nod'spon.
sibility shall attach for loss or damage, however occasiere'dutlaesVit be 2romnigross neiig4. e, atd that J4 loss
must attach solely to the company upon whose line such gross negligence may be located.
The above points are the only points to which rates are guaranteed, and to which Bills Lading will be issued.
The -ills Lading will be issueI only by the Agents of this Company, guaranteeing rates from those points only,
The charges advanced by this Line in good faith to connections iat those poTnty.tntl nt tb subject to correo-
tion by this Line.
Unless otherwvi'se instructed by the shippers, the original Bill Lading will be mailed the oonsigee at desti-
nation, and all claims for overcharge or loss and damage must be presented at destination, accompanied by the
original Bill Lading. .
S Shipments of single packages charged double rates. .
In every case the full name ad address of cohnignee muat be given for insertioh in Bill Lading and on th*
Where the route by which shippers desire their packages forwarded is not marked on the packages them-
selves, the Florida Dispatch Line" will forward same by the route by which tte best interest of the shipper
will lie served. .



From land-l Fla. Transit & From Stations From Stations
i ings on St. Jacksonville. Peninsular on J., P. & on S., F. &
I Johns River. Railroads. M. R. W. W: Railway.

4 11

Baltimore, Md................. .... 64 $1 27 50 $1 06 63 $121 6 1 21 53 $1 05
Philadelphia, Pa.,................. ... 64 I 1 27 53 1 06 63 $121 I 63 1 21 53 105
ostonMass....... ........... 71 143 o60 1 22 70 1 37 70 1 37 I60 1 2
New York, N. .............. 61 12.3 50 102 60 1 17. 60 117 50 102

To make through rates from Tampa and Manatee, add for boxes 15e., and for barrels 25c. to rates from
.Florida Transit Rritilroad. Single packages will be charged $1 each.

To make through rates from points tributary to the St. Johns River and Florida Transit Railroad, add the
rates for transportation lines connecting to above rates.
Stencils, shipping receipts and information furnished on application to any of the agents of the Line.

.Fruit and Vegetable Shipments Through in Veftilated Cars.

Between Jacksonville and Savannah daily. TRANSFER TO SHIPS' SIDE AT SAVANNAH WITHOUT
BRatNlwBays aULOW AS BY ANY OTHER LINE. Take out Bills Lading via Savannah, Florida and West-.
ern Railway .to inlisure ADVANTAGES OF THF ALL-RAIL ROUTE. .
Days of sailing subject to change without previous notice. For further information, if needed apply to
G (EO. YONGE, Agent Central Railroadd. Steamhips, 409 Broadway, New York. Gen. W. L JAIVMES Agent,
25 South Third St., Philadelphfa. A. L. -lUGOrINS, Agent, Merchants' and Miners' Line Balimore. WAt. H.
RING, Agent Boston andSavannah Steamship Line, 1T W.harf, Boston 0. G-PARSOk,. Agent S., F. & W.
Railway, 219 WashinqtOn St., Boston. C. D OWENS, General Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 315 Broadway, New
York. J. B. ANDUEWS, Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 43 German St., Baltimore. J. M. CLEMENT, Agent S., F.
& W..RailwayPier 41 South Delaware Ave., Philadelphia, or to either of the undersigned.
W 0. AMES, General Freight Agent, Jaeksonville;
F. B4 PAPY, General ]Feight--Agent, Fernandina, Fls.
F.. B AY, General Fegtget, JAS. L. TAYLOR, General Freight Agent, Savannah, Ga.
D. H. ELLIOTT, General Agent:Flofida Dispatch Line, Jaeksonvll, Fla. Jcksonville Fla.
-. .iEQ. W; HAINES, Ag6nt, Jacksonville, Fla.


~ ;... 1. 5 -.. rI

I I L -.... `




IN EFFECT MARCH 15, 1882. '

are appointed to TO

at 3 p M acon.... ...... ................ ......... ....... .... .. ......... .......... ...... .......... 0 0 00
A ugusta .................................................................................................... ..... ...... ................. .... 60 60

ont mer.. . ..Al........ ................... ..... ................................. 3 70 7 00
A tlantoxville, Te............................................. ............................................ ........................ .......... ..... 4 0 00
Montgomery,le Alans ........................... .... ........... .............. ..................... ....... ..... ..... ... .....................00
h. l Mobl.e,. T......~........ . ....... .. ......0.0.00
n hville, Tenn.................. ..... ........... ................................ ...........0.................... ....... .....00
K noxhville, T enn ................ ....... ... ......... .... ..... ...................................... .... ....... ... ... ......... ............. * 4 0 0 0
NewisOrlean, .... ................ .................. ..... .... .. .. .... -...... ........ -W 00........... 5 1
C incinnati, Ohi o......... ........................ ...... ............................ .............. ..... ...... .. 00..............10
S.ile...... ........1100
i sn t, OI o................. ...................... ................ ................ ... ... .. .... .... .0 ........ .......0...... ... ...... 100... 000
Jeadiesonv lle, Ind .............................................. o......... .. ................... .......... ........ ... .................................. 1 1 0o
altim ore,1 1 Jeffersonville. Ind...... .................................................... .......................................................................... ........ 0 1 1 1 0 o
r Evansville, I ...................................... ..... .................. ...... .... .. ....l ... 110 0
SCairo, Iri a C .......a................ ...................... .............. .................. ....................... ............................ .. .... 601 101|110 0

is ra e oi l... .*......... ................................ ....................................................... 1 00
c etepteeySi. LoUits,.........................................................,............" 5 06
topumbus, Ohio ..... .......... .............. ... ...............0....... 1 0

WIT by rail from Peori. l. .... 00
levelaol.............. ..........................701 201% 00
tt their goods Toledo ...:............:................ .................. ........................ ...................................................., 70 1 10 00
dispatch. Detroit............................ .......... ............. .................................................................. | 2. 120 00
found in another ____ _



Continuation of Through Freight Tariff on Vegetables via Florida Dispatch Line, in connec-
tion with Steamers direct from Savannah. Transfers to Ship's side without breaking bulk.


From Land-:!
From Jackson- ings on St. From Florida: From Tampa !From J., P. &
ville. Johns River. Transit R. R. and Manatee. M. R. R.
TO --________-I i- _| P

Boston........................................... 40 80 50 1 00 45 85 6 ) $110 45 $ 85
Boston via New York..........7........... 60 1 20 70 140 65 1 25 80 1 50 65 1 25
New York.......... ...................... I 40 80 50 1 00 45 85 60 1 10 45 85
Philadelphia .................................. 40 80 50 1 00 45 85 60 1 10 45 85
Baltim ore........... ....................... 40 80 50 1 00 45 85 i 0 1 10 45 85

"From Land- '
From ings on St. From Florida From Talmphi i From J., P. &
Jacksonville. 1 Johns River. Transit R. R. and Manatee.i M. R. R.
TO. ,- 7 -. .0 || --,-.

o ..) 04 . . 4

B oston ...... . ......... ................. ......... ........... ....... ...... ...... ... ... .................... ... ......... .. ...... ............
P ro v id e n c e ........................................ i ............ ....... ..... .. .. ... ..... ........... ............. ............ ..,.:....... |[! ............ ...........
W a sh i n g to n ........ ....... .............. ....... : ........... '. ............ ............ ............ ...... ............ ............. ...... ..... ............. ............
Steamship connection from Savannah for New York every Wednesday aud Saturday. For Boston every
Thursday. For Philadelphia every Saturday. For Baltimore Tuesday and Friday. _
Wednesday, March 29th, 3:00 p. m. Saturday, April 8th, 10 a. in.
Saturday, April 1, 4:30 p. m. Saturday, April 15th, 4:30 p. in.
Wednesday, April 5, 7:30 a. m. Saturday, April 22d, 10 a. m.
Saturday, April 8, 9:30 a. m. Saturday, April 29th, 3:30 p. m.
Wednesday, April 12, 1:30 p. in.
Saturday, April 15, 4:30 p. inm. -
Wednesday, April 19, 7:30 a. m.
Saturday, April 22, 9:30 a. m.
Wednesday, April 26, 1:30 p. m.
Saturday, April 29, 3:30 p. m.
Tuesday, March 28, 2 p. m.
Friday, March 31, 4 p. m.
Tuesday, April 4, at 8 a. m.
Friday, April 7, at lIf)a. im.
Tuesday, April 11, at p. m. BOSTON AND PROVIDENCE.
Friday, April 14, at 3 p. m. Tlhursd(lay, March 30, -4:.0 p. m,
Tuesday, April 18, at 8 a. m. Thursday, April 6, at 9 a. ni.
Friday, April21, at 10 a. m. Thursday, April 13, at 3:15 p.m.
Tuesday, April 25, at 1 p.nm. Thursday, April 20, at 8:13) a. in.
Friday, April 28, at 3 p. m Thursday, April 27, at.3 p. min
Shipments via New York will be charged at the current rates from that point, with cost of transfer added.
Single packages will be charged $1 each to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. If-shipped be-
yond, they will be charged in addition the single package rates of connecting lines and cost of transfer.

Ocean Steamship Company.


The Magnificent New Iron Steamships sail from Savannah on following dates:
QITY OF COLUMBUS, Wednesday, March 29h, 3:00 p.m. i
SCITY OF SAVANNAH, Saturday, April 1, 4:30 p. m.
GATE CITY, Wednesday, April 5, 7:30 a.m. in
CITY OF MACON, Saturday, April 8th, 9:30 a. m.
CITY OF COLUMBUS, Wednesday, April 12th, 1:30 p. m.
CITY OF AUGUSTA, Saturday, April 15th, 4:30 p. m.
GATE CITY, Wednesday, April 19,7:30 a. m.
CITY OF MACON, Saturday, April 22d, 9:30 a. m.
CITY OF COLUMBUS, Wednesday, April 26th, 1:30 p. m.
CITY OF AUGUSTA, Saturday, April 29th, 3:30 p. m.
Through Bills of Lading and Tickets over Central Railroad of Georgia, Savannah, Florida & Western

These splendid new ships are 2,250 tons each, were built expressly fbr this trade, having great speed and
most elegant passenger tcconiiti i i indis.
For information at New York apply to
Acting Agent Ocean Steamship Co., 409 Broi:lw;ay. Ag't Sav'h, Florida & Western Ry., 315 Broadway.
12-12m G. M. SORREL, Agent, Savannah, Ga.

Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah.

Savannah and Philadelphia.
EXCURSION TICKETS ISSUED CompanY TShips to EAN TEAork. Tickets so.'S PHLADELPnts to New York viaNE PILL
be received for passage by the loinpany's Ships to New York. Tickets sold by all Agenis to New York via Phil-
Philadelphia steamers are appointed to sail:
JUNIATA, April 8th, 10 a. m.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, April 15th, 4:30 p.m. in.
JUNIATA, April 22d, 10 a. m.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, April 29th, 3:30 1). m.
Days and hours subject to change, without notice. 'Both ships have elegant passenger accommodations.
44-tf Agent, 13 S. Third St., Philadelphia. : Agents at Savannah.
44-f Aent a Saanah

Boston ant a an ah im Lino

Transhipment and extra handlIng saved. No danger
of fruit being Irozen. Cars are unloaded at the steam-
ship wharf in Savannah, avoiding drayage.
Chas. W. Love, Thursday, April 6, at 9 a. inm.
Seminole, Thursday, April 13th, at 3:15 p. m.
Chas. W. Love, Thur5day, April 20, at 8:30 a. m.
-Seminole, Thursday, April 27, at 3 p m.
44-tf Savannah, Ga.


The largest stock in the State. Country
buliers will consult their own interests

by corresponding with me. All order?,l
promptly filled at prices to (m (_pe(te with
any house south of Baltimore. Remen:-

) eri my only Florida taddlress.
mar 18-3m. Cor. Bay and Ocean, Jacksonville, Fla.


15 East Hay ,Jaceksonville.
branch of Ludden & Bates, Sainnaih-EX-ACTLY
SAME PRICES AND TERMS, Sheet Music, Strigiis
and small instruments of all kinds. Send for cata-
logues, prices and terms. TUNING AND RlE:PAIRIN G
a-specialty. My tuner will make. regular tours through
the State, and my customers will thus have my repre-
sentative at their doors, a great advantage to pi r.her.s
of instruments, mar 18-6m.





46-Send for Illustrated Price-List'
mar 18-3m

German Potashi Salts,
Potash, in 200 lbs. sacks. $1.50 per sack, or $15 per ton,

f. o. b. For sale by
feb 28-4t

6 WV. Bay St., Jacksonville.

0. L. KEENE,


aces, Worsteds,


67 West Bay Street, Corner Laura,


. feb 21-ly

M. L. HARNETT, formerly BEN GEORGE, late of the
of the Marshall House. Screven House.
HARNETT & GEORGE, Proprietors.
This favorite family Hotel, under its new mnanage-
meint, is recommended for the excellence of its cuisine.
homelike comforts, prompt attention and inoderate
rates. 13 -v

I c-- -~9a~C- I' Ir~ i ~--~ -- -~- - - - - - I




Forsaleby DIR. J. C. ]L.'ENGLE,
Wholesale Druggist, Jacksonville, Fla.
Z-Send for Circular. mar 25-tf
*Refrigerators. Fruit and Vegetable Repacking and
Commission House, Astor Block, Jacksonville, Florida.
REFERENCES-Bank of Jacksonville, Florida Savings
Bank, Col. H. T. Baya, Jacksonville. (P. 0. Box 340.)
mar 25-ly

8hilbO1 to All westrri Markots
erator Cars to all Western cities during the entire
vegetable season.
Send your Vegetables to them and you will get them
into the Western markets in good condition.
feb 21-4t

Florida Curiosity Bazar.

Manufactured and for Sale by
No. 37 East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
Sea Beans, Rare Shells, Coral Beans, Fish Scales, Etc.
Rare Florlda Grasses, Florida Stuffed Birds, and
Plumage. feb 21-4t

All Full Couut-480 Sheets to the Ream.
10x10 at 14c., 11x11l at 17c., 12x12 at 20c.
Booksellers, Stationers, Printers and Binders,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Orange Groves
Below the frost line, and where all semi-tropical fruits
succeed better than any other portion of Florida, and
where the health and society is unexcelled, address,
with stamp, M. R. MARKS,
Real Estate Agent, Orlando, Orange Co., Fla.
50 Lf
Wholesale and Retail Drug Store,
35 West Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
Goods, Proprietary Articles, at lowest market prices.
Specialties-Norton's Salt Rheum Ointment, Melen's
Infant Food, Burnett's Cod Liver Oil. A Trial solicited.
feb 21-6m


.A -er's Dry o p-=p "eastt Clkes, 6pc, per dozm
Dale S :&Vxerrill's I-ops, 15c. per poLrnd.
'2orseford's :Bread Preparation., $6 25 per case.
Sl~ell-'oad% Tobacco.
"" Florida "Boys," 11 in., 5's, -Oo-. per poiunxd.
" lorida -irls," t-wrist, 14: to lb., 50o0. per polunX..,
No. 7' West Bay Street, - - Jacksonville,, Florida.
mar 18-6m

General Produce Commission Merchants.
Returns made on day of sale. All goods marked G. W. S. & CO. will reach us safely. Stencils furnished.
326 and 328 North Delaware Ave., [31-1y] PHILADELPHIA.


Publishers, Booksellers, Stationers,


Toys and Fancy


NEWSDEALERS.-We keep all the latest Daily and Weekly Papers from Boston, New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Chicago, St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, .New Orleans, Charleston, Savannah and Jacksonville, and
take subscriptions to all publications at publication price. Orders by mail promptly attended to.
FLORIDA: FOR TOURISTS, INVALIDS AND SETTLERS (Barbour)................................................... Price $1 50
FLORIDA : ITS SCENERY, CLIMATE AND HISTORY (Lanier)............................................................. Price 1 50
GUIDE TO EAST FLORIDA (Edwards), paper.......................................... ................................................... Price 10
G U ID E TO JA CK SON V ILLE ...............................................................................................................................Price 25
SOUTH FLORIDA, THE ITALY OF AMERICA..............................................................................................Price 25
DAVIS' ORANGE CULTURE (new edition)............................................ ..................................................... Price 50
MOORE'S ORANGE CULTURE (new edition).......................................... ................................................... Price 1 00
ORANGE INSECTS-Illustrated (Ashm ead)........................................................ ................... ...........................PTice 1 00
A MANUAL OF GARDENING IN FLORIDA (Whitner)D...................................................................................Price 50
COLTON 'S M A P OF FLO RIDA ...........................................................................................................................Price 75
COLTON 'S M AP OF FLORIDA (Sectional)................................................................. .......................................Price 1 25
INDEX TO THE DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA...................................Price 3 00
Any of the above books mailed on receipt of price.
O A N G E W A ...................................... ................... .......................10 14c.; llxl, 17e.; 12x12, 20c.
WARRANTY DEEDS, per dozen................................................................................ .................... Price 50
QU IT-CLA IM DEEDS, per dozen............... ................................ ....................................................... .....Price 50
MORTGAGES per dozen ....................................................................Price 50
NOTARIAL SWAL PRESSES, made to order............ ........................... ...........Price $5 00
We publish a full line of Law Blanks for Lawyers and Justices of the Peace. Price-list mailed on application.
Special prices to large buyers. Adddress


_ -------------- -- ---- ------- ----- -- --'


lil A TlsND



lower's Orange Grower,"
to hold its fruit, antd will be furnished by J. E. HAIT, to be paid for from the yield of the tree December 1,
Cotton fields can be restored and maintained to a high paying standard by
which will also be sold to be paid for from crop.
For Vegetables, use
For particulars, address J. E. IhAT.'
31-ly Jacksonville, 0 a.