N ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTION OF
I THE ADVANTAGES AND OPPORTUNI-
TIES OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA AND
THE PROGRESS THAT HAS HERE BEEN
ACHIEVED, WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL
RECORD OF THOSE CITIZENS WHOSE
ENDEAVOR HAS PRODUCED THE SUPERB
AGRICULTURAL AND POLITICAL-WHICH
COMPRISES THE STRENGTH OF THIS
THE FLORIDA EDITORS ASSOCIATION
D. B. McKAY Tampa Daily Times
Ross A. REEDER . Miami Daily News
D. H. CONKLING .. Palm Beach Post
W. L. STRAU . St. Petersburg Times
F. P. BEDDOW . Jacksonville Journal
T. E. FITZGERALD Daytona News
J. C. & R. B. BROSSIER Orlando Reporter-Star
E.\RL MULLEN .. Lakeland Leader
M. J. MISNER . Ft. Lauderdale Sentinel
Compiled Under the Direction
THE JAMES O. JONES COMPANY
1FIII II---------lullIllllillillll-l-ll-lll-lIII-lllll-lll -l-llll -l-lll-l-I- ll-ll-l-l-l-l l lll lll lll ll ll ll uI u
l I lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllll IIIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIII!I
HE BOOK OF FLORIDA is addressed to
all Americans who find inspiriting the story
of courageous enterprise. It tells the re-
markable story of the upbuilding and au-
dacious development of the State of Florida
from the primitive jungle, the creation of a vast empire
of brilliant and beautiful resorts, incredibly productive
agricultural lands, great and strong cities harboring pros-
perous industries and vigorous financial and commercial
institutions. The culture, education, religious and politi-
cal development of a great state is herein outlined as it
exists to-day. To the end that this volume may serve
as a practical and comprehensive survey of the resources
and advantages of the State of Florida, the publishers
have been at some pains to seek out authentic sources for
all material used herein.
This volume should prove of inestimable value as a
reference work for the newspaper library, containing as
it does a carefully prepared biographical encyclopedia of
the personalities who have made Florida great. The
photographs here used have been made with a view to
clear reproduction. It is the wish of the publishers that
the Book of Florida will be read with interest through-
out the country, and will find a permanent place in the
newspaper libraries of the state and country.
JOHN W. MARl IN
Gil E[RNi'R Ir F]I.n'Ri)i
(Gi ern.r J.,hin \\. Martin as. born June 21, 1884, ar N:i:'tin, Marion County,
Fl ri.iak. He -r; I. thr,: time 3a. -in-a\ ir ,it I.ack-'n,' lle. the l rirest city in Florida.
He \ .i clcIrl.:. ,;.. crn.r ic r thi Sftire i.t Florid., Ni emhk r, 1924, for a term
It tour itr.J ..
G(, tierni.r 'rtr '. I i,..p :i'ir r I the I niti' Stiur in It' 7, settling in Vir-
. ;nia. Hie i' i -.- ''n>.l;,in .n inin M. itti it C tonn ..,lin S. -,tli's time in Virginia.
Florida---Facts and Figures
The Railroad Gateway to Florida, Terminal Station, Jacksonville.
N a special issue of The Manufacturers' Record published in December,
1924, entitled "The South's Development," former Governor Cary A.
Hardee, in an article on The Present and Future Possibilities of Florida,
stated that if the progress and prosperity of the country depend upon its
people, its climate and its soil, Florida is destined to take first rank among
all the states.
This, coming from a former governor, one who has high reason to be proud of
his state, is not unusual, but because his thought is the thought of all Florida people,
and because it is based upon fact it is established as a truth that can not be denied.
Governor Hardee does not deal in generalities. Instead he offers convincing figures
and statements, and because it well tells the story of the present Florida the article
is reproduced here. In substantiation of the above statement it follows:
"Her people as a class are of the same general type as those of the other South-
ern states, than which, in energy, resourcefulness, courage and moral character, there
has not yet been produced a finer type. They belong to the same class of people
exactly as those who have builded in little more than half a century from the wreck
and ruins of the most devastating war of history one of the greatest empires on earth.
"Among the states Florida has only one competitor in climate. There both the
heat in summer and the cold in winter are more intense than they are in Florida,
often rising above Ioo degrees in summer and falling below 25 degrees in winter.
In that state the rainfall is so scant that irrigation is necessary to the production of
all crops. In Florida the rainfall is reliable and abundant during practically all sea-
"In that part of Florida which lies below the same parallel the temperature sel-
dom rises above 90 degrees or falls below 32 degrees, and during the hottest periods
of summer, when other sections of the country are sweltering in intense humid heat,
the air is always cooled by refreshing breezes from the Gulf, so there are few nights
when some covering is not comfortable.
"The Peninsula of Florida-particularly on the West and East Coasts, with
their innumerable bathing beaches, and splendid hotel accommodations and hundreds
of miles of hard-surfaced roads-is fast becoming as popular a summer resort as the
mountainous sections of the Middle and Northern states.
"No other state equals Florida in the variety, fertility and productivity of her
soils, and in no other section of the United States can land be found that will produce
so abundantly two or three crops a year with so little labor, .nor can there be found
anywhere land that will produce, with careful and industrious and intelligent cultiva-
tion, crops of a net value of from $200 to $1ooo per acre that can still be bought
at from $50 to $200 per acre.
"Agriculture has always been and will continue to be the chief support of civiliza-
tion. Florida, with her 250 different varieties of crops, fruits and vegetables, all of
which grow well, is first of all an agricultural state. No other state equals her in
this respect. Her citrus fruit crop last year, consisting, as it did, of more than 21,-
ooo,ooo boxes, sold for enough to repay what the United States paid Spain for the
whole territory which she purchased four times over, leaving a considerable margin to
"There was also shipped from the state during that year 100,000 -loads of
fruits and vegetables, including cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, cucumber- awberries,
pineapples and celery. It is said that Florida produces more potatoes r Maine and
more celery than Michigan.
"In one year Florida's 50,ooo farmers put into the market $8o,o0, ooQof crops
from less than 2,000,000 acres of land, and kept on hand stock catde worth--$2i5,-
ooo,ooo, horses and mules worth $14,000,000, hogs worth $6,000,000, milk cows
worth $2,500,000 and thoroughbred cattle worth approximately $2,000,000.
"She has produced 17,000,000 bushels of corn in one year, 5,000,000 bushels of
peanuts, 2,000,000 bushels of velvet beans, 3,500,000 gallons of syrup and 4,000,000
pounds of tobacco. These agricultural products were grown on 2,000,000 acres, and
she has 20,000,000 more acres of the same type of soil undeveloped, about 4,000,000
acres of which lie in the far-famed Everglades, which consists of a muck deposit vary-
ing in thickness from two to eighteen feet deep. Most of this vast tract is below the
27th parallel, is nearly half as large as the state of Maryland and is more fertile than
the valley of the Nile. It is being rapidly drained and is destined to be the market
garden and the 'sugar-bowl' of the world.
"She has in her water more than 600 varieties of fish, and her fish and oyster
industry-which is yet in its infancy-is worth more than $20,000,000 annually. And
it is said that all the oyster beds around Apalachicola and the few other Florida
ports would produce, with intelligent development, an abundant supply for the entire
"It may not be generally known that the largest sponge industry in America is at
Tarpon Springs on the West Coast of Florida. In this industry alone more than
seventy-five vessels are engaged.
"Florida is not usually classed as a mining state, but in one year her phosphate
mines yielded $19,000,000 and her fuller's earth production yielded $i,6oo,ooo, and
it is estimated that she has in reserve 212,000,000 tons of phosphate.
"Her 500 saw mills turn out over one billion feet of lumber annually, the prod-
ucts of which are worth about $40,000,000. And she produces more naval stores than
any other state. Florida is not classed as a manufacturing state, yet the capital in-
vested in her manufactories increased from $3,000,000 in 1880 to more than $200,-
000,000 in 1920, and the value of her manufactured products increased from $5,-
000,000 in 1880 to $200,000,000 in 1920.
"Florida, with a population of only about 1,000,000 increased her highway ex-
penditures from $400,000 in 1904 to more than $1o,ooo,ooo in 1922, her railway
mileage from 518 miles in 1880 to 5,000 miles in 1921, and her school expenditures
from $700,000 in 1900 to $10,700,000 in 1923.
"In 1910, Florida had 43 national banks with resources of $46,000,000, in
1922, she had 61 national banks, with resources of more than $125,000,000, and in
1923, Florida's national bank resources were over $156,000,000. In 1900, she had
on deposit in her savings banks, private banks and trust companies, $3,700,000. In
1923, these deposits had increased to $129,400,000. Total deposits in all banks in
Florida, in 1923, amounted to over $244,000,000.
Florida, the Lure of the Golfer-the Beautiful and Inviting Links of Coral Gables.
"In 1900, all kinds of property in Florida were estimated to be worth $355,-
700,000, which, in 1922, had increased to $2,440,900,000. This was an increase of
586 per cent.
"Is a low percentage of failures among farmers an index to a state's progress and
prosperity? In 1923, the percentage of bankruptcies in Florida was 13.4 per cent.
below the average in the United States.
"Florida, with her 20,000,000 acres of yet untouched fertile soil, her abun-
dant rainfall, her 1,200 miles of sea coast, her rapidly growing cities, splendid schools
and public libraries, her health-giving and restoring climate, hei low death rate, her
abundant game supply, her bathing beaches and golf links, her railroad facilities and
hundreds of miles of hard-surfaced roads, offers unexcelled attractions and opportunities
to the farmer, the stock raiser, the dairyman, the homeseeker and the capitalist.
And these and many others are flocking to the state.
"He would be reckless, indeed, who would undertake to place a limit to her de-
velopments in any direction, either in the immediate or more distant future."
FLORIDA PROGRESS JUST BEGUN
Yes, reckless indeed would be he who would undertake to place a limit on the
future progress of Florida. Questions are being asked everywhere in America and
Europe about the nature and the extent of Florida's boom and much is being written
and said on the subject, with noted economists and writers being generally agreed that
Florida progress has just begun. Among these, Frank Parker Stockbridge, in the Re-
view of Reviews, May, 1925, declares that Florida's development thus far has only
touched the edges, while no lesser an authority than Richard H. Edmonds, editor of
the Manufacturers' Record, has much to offer that should convince even the most skep-
tical that Florida has a future more interesting perhaps than that of probably any other
state in the nation. Few men are better qualified to forecast the future of any section
of the United States than Mr. Edmonds, and in a letter to a leading eastern banker,
contemplating making large investments in Florida and asking his opinions as to the
state, he gives numerous conclusions that are worthy of preservation. His letter, most-
ly in fact and figure, reproduced in Suniland Magazine in April is in part as follows:
"In reply to your inquiry as to my view about Florida: To write soberly and
conservatively on Florida is a difficult proposition, and yet what I am saying is, I
think, both conservative and sober. For many years I have been studying the out-
look for Florida. I have anticipated its enormous development. I have often talked
over the matter with Mr. Flagler and asked him for his reasons for locating in this
state and putting about $75,000,000 of his own money in his railroad and develop-
Beauty of Its 11'atcr 11'ays is One of Florida's Rarest Charms-Scene Along Upper St. John's River.
ment work. As the years increased Mr. Flagler grew more and more enthusiastic
about the future of the state.
"I was with him once in company with George W. Perkins, then of J. P. Mor-
gan & Co. We traveled over the road to study the Over-the-Sea line. Perkins said
to me that no banking house in the world would have undertaken to finance that proj-
ect; that to accomplish it needed a man of Flagler's vision and daring, who could use
his own money to carry it out. 'But now,' said he (and then the ocean part of the
line was less than half finished), 'any banking house in the world would be glad to un-
dertake to finance the proposition. We all realize now that Mr. Flagler saw far
ahead of the rest of us.'
"At that time Mr. Flagler told me that he realized that his road must be double
tracked, and that it should be done as quickly as possible.
"The development of Florida which is now under way is, so far as I can see, dif-
ferent in many respects from anything ever seen in this country. To my mind it is
more astonishing and far sounder than the growth of California. California is far
away from the center of population and wealth, but despite that fact its progress has
been the wonder of the country, especially in the Los Angeles section, a city which now
has about one million population, though its people claim more. There is no other
possible rival to Florida, and California is too far away to be a rival. Many people
who have lived in California and who now live in Florida tell me that the Florida
climate is far superior to California's.
"Some of the reasons which appeal to me very strongly in making any estimate
as to the future of Florida may be summed up as follows:
"It has become the fashion for men of wealth of the East and of the Central
West to spend their winters in Florida and to have superb winter homes here. Every
increase in the wealth of the country means an increase in the number of people who
can afford to get away from the blizzards and the snows of the East and the West to
the warmth and sunshine of Florida. There is no other place to which they can go
and at the same time keep in touch with their business interests. California is too
far away for them.
"The millionaires and the multi-millionaires, whose number is ever increasing,
are going to come to Florida in ever-increasing number. I have often mentioned the
Type of Palatial Yachts To Be Found In Florida Waters.
fact that John D. Rockefeller, after spending three or four years in southern Cali-
fornia seeking health, later on trying other places for an equal period, came to Florida
and spent three of four years studying this climate, and then after this long investiga-
tion has established his permanent winter home here. Henry Ford, whose wealth may
match Mr. Rockefeller's, has a home in Florida and has been buying rather heavily of
Florida's land, according to general reports. Thomas A. Edison likewise has a Florida
home. And these are but typical of the men of great wealth and of great business
ingenuity in every line of human activity who are making their winter homes in this
state. Among men of this character there are many active, hustling millionaires, great
business organizers and general promoters who are concentrating their energies upon
constructive upbuilding in Florida. This state is to-day the center of work for the
greatest land operators in America, and these men are spending millions on top of mil-
lions in establishing towns, opening up great subdivisions and advertising on a broader
scale than has ever been done by any other state in the Union.
"Take, for instance, one company operating near Miami. Last year its sales of
real estate amounted to $12,000,000. A few days ago that company announced that
its January sales amounted to $3,000,000. The substantiality of this operation can
be appreciated from the fact that the Bowman hotel interests, with some $40,000,000
or $50,000,000 invested in hotels, have undertaken to build a $2,500,000 hotel at that
point, and in connection with that to make other investments, including a clubhouse,
dwellings and other improvements aggregating $10,ooo,ooo; and what these two com-
panies are doing is merely typical of what is going on in the entire state from Jackson-
ville down to Key West, and from Key West up through the center and the Gulf Coast
region. A Tampa subdivision company, according to reports of Tampa papers, re-
cently sold $2,710,000 of property in one day.
"I think it entirely safe to say that Florida is at the present time far and away
building more great hotels and apartment houses than any other state in the Union.
Highway construction is going on rapidly in every part of the state. The East Coast
Railway is double tracking its line from Jacksonville to Miami, and building a $2,-
ooo,ooo bridge across the St. Johns River to facilitate the handling of its trains. The
various railroads entering the state are this winter bringing 45 Pullman trains daily
into Florida to take care of the tourist traffic, and still it is almost impossible to secure
reservations unless one engages them weeks ahead. The Seaboard Air Line has built
a 230-mile extension through what is known as the Ridge section of Florida, a superbly
beautiful and productive region, and I doubt not that the traffic on the Seaboard
will fully equal the facilities of that road for handling it, just as the traffic of the East
Coast Road and of the Atlantic Coast Line is crowding the facilities of these roads.
"Turning from the incoming of the millionaires and the multi-millionaires and the
railroad operators to the incoming of people of more moderate means, it will be found
that tens of thousands of people from other regions are pouring into Florida. In
part they are farmers, day laborers, mechanics, and in part they are people of moder-
ate means, having accumulated $30,000 or $40,000 or $50,ooo, and weary of the hard
life in the cold regions of the West are coming into Florida to make a permanent home.
"You will remember that the amazing growth of Los Angeles was largely due to
the settlement in that section of the same class of people who left the Central West
after they had accumulated a moderate amount of money, hoping to get away from the
bitter cold and settle down in the warmer climate of California. That tide, which
flows like an unending stream, is now flowing into Florida. The movement, however,
has scarcely started in comparison with what it will be in the coming years.
"A few days ago I received a letter from Sir George Paish, the noted English
financial authority, who was the financial adviser to the British Government during the
war. Sir George expressed the idea that our limitation of immigration was due to the
fact that all the land of this country was practically occupied, and that our agriculture
could not be expanded to any large extent. He likewise said that the reason why
American bankers were lending money so freely to Europe was due, in his opinion, to
the fact that this country was fully developed and, therefore, no longer offered a field
for big constructive and investment opportunities.
"These statements, which every intelligent American realizes are wholly without
foundation, are just about as erroneous as the views long held by a large portion of
the American people as to Florida. In this state alone there is room for agricultural
expansion which in itself would set at naught Sir George's thought about the shortage
of land for further agricultural expansion.
"Florida is annually shipping nearly ioo,ooo carloads of citrus fruits and vege-
tables to the North and West. There is land enough in this state available for an in-
crease of production sufficient to run this to 500,000 carloads a year and still by no
means reach the limit of agricultural capabilities. It should be remembered that while
Florida is about seven times as large as Massachusetts, it has just about one-third of
.O B -r .
-- -. .
Water Sports Thrive in Florida and Speed Boats Now Offer Thrills Comparable Only With Those
Formerly Identified With the Motor Speedways.
Just an Evidence that Florida Beaches arc Popular. Scene at Jacksonville Beach.
the population of Massachusetts. There are vast areas of cut-over pine lands availa-
ble for agricultural pursuits, and other vast areas of overflowed or wet lands, as fer-
tile as the Valley of the Nile, and only needing to be drained in order to be available for
farming purposes. Sir George Paish thought that the only land yet remaining to be
developed in this country was the semi-arid regions of the West, which might to some
extent be made available by irrigation. It is far easier to drain wet lands than it is to
irrigate the semi-arid lands of the West, and no such difficulties are encountered in the
cultivation of these drained lands as the West has to meet in irrigated lands.
"I think it safe to predict that the industrial development of Florida within a
few years will be much greater than is now anticipated by the people of this state.
There are opportunities for manufacturing as yet but little understood or realized. The
investors and developers have been so busy with land operations and city building
activities that they have not had time to turn their attention to manufacturing inter-
"Some days ago Darwin P. Kingsley, president of the New York Life Insurance
Company, in a public address here stressed so strongly the inestimable value of
Florida's climate and the future of this state that I felt that instead of being an opti-
mist on Florida I had been almost a pessimist. If there were no particular advantages
other than this climate, that alone would build a state of great wealth, for climate is an
asset which man can not duplicate. Man can not change the bitter cold of the West
and the North into mildness, and he can not change the glorious sunny climate
of Florida into cold and bitter weather. Climate is a permanent asset. It has been
given to this section by the Creator. It makes Florida a resort for the tired and
weary and the sick, greater than that of any other part of America. It gives to the
pleasure-seeker opportunities for outdoor life such as he can find nowhere else in this
country. Close proximity to the great centers of population and wealth are of infinite
advantage as compared with far-distant California.
"The whole country has within the last few years begun to awaken to what all of
these advantages and resources in Florida will mean for an increase of population and
the enrichment of the people of this state. I am constantly amazed at how rapidly
the tide is turning this way. It is a flood tide, with no indication that there will ever
be an ebb tide. Here and there we may have slack water in Florida where rush of
development work as now seen will temporarily halt for a breathing spell. Some peo-
ple may overtrade and find themselves unable to meet their obligations on land they
have bought. That will only be a passing phase of the great constructive, upbuilding,
creative work which is now under way.
"I am quite sure that within a comparatively few years there will be at least
three cities in this state of a million population each, with many others, perhaps not
matching them in extent of population, but keeping the pace at a rate which will aston-
ish the country."
THE HISTORY OF FLORIDA
Florida history is varied-replete with romance, valor and accomplishment. None
of the United States have been so sought nor so fought over as has she. Her parent
flag has changed ten times. Four times it has been that of Spain: 1559 to 1718, 1723
to 1763, 1781 to 1818, 1819 to 1821; that of France from 1718 to 1723; that of
Great Britain from 1763 to 1781; that of the Confederate States of America from
1861 to 1865; that of the United States of America from 1818 to 1819, 1821 to
1861, 1865 to the present-and on to the day when the stars shall fall. Urged by
the desire to find that which would turn back the flight of Time Juan Ponce de Leon
landed near what is now the city of St. Augustine on Palm Sunday, 1513. He named
the territory upon which he was the first white man to set foot by the religious designa-
tion of the day-Pascoa Florida-the Feast of Flowers. After many months spent
in seeking for the fountain of eternal youth he returned to Porto Rico, coming back to
Florida, where he hoped to establish a vast empire for his native land, again in 1521.
Fatally wounded in a battle with the Indians he retired with his expedition to Cuba,
where he died. Following him were Panfilo de Narvaez, 1527, and Hernando de
Soto, 1539, who landed on the west coast, near the present cities of Pensacola and
Tampa. The one perished, with his followers, before a settlement could be establish-
ed, the other pushed west, to discover the Mississippi River. Then came expeditions
from Mexico under Tristian de Luna y Arellano, 1559; of Huguenots under Jean
Ribault, 1562; Rene de Laudonniere, 1564; Pedro Menendez, 1565; Dominic de
Gourges, 1568. These had varied fortunes. They did battle among themselves and
with the Indians, but various colonies were established and forts built. Sir Francis
Drake led the English into Florida in 1586, capturing and burning St. Augustine, which
was burned again in 1665 by the English buccaneer, John Davis. In 1702, St. Au-
gustine was destroyed by the English, under John Moore, governor of South Carolina.
Dispute over the Florida boundary resulted in a declaration by Great Britain of war
against Spain in 1739. Pensacola, settled by Spaniards under Don Andres d'Arriola
in 1696 was taken by the French under de Bienville in 1719, being held by them until
returned to Spain in 1722. In 1763, Spain ceded Florida to England under the terms
of the treaty of Paris. Revolution arose, Spaniards under Benardo de Galvez took
Pensacola in 1781. At the close of the revolution, 1783, Florida was receded to
Spain. The Republic of Florida was organized in 1812. Her territory was the scene
of numerous battles between the forces of England and the United States during the
war which was declared between them that year. In 1814, the British occupied Pensa-
cola. Florida was occupied by American troops under General Jackson in 1818, be-
ing ceded to the United States in 1819, in exchange for claims of citizens against
Spain aggregating $5,000,000. William F. Duvall, of Kentucky, was appointed the
first civil governor of the territory of Florida in 1822, the permanent seat of govern-
ment being located on the old Indian fields of Tallahassee by a commission composed
of William H. Simmons and John Lee Williams. The first house was built in Tal-
lahassee in 1824 and the state house was begun in 1826. From 183 to 1842, Florida
was the battle ground of the Seminole War. In 1845, she was admitted into the union
as a state. Casting her lot with the Confederacy, Florida seceded in 1861, being re-
admitted to the union in 1868. The navy yard at Pensacola was seized by the Fed-
erals and Jacksonville was occupied by them four times during the war between the
states. The first ship load of slaves was brought to Florida in 1687. Other than fur-
nishing headquarters, at Tampa, for the army of invasion of Cuba under General
Shafter, during the Spanish-American War in 1898, the record of Florida since her re-
admission into the union has been one of peace, and progress, and utmost loyalty.
P le i.rftecn'l
During the World War, she furnished her full quota of men and money for the na-
tional service. Jacksonville and Tampa were sites for large shipbuilding plants, there
was a large training camp for the quartermasters' corps (Camp Jackson) at Jackson-
ville and two aviation fields (Dorr and Carlstrom) near Arcadia, in the war days.
Florida is the most southern of the United States. It is bounded north by Ala-
bama and Georgia, east by the Atlantic Ocean, south and west by the Gulf of Mexico
and a small portion on the extreme northwest by Alabama. Thus situated, nature has
given her marvelously as regards three things: Her climate, her land, her water-
Florida enjoys an equable temperature practically the whole year through, with
extremes of neither heat nor cold. It is cooler in summer than most of the states to
the north and more genial in winter than any of the states. Flowers bloom the year
round, garden and field and grove furnish vegetables and fruit in December as in
June, and people play in the open, bathe in the surf and bask in the sunshine without
regard to the calendar.
Florida has an approximate area of 35,155,960 acres. Of this 5,029,972 acres
are in farms, with 1,965,862 acres in actual cultivation and 1,613,909 acres in mer-
chantable timber on farms. The land is surprisingly adaptable and productive. In
1922, the citrus crop returned $27,804,478, more than five and a half times the cost
of the state when the United States bought it from Spain. For that year, Florida ship-
ped 84,493 cars of fruits and vegetables, an average of nearly ten cars every hour of
the year. Seven thousand five hundred cars of watermelons and 300,000 crates of
cantaloupes have been shipped out in a season. Ferns are sold annually to the value
of $300,000, chicory to the value of $77,000. The value of all crops in 1922 was
$160,ooo,ooo, with only about one-twentieth of the total acreage in cultivation.
Florida's waterfront is such that there is no portion of the state so far inland
that it does not feel the tang of salt as the breezes blow in from the sea. It likewise
furnishes place for splendid ports for the exchange of cargoes with ports on distant
shores. The advantage Florida enjoys in her water facilities will, properly realized
upon, furnish support for a prosperous state. The shipping industry has been de-
veloped to large proportions and commercial fishing is an important and profitable
Florida industry. Rivers, lakes and seas afford great opportunity for fishing as a
Tallahassee is the capital of the state, and its five principal cities, according to
Florida's 1925 census are: Tampa, 94,808, Jacksonville, 94,206; Miami, 71,419; St.
Petersburg, 26,706; Pensacola, 24,958.
Florida is to-day the fastest growing state in the Union. In 1920, the popula-
tion of its sixty-four counties was 968,470, while in 1925, it has passed the million
mark, now having a population of 1,253,635. Its population for 1925 by leading
cities, and by counties follow:
POPULATION OF LEADING CITIES
1920 1925 1920 1925
Chipley ........ I,806 2,028 Orlando ........ 9,282 22,272
Clearwater ..... 2,427 5,008 Pensacola ....... 31,035 24,958
Daytona ....... 5,445 9,594 Quincy ......... 3,118 2,771
DeLand ........ 3,324 5,801 St. Augustine .. 6,192 IO,190
Fort Lauderdale.. 2,065 5,665 St. Petersburg ... 14,237 26,706
Fort Myers ..... 3,678 6,632 Sanford ........ 5,588 7,o35
Jacksonville ..... 91,558 94,206 Sarasota ....... 2,149 5,510
Kissimmee ...... 2,722 3,826 Tampa ........ 51,608 94,808
Lake City ...... 3,341 3,988 West Palm Beach. 8,659 19,132
Lakeland ....... 7,062 17,064 Monticello ....... 1,704 1,776
Miami ......... 29,571 71,419 Tarpon Springs .. 2,105 2,684
POPULATION BY COUNTIES
1920 1925 1920 1925
Alachua ........ 31,689 32,333 Lee .................. I 1 ,980
Baker .......... 5,622 5,549 Leon .......... 18,059 20,054
Bay ........... 11,407 11,922 Levy .......... 9,921 10,586
Bradford ............. 7,024 Liberty ....... .. 5,006 4,849
Brevard ........ 8,505 12,831 Madison ...... 16,516 16,548
Broward ....... 5,135 14,248 M anatee ....... ...... 23,214
Calhoun ........ 8,775 11,365 M arion ........ 23,968 24,087
Charlotte ............. 3,390 Monroe (est'd) 19,550 14,ooo
Citrus ......... 5,220 5,370 Nassau ........ 11,340 9,652
Clay ........... 5,621 4,730 Okaloosa ..... 9,360 9,792
Collier ......... ...... 1,258 Okeechobee ... 2,132 4,070
Columbia ...... 14,290 15,260 Orange ........ 19,890 38,340
Dade ...... 42,753 113,384 Osceola ........ 7,195 10,741
DeSoto (est'd)... ...... 8,000 Palm Beach (est'd) 18,654 35,000
Dixie (est'd) .......... 4,300 Pasco .......... 8,802 11,322
Duval ......... 113,540 122,491 Pinellas ........ 28,265 51,648
Escambia ....... 49,386 42,539 Polk ........... 38,661 63,922
Flagler ........ 2,442 2,204 Putnam ........ 14,568 17,135
Franklin ....... 5,318 5,240 St. Johns ....... 13,061 16, 29
Gadsden ....... 23,539 22,635 St. Lucie ....... 7,886 11,670
Glades ............... 2,617 Santa Rosa ..... 13,670 14,599
Hamilton ...... 9,873 9,904 Sarasota ............... 10,099
H ardee ............. 10,178 Seminole ....... 10,986 14,510
Hendry ........ .... .. 1,111 Sumter ......... 7,851 7,918
Hernando ...... 4,548 4,723 Suwanee ........ 19,789 16,872
H ighlands ............ 6,753 Taylor ......... 11,219 13,171
Hillsborough ... 88,257 131,607 Union ......... ...... 4,873
Holmes ........ 12,850 I2,421 Volusia ........ 23,374 40,084
Jackson (est'd) .. 31,224 32,000 W akulla ........ 5,129 5,816
Jefferson ....... 14,502 13,827 W alton ........ 12,119 13,723
Lafayette ............. 4,667 W ashington .... 11,828 10,416
Lake .......... 12,744 18,921
Total ...... 968,470 1,253,635
There are 250 different varieties of crops, fruits, nuts and vegetables grown in Florida and
shipments out of the State average one car every six minutes, day and night, the year round.
Florida has 10,520,000 acres of flat woodland, 8,640,000 acres of pineland, 3,840,000 acres
of hammock or hardwood land and 3,840,000 acres of muck land. The other 6,876,000 acres
are divided among rivers, lakes and lowland prairies.
The state has ten million acres underlaid with red clay subsoil.
Florida is in the most ideal latitude and longitude on earth, the warmest in winter, the cool-
est in summer. It lies in the same latitude with the land which the Lord said would flow with
milk and honey and in which Jesus Christ and the Christian religion were born.
Parle Ei Ihtcnci
Florida'sFamed ast Coast- The American WRviera
BY H. P. GADBURY.
HE oldest and newest of America-that in a way is the Florida East Coast
-but that is only a phase of its story. Oldest in the point of habita-
tion, yes. The oldest house in America still stands at St. Augustine and
is staple testimony of the early discovery of this new land of promise, and
undoubtedly there is nothing newer in America, nor in all the world than
the Aladdin-like evidences of city building that line the Atlantic from Jacksonville to
Key West. The development of the Florida East Coast is an epic story of American
enterprise, American vision, and American genius that stands unparalleled in the
economic history of the nation. The history of the section is a story of sheer romance.
The United States is noted for its recreation places, summer and winter, and
Florida's East Coast first came into general prominence as a winter tourist playground,
a place where surf bathing and all the pleasures usually enjoyed in summer could be
had the entire year. Undoubtedly this will continue, with climate a matter of chief
appeal, each year drawing millions from every nook and corner of the nation-and
undoubtedly many of the millions who will come will never become residents of Flor-
ida. However, other millions will remain, and a future awaits the state that is bound-
less. Florida is America's last great frontier and all the promise and glory that is
ahead for it is ahead for the Florida East Coast. The fame of East Coast cities,
Miami, Palm Beach, West Palm Beach, Daytona, Ormond, St. Augustine, Jackson-
ville and others has been carried on the four winds to every civilized nation and to-day
a world looks upon them with envious eyes. Miami, the magic city, a consistent rec-
ord-breaker, has jumped from a population of 29,571 in 1920 to 71,419 in 1925, an
increase of 141 per cent. West Palm Beach has jumped from 8,659 to 19,132, an in-
crease of 140 per cent. Fort Lauderdale has an increase of 203 per cent., a rise
from 2,065 to 6,275. Daytona has a gain of 76 per cent., with population of 9,594
as against 5,445 in 1920.
These figures, startling as they are, give only a partial idea of the increase in
population that is coming to East Coast cities. They are merely the figures of the
permanent populations and do not indicate in any way the vast increase in population
that comes through the thousands and thousands of winter visitors that pour into these
cities. What has happened to these communities has happened to other communities
of the East Coast, as well as to those of the West Coast. The new state cen-
sus figures for 1925 gives Florida a population of 1,253,600, an increase of 285,130
over 1920, or a gain of approximately 30 per cent. for the entire state, unquestiona-
bly the largest gain made by any state during the past five years and the largest made
by any state east of the Mississippi in a census period of 75 years.
Taking Miami as an example-not as a reason to boost Miami any more than
any other East Coast city, for Miami doesn't need boosting, and what has been hap-
pening at Miami has been happening at West Palm Beach, at Fort Lauderdale, at
Daytona, and at practically all of the other cities along the favored East Coast-
Miami has grown so fast that it has exceeded by far the preparations made by its
utilities companies. Within the last few months these utilities have practically all pass-
ed into the hands of subsidiaries of the Electric Bond & Share Company, which is now
spending over six million dollars catching up with the population. The American
Telephone & Telegraph Company recently mapped out a program several years in
advance, only to find its facilities for a five-year period outgrown in eighteen months.
A population of 200,000 is predicted in 1930. On January 1, 1925, arrangements had
already been made to construct during the year hotels costing $25,000,000, con-
stituting a staggering program, but one that does not even then take into considera-
I-One of the beautiful old estates of Palm Beach. The splendid Royal Palms stand like sentinels
on guard. 2-A picturesque walk in Palm Beach. 3-The Wigwaam, residence of Mrs. Bula E. Croker.
4--Tropical Panorama-Everglades Club, Palm Beach, in the distance. 5-Lovely Garden Scene, Palm
Pa(g "r Tit'ent/i
tion the tremendous sums that will be spent for office buildings, apartment houses and
The East Coast has suffered greatly for lack of greater railroad facilities, but
the Florida East Coast Railroad has promised the completion of 230 miles of double
track between Jacksonville and Miami during the coming winter, and a third track to
Miami via Okeechobee City soon after, and this phase of development is as a cloud
with a silver lining. The Seaboard Air Line, now reaching the East Coast with line
direct from Tampa to West Palm Beach is also affording greatly increased means of
transportation, and further of importance it is understood that this line will be fol-
lowed shortly by the building of another link, between Canal Point and Miami. With
completion of double track by the Florida East Coast Railroad and the extension of
other lines a boom will be given to the East Coast that is scarcely to be imagined, for
although the section may owe its inception and much of its enormous progress to the
Florida East Coast Railroad, its growth has been so swift that the railroads have been
unable to keep pace with it and if anything has retarded progress it has been lack of
transportation, even despite heroic efforts on the part of the roads, particularly the
Florida East Coast Railroad.
Also, like Miami, the Palm Beaches are an excellent example of East Coast prog-
ress. Palm Beach and West Palm Beach have a combined population of approxi-
mately 30,000, with an actual property valuation conservatively estimated at one hun-
dred million dollars. Its building permits for January, February and March of 1925
amounted to $2,076,7I1. The actual assessed valuation of property for the year of
1924 was $42,705,266. In 19Io, the population of West Palm Beach was 1,739,
while the new state census figures gives it 19,132. In 1920, its building permits
amounted to $992,305, while in 1924, they amounted to $5,128,515. In 1910, bank de-
posits amounted to a little over five hundred thousand dollars. To-day they amount
to more than twenty-six million dollars.
The growth and prosperity that hav, come to Miami and West Palm Beach is
cited to illustrate what is happening along the entire East Coast. The two cities are
certainly the most outstanding examples of the section's forward movement, but the
same thing that has made them is making other communities of the section. The de-
sire for homes has been the dominant factor in the building, and just as winter visi-
tors have abandoned their homes in the North and taken residence in Miami and West
Palm Beach, countless others have located in other communities along the coast. All
the way from St. Augustine to Key West are villages, towns and cities which owe
their existence to the desire of winter visitors to own a home in a land where they
may escape the blasts of winter. The building of cities on the East Coast has at-
tracted men of marvelous vision and energy, and also in many instances, of great
wealth. Advantages of tropical growth and the proximity of bays, rivers and ocean
have afforded opportunities for these men that are nowhere else obtainable.
There are scores of permanent monuments in the form of cities and town sites
to the developers. While each year their field for energy and vision is extended, the
more notable of their achievements are now in such state of completion as to be con-
sidered the marvels of the real estate world. And further, Florida East Coast real
estate is one of the marvels of the world. No business has been more discussed in
the United States in recent years than Florida real estate, and much of this has been
directed toward that of the East Coast. To the activity of real estate the Florida
East Coast owes the greater share of its progress. Without the promotion by de-
velopers such cities as Miami would never have been built, and that the investment in
real estate along the great East Coast of Florida is purely speculative is mythical.
Great cities have been built and great fortunes have been made but the cities are not
mythical and the fortunes are not mythical. They are plainly observable and are evi-
dent from the financial growth of the thousands of men who are the leaders in the
commercial and social life of the section.
Some, witnessing the phenomenal progress along the East Coast are inclined to
question the continuance of the so-called Florida boom. The skeptical, and these are
of the class that do not generally invest, have declared repeatedly that things have
reached a peak and that from now on prices will decline. They have been saying that
for years. They said it five years, and they are saying it to-day-but so far each
year has brought greater activity and to those who know Florida, the thought is as
one that the activity has just begun and they are saying so with millions, many, many
It is said that twenty per cent. of the people of the United States have a surplus
means sufficient to maintain two homes it they desire. Less than one per cent. are
so equipped. This leaves practically the whole to make such acquirement, not to
mention the vast number who do not possess such surplus, but who have ample re-
sources, by disposing of their properties to make homes in a new region. Roger W.
Babson says that without doubt Florida is beginning to have her day, but adds that
unless something happens Florida will, during the next few years, offer the greatest
opportunities for money making ever known to America.
"This Florida boom," Mr. Babson states, "is based upon something besides
ranges and grapefruit, or early lettuce and tomatoes; but rather upon the habit of
the spending of a portion of one's winters in a tropical country. This may be to a
certain extent a fad; but no more so than the owning of an automobile. Both give
a combination of pleasure and increased efficiency. As almost every respectable
family has an automobile, so a large percentage of such families East of the Mis-
sissippi are beginning to feel that they must go to Florida for from two to four
months of the winter. As in many cases, this is increasing the length of life of those
who do go to Florida by from five to ten years, it can be seen that there is a real
basis for Florida's boom. Florida has come into its own and-boom or no boom-
destined to have a great future.
"As to how long the present continued mounting of prices will continue, no one
knows; but surely, in most sections the real boom is just beginning. The national
publicity which Florida has received this year has awakened an interest never before
equalled. Without doubt, next year will show an increase over this year, and for
some years to come the numbers going to Florida should continue to increase. Of
course, prices can not always go up. Some time prices will reach a peak. More-
over, going to Florida winters may become a great new industry, like the movie in-
dustry, the automobile industry, the radio industry. If so, those who now get in
right should make a great deal of money."
But for all of this, its wondrous climate, its great agricultural possibilities, its
glorious opportunities for pleasure, its wonderful developers, Florida as it is to-day on
the East Coast would not be as it is had it not been for Henry M. Flagler. Asleep
was Florida until Mr. Flagler came, asleep was this country that was the first in
America to be discovered and settled. California, over three thousand miles away, was
well on its way toward its present advancement before Florida was awakened and it
is not amazing to consider that it is still in the infancy of its progress. A few had
found it, had found its drowsy towns quiet and restful, warm in winter and a retreat
from the winter's blasts of the North, but still in no way appealing to the great mul-
titudes that are now coming to its sunkissed water and flowerful lands. It had no rail-
roads, no hotels, no highways, and it slumbered on, glorious in climate but offering
But with the coming of Mr. Flagler, with purse to build great hotels, and money
sufficient to construct a great railroad to make the hotels accessible, Florida began to
attract attention and it has since never ceased to do so. The Flagler railroad, the
Florida East Coast, opened up an entire new territory and with it came progress and
prosperity, and the name of Flagler will ever be associated with the history of the State.
The railroad started cities on their way, has built beautiful hotels, given aid to hun-
dreds of projects, encouraged development in every possible manner, and now with
new lines being proposed offers assistance instead of resistance, and although winter
travel and agricultural development has increased many fold since his pioneer days,
and although the section is still regarded as only at its beginning, whatever wealth
and greatness the East Coast may develop credit for this is due the great courage
and vision of Mr. Flagler in anticipating and preparing for it.
Mr. Flagler built the Ponce de Leon and the Alcazar hotels in St. Augustine;
purchased and enlarged the Hotel Ormond at Ormond; built the Breakers (destroyed
by fire in 1925) and the Royal Poinciana at Palm Beach; the Royal Palm at Miami;
extended his railroad from Jacksonville to Key West, performing in the constructing
of the "overseas route" to Key West one of the greatest fetes in the history of rail-
roading, and these with multiple other accomplishments of greatness are as a monu-
ment to him and will be ever revered as such.
The Florida East Coast Extension to Key West was opened on January 23,
1912, "and it is within the realm of conservatism" wrote John Bannon in the Manufac-
turers' Record, "that at no previous period of the world's history, referring to con-
struction or engineering undertakings, can a parallel case be cited. The greatest
water depths were ascertained to be twenty-three feet. To lay foundations for solid
columns at this depth in the open sea for the purpose of carrying overhead, thirty
feet above the sea level (the exact height fixed upon), a roadbed for railroad pur-
poses proof against the fury of the elements and of sufficient stability to withstand
the ravages of time, is a task which human ingenuity was never previously called
upon to execute. But that was what was done and the idea in its simple grandeur
was the boldest conceived in railroad work or any other form of construction work."
The distance from Miami to Key West is 154 miles. The work from Home-
stead south is made up in round numbers of sixty miles rock embankment through
the waters separating the mainland from Key Largo and through the waters separat-
ing the different keys. There are four viaducts connecting water channels, having a
total of 5.87 miles of concrete structure.
Another great boom to the development of the East Coast has been its program
of road building. The highways of the East Coast are tempting to motorists. Good
roads lead in all directions. Road building is never ending. Notably in this direc-
tion has been the completion during the past year of the W. J. Conners Highway.
The road, rock-bedded and asphalt-surfaced, and built at a cost of $2,ooo,ooo, affords
a direct connection between the East and West Coast of Florida and its construction
has opened up an entire new section and brought the peoples of the two great coasts
days closer by motor transportation. Over this road, it is now possible to motor from
Miami, Palm Beach and points on the East Coast to Tampa, St. Petersburg and points
on the West Coast in eight hours. The Connors Highway is built through the very
heart of the vast and once impenetrable Everglades region and its scenic wonders are
among the most magnificent in America. At Okeechobee, the city destined to be
one of the great places in Florida, the Conners Highway connects with State Road No.
8, thus offering the traveler the finest and most direct route across Florida. State
Road No. 8 is also being extended from Okeechobee City to Fort Pierce and when
completed this will add another important link in the section's highway system. The
Dixie Highway, further, is now being extended to Key West, Monroe County, hav-
ing completed bond issue to finance the continuance of this famed highway over the
keys and give a direct highway from Key West to Jacksonville.
Ten counties make up the Florida East Coast and these run from Duval on the
North to Monroe on the South and include St. Johns, Flagler, Volusia, Brevard, St.
I.ucie, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties.
Duval County, at the most northern part of Florida has Jacksonville as its
metropolis and here is the gateway to Florida. Few indeed are those who come to
WVEST PALM BEACH: i-Lake Court Apartments. 2--Guaranty Building. 3--1est Palm Beach High
School. 4--Palm Beach County Court House.
Florida but what see Jacksonville and it numbers its winter visitors by thousands.
Jacksonville is a deep-water port and its waters admit the heaviest freight ships
afloat. It is a busy, thriving metropolitan city and one destined to have a great
future. Its fine public buildings, business buildings, monumental bank buildings, splen-
did stores, fine parks and magnificent residential sections offer high evidence of its
greatness. Jacksonville is the furthest west of any Atlantic port. The coast line
turns slightly west of south from New York to Cape Hatteras to the mouth of the
St. Johns at Jacksonville and on account of this trend of the ocean southern ports are
nearer the geographical center of the country than are the ports of the north. Jack-
sonville has a population of 94,206.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
To the south of Jacksonville thirty-seven miles is St. Augustine, and here is St.
Johns County. Here the advantages of climate, accessibility, transportation, rainfall,
pleasures and profit has brought the development of one of Florida's finest sections.
Founded in 1565, St. Augustine is the oldest city in the United States, and the charm
and romance of antiquity still permeate its atmosphere. But St. Augustine and St.
Johns County is more than a community of beauty and charm. The land is rich in
agricultural development and here is one of the greatest potato growing sections in
America. Potatoes in St. Johns County have yielded as high as $6,000,000 in one
season. Sugar cane is also grown extensively and other crops add a diversity, with
general farming yielding handsome returns to the diligent farmer. Truck gardening,
on account of nearness to markets and fertility of soil is also an important industry,
as is the raising of live stock.
St. Augustine is the oldest city in the United States and it can be truly said, "If
you like Florida, you'll love St. Augustine." Here the traveler finds every delight of
historic lore, the Old City Gates, the Fort, Catholic Cathedral, Slave Market, Span-
ish governor's mansion (now the postoffice) and the oldest house in America, the lat-
ter housing many relics of the past history of the city and state. However, antiq-
uity isn't all of St. Augustine. With the finest of fine hotels, with golf courses
classed as with the best in the country, and with unexcelled beaches, fishing and sight-
seeing, St. Augustine is a mecca for travelers, winter and summer.
Two of the smaller communities of St. Johns County that are of interest are Elk-
ton and Hastings. Elkton is located in the famous potato section, ten miles from St.
Augustine and its surrounding country contains some of the most fertile ground in
the state, with thousands of acres still awaiting the settler.
Hastings is also a center of potato growing and as high as 3,000 carloads of
potatoes have been shipped from it, Elkton and East Palatka in a single season.
Flagler County is devoted largely to agriculture, with potato growing and truck
farming largely specialized upon. It, however, offers good opportunities to the field
crop and live stock man and is largely made up of communities of small farms. Its
closeness to northern markets, as compared with some other southern growing sec-
tions, gives high demand for its products and its growers are of an unusually pros-
perous type. Its lands are generally sloping, permitting easy drainage, and in addi-
tion to these advantages, it has the St. Johns River route on the west, the Florida
East Coast Railroad and the Dixie Highway through the center, and the East Coast
canal on the eastern border, which makes the possibilities for easy and cheap trans-
portation of market crops exceptionally good.
Shell Bluff, Bimini, Haw Creek, and St. Johns Park are the principal potato
growing centers and in these communities thousands of acres are planted each season.
Citrus fruits, stock-raising, and other general agricultural pursuits are also quite gen-
erally engaged in.
Bunnell is the county seat of Flagler County and through the Bimini drainage
project many thousands of acres adjacent to it are being made available for farming
Espanola, a small village with farming and trucking the principal occupation, and
Dupont, a junction point of the Florida East Coast Railroad and 1,200 acres of cul-
tivated land owned by the Dupont Holding Company, form two other communities
of the county. Over 22,000 hampers of cabbage have been loaded at Dupont during
Daytona, Daytona Beach, Seabreeze, Ormond, Holly Hill, and Deland are the
important communities of the Halifax Country and Volusia County. Daytona, the
central and largest city of the group, is situated IIo miles south of Jacksonville on
the Florida East Coast Railroad and the Halifax River. The section, as the Hali-
fax Country, takes its name from the Halifax River, which in reality is an ocean
estuary paralleling the Atlantic Ocean, a link in the inland waterway extending from
Jacksonville to Miami.
The Halifax Country has undergone a conservative but steady development,
and the possibilities of high-class and profitable development are not confined to the
towns on their immediate environs. The whole section, with ninety miles of ocean
and river shore line where the potential urban area is within a half a mile of scenic
water offers an opening for city building not excelled in any section.
Some of the finest citrus fruit groves, farming and truck-growing lands in the
State are found in the county. One of the largest and most modern citrus fruit
packing houses on the East Coast is located in New Smyrna and another large pack-
ing plant is located a few miles south of the city. The soils of Volusia County are
as varied as its crops, of a sandy loam nature underlaid with clay and marl. On
the one thousand farms in the county there was planted in one year, 5,782 acres of
corn, 685 acres of sweet potatoes, 174 acres of sugar cane, 840 acres of chufas, 1,507
acres of Irish potatoes, 120 acres of cabbage, 1oo acres of tomatoes, and 470 acres
The mercury averages around seventy-one in the winter months and around
eighty-five in the summer.
Volusia, Ormond Beach, Port Orange, New Smyrna, Coronado Beach and Orange
City are also all thriving and delightful communities in Volusia County, each offer-
ing its individual advantages and appeal.
Brevard County is situated in the famous Indian River section. On the one
hand are the crops of fruits and vegetables indigenous to the more northern clim-
ates, growing with all their normal vigor; while on the other is a growth of tropical
luxuriance common only to the more southern countries.
Along its seventy miles of beautiful, unbroken coast line on the Atlantic Ocean
are numerous sites unequalled for winter resorts, camping, fishing, and hunting. In
the back country, in the prairie valley of the St. Johns River are some of the best
lands in the state for agriculture. The Dixie Highway traverses the entire length of the
county, along the beautiful Indian River, and there are numerous picturesque towns and
villages scattered along the river's edge and the roadway where beautiful home sites
await the winter resident and the permanent settler.
The county lies in the Florida citrus belt and has thousands of acres developed
in well kept, productive groves. Other thousands of acres are devoted to truck farm-
ing which is also an important industry in the county.
Titusville is the principal city in the county and besides being a progressive com-
mercial center, with several well developed industries, is a favorite fitting out point
f"r slpurtsmen and anglers. The Indian River is here seven miles \i le; iand reached
from Titusville are some of the best fishing and hunting grounds in the state.
Cocoa, Melbourne, Mims, Rockledge, and Eau Gallie are other delightful and
rapidly growing communities of Brevard County, and are among those adding to the
great appeal that is responsible for the great development that has come to the East
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
St. Lucie County, following Brevard County on the south lies just half way be-
tween Jacksonville and Key West. Fort Pierce is the county seat, and the Florida
East Coast shops are located here. The eastern portion of the county along the
Indian River is high and sandy and is given largely to the production of fine pine-
apples. Citrus fruit is also being grown extensively in the county and more than
10,000 acres are now devoted to it. Large tracts in the county heretofore considered
too low for farming are being drained and will shortly give thousands of acres more
land for cultivation. Dairying and live stock raising are further important indus-
tries of the county.
Fort Pierce, the county seat, is another Florida city that has enjoyed great prog-
ress during the past few years. It has grown from a small village seven years ago
to a city of high promise, with several million dollars being spent in public and priv-
Surrounding Fort Pierce the county has a fine system of macadamized roads and
its transportation facilities are among the best on the East Coast. An important
1Arial v'iez of Palm Beach and West Palm Beach-the famed winter playground of wealth and fash-
ion in the .. faccing the Atlantic Ocean. The foreground shoz's West Panlm Beach, separated fromll
I'alm Beach by Lake Ilorth, and gives excellent idea of its favored location as cell as revealing its evi-
dence of metropolitan promise.
.Looking Acroiss Bcautiful Lake lW'orth from Wl'est Palm Bcach at the Royal Poinciana Hotel a(t Palm Beach.
road-building project is also now underway that will undoubtedly greatly affect the
future progress of Fort Pierce. This is the extension of State Road No. 8, from
Okeechobee City to Fort Pierce, which will make the city eastern terminal of this
cross state highway.
Vero, Sebastian, and Jensen are also contributing measurable progress to St. Lucie
County. Each is surrounded by rich farming country and their developments have
been marked. The Indian River Farms Company has spent more than a million dol-
lars around Vero alone for drainage and land reclamation, and through the result of
this, additional thousands of acres have been added to the county's cultivated lands.
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Palm Beach County has within its confines some of the most famed and best
known sections of America. Here we have Palm Beach, famed throughout the world
as the winter playground of the wealthy and the fashionable. And here is West
Palm Beach, another of Florida's miracle cities, a city that has almost tripled its
population in the past four years, a city that is typical of all Florida. Then here are
Lake Worth, Boynton, Delray, Salerno, Jupiter and Stuart, where the late President
Cleveland used to fish. All of these communities are alive and progressive. Lake
Worth, named for the beautiful lake which forms its eastern boundary and which ex-
tends through and separates Palm Beach and West Palm Beach has a population of
approximately 5,000, and is a delightfully modern city. Boynton is located on the
ocean beach at the south end of Lake Worth and is in the heart of the general farm-
IPae Tire nty-cight
ing section of Palm Beach County. Delray, "The Ocean City," is situated in the
eastern central part of Palm Beach County, seventeen miles south of Palm Beach,
in the midst of an ideal citrus fruit and vegetable farming section, with golden oppor-
tunities awaiting the homeseeker.
The climatic conditions which exist in the region occupied by Palm Beach Coun-
ty are adapted to the production of staple crops, sub-tropical, and tropical fruits. The
annual rainfall is approximately fifty-six inches and is generally so distributed that
crops may be successfully produced the year around. It has twenty distinct soil
types, fourteen of which are very productive.
Palm Beach County is located so that its winter garden crops can be shipped
to the populous centers within a very short period of time, and being located as far
south as it is its location will aid greatly in its development because of the fact that
hundreds of thousands of visitors pass through its borders annually.
Broward County is located between Palm Beach and Dade Counties. It can be
reached by several direct routes: the Florida East Coast Railroad, Dixie Highway,
East Coast Canal or Inland Water Way from New York to Miami, and by New
River connecting, by canal, directly with Lake Okeechobee and the upper Ever-
glades. Broward County has many miles of hard -surfaced, oiled roads and con-
struction of new roads continues.
There are three kinds of soil in Broward County, sand, marl and muck. The
strip of marl running along the Dixie Highway is under a high state of cultivation,
and the towns of the county are situated practically in a line, beginning with Deer-
field, Pompano, Colchatchee, Fort Lauderdale, the county seat, Dania, Hollywood,
and Hallandale. Davie, another town, lies west of Fort Lauderdale. Vegetables and
fruits are produced in an abundance and during recent years Broward County has been
one of the largest shipping points for these on the East Coast. Tomatoes, pep-
pers, beans, eggplant, cabbage, potatoes, onions, celery, avocados, mangoes, straw-
berries, etc., are grown extensively.
Fort Lauderdale, the county seat, is located between Miami and West Palm
Beach, twenty-six miles from the former and forty-two from the latter, and is another
New River at Fort Lauderdalc.
outstanding evidence of city building on the East Coast. During the past four years
its population has jumped from 2,065 to 6,275, an increase of 203 per cent.
Hollywood, one of the most promising developments between West Palm Beach
and Miami, Deerfield, at the mouth of the Hillsboro River, Dania, twenty miles north
of Miami, and Hallandale, another city of promise, form the other communities of
Dade County, has like its county seat, Miami, enjoyed great progress and growth
during recent years.There are many communities in Dade County besides Miami and
these along with the magic city have added and are adding luster to the section, and
to its importance. In the county are such cities and communities as Coral Gables,
Ojus, Fulford, Arch Creek, Little River, Lemon City, Buena Vista, Coconut Grove,
Larkin, Perrine, Goulds, Princeton, Naranja, Homestead, and Florida City and with
the establishment and settlement and building up of these places Dade County is
rapidly attaining a high degree of settlement. Dade County, however, has an area
of 770,000 acres and still has much land to offer the settler. A considerable portion
of the county is in the Everglades, which is rapidly being reclaimed and thrown open
The soil of Dade County is particularly productive of all fruits and vegetables.
Its citrus fruits have long been famed and groves devoted to them are among the
finest in the state. Dade County grapefruit enjoys particular distinction in this direc-
tion. Further, all purely tropical fruits can be safely grown in Dade County for
commercial purposes. A disastrous freeze has never been known in the county. Toma-
toes too are grown in enormous quantities and these going to the tables in the
North while cold weather still rages annually brings several million dollars to Dade
County. Tomato growing is indeed one of the section's great industries. Strawberries
are also grown and marketed in large quantities from December to June and con-
stitute an important item in the agricultural returns of the county.
The metropolitan demands of Miami and other communities of the county have
also made poultry raising, dairying, live stock raising, and other forms of truck farm-
ing particularly attractive, and these are beginning to be carried out extensively.
Monroe County, made up largely of the Florida Keys, is not only the southern-
most part of the United States, but one of the most picturesque and delightful. It
is also declared by citizens to be the most healthful district in the United States. Sur-
rounded by the sea, every breeze is laden with health-giving ocean spray, and the
climate is regarded as ideal-never too hot, and never too cold. There is always a
cool breeze in summer, and in winter the days and nights are like the first delight-
ful days of autumn. The lowest temperature ever recorded on the Keys was that
of forty-one degrees on January 12, 1886, and the highest recorded in a twenty-five
year period was ninety-three degrees, occurring only twice, August 11 and September
All tropical fruits grow in an abundance along the Keys-it is a tropical coun-
try, and its fruits, ready for market earlier than in most climates, generally com-
mands the highest of prices.
Key West, noted for its cigars and sponge industry; Key Largo, Long Key Fish-
ing Camp, Marathon, and Big Pine form the principal communities of the county,
and here with soil productive of most any desired vegetation, and with wondrous
waters for sport, play, and industry, we have the southern extreme of a wonderful
state and a wonderful nation.
South Florida--- The Wonderland of zmerica
By GRAHLAM FORRESTER
LORIDA is shaped something like a carpenter's square, the short end be-
ing bounded north by Georgia and Alabama. Here, from east to west,
the state is some 360 miles wide. The long end of the square extends
down into the waters, like a giant finger placed there to separate the
Atlantic streams from those of the Gulf of Mexico. From north to south
Florida is approximately 5oo miles long. The peninsula, at its widest point, is not
more than 125 miles across-on an air line.
For convenience, and out of habit, Florida people divide the state into North,
West and South Florida; while running across-state, about midway the peninsula, is
what is known as the Ridge section. Also, by way of further local distinction, there
is the East Coast and the West Coast; the one being that portion of South Florida
which borders on the Atlantic Ocean and the other that which is touched by the gulf.
There needs be, for better understanding, another division for which Southwest
Florida will best serve as a designation, since the territory embraced in it lies, for the
greater part, to the west of South Florida. This section is made up of Citrus, Sum-
ter, Lake, Orange, Hernando, Pasco, Polk, Osceola, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Mana-
tee, Hardee, Highlands, DeSoto, Okeechobee, Hendry, Charlotte, Glades, Lee, Sara-
sota and Collier counties; with Tampa as its commercial center.
South Florida is to-day attracting more attention, because of its growth and prog-
ress, than is any section of the United States. This splendid section which it has
been chosen to name as Southwest Florida leads in this. The reasons are not far to
First of all, Florida's wonderful climate is at its best here. Ninety is registered
fewer days here than in any other portion of the union. Figured from the govern-
ment records of the past 35 years, the mean temperature has been 80.3; the mean
minimum temperature 63.1 and the mean rainfall 49.90; based on readings at Tampa,
which is situated about midway the section. It is readily enough to be seen that this
makes a delightful climate-not only for winter, but all the year round. It is dif-
ficult for one who has not experienced it to realize that this can be true; still it is the
fact. The days are never oppressively warm, even in midsummer. No one has ever
died from sunstroke in all this section. The explanation-given by a layman who
knows nothing at all of scientific theories and terms which he might give to other lay-
men in this connection-is that throughout the summer there are frequent showers
which cool the earth and make the atmosphere to seem as if it were touched by
some magical fan. A clumsy enough explanation. Still it is what occurs. The nights
are always cool enough for pleasant, refreshing sleep; the result of the proximity to
the ocean and gulf, from which pleasant breezes are constantly blowing the gulf
winds predominating at night. No one has ever frozen to death in all this section.
The explanation is not at all involved. Freezing temperature has been recorded
fewer times than can be counted on one's fingers and toes since the government rec-
ords have been kept, and there has been but one "hard freeze" in 50 years.
One can travel far and search long and then fail to find, in the United States
at least, more pleasant climate day by day, week for week, month after month, from
year's beginning to year's end, than is to be found here. Perhaps the most serious
handicap which has ever been given this section is the one which has been expressly
and impliedly given in the emphasis which has been placed upon its winter climate.
Congenial climate is an every day proposition here.
The result is that whatever can be grown in temperate and subtropical climates
can be grown here. Lemons, limes, olives, figs, bananas, guavas, pineapples, plums,
avocadoes, pears, persimmons, blackberries, blueberries, and many other things of like
SOUTH FLORIDA: T-Gandy Bridge, the world-famed bridge, spanning Tamna Bay, has cut the
distance between Tampa and St. Petersburg almost half. 2-By land or water, the joy of living is keen "n
Florida. 3-Clearwater Beach, on the Gulf of Mexico at Clearwater. 4-Where grapefruit and oranges
are shipped; one of Florida's modern citrus packing plants. 5-Street scene at Palmetto, Manatee County.
6-One may travel most any place in South Florida by the modern motor bus. The extension of this
means of travel has played an important part in the development of this section. 7-Thle Circle, Sebring,
another of Florida's beautiful communities.
Pa' e 'Thirtf-tiro
character are being raised on a large scale. Watermelons, tomatoes, Irish and sweet
potatoes, lettuce, celery, cabbage, peppers, cucumbers, strawberries, beans and canta-
loupes are shipped in carload lots-thousands of cars of them.
Winter vegetables can be followed with other crops, such as corn, sweet pota-
totes, velvet beans, rice and a number of others; if it is thought best not to follow
them with other vegetables; and the land will produce well without any fertilizer in
addition to that used on the vegetables. Corn produces 40 to 50 bushels the acre
under these conditions, and sweet potatoes from 350 to 500 bushels.
The lands are frequently made to produce from three to four crops, there being
no season of the year when growth is stopped by cold or when cultivation can not be
carried on. It is a noteworthy exception when only one harvest is gathered from
the soil in a twelvemonth.
There is no time of the year when some of the products of Southwest Florida
soil are not ready for market. The advantage of this is apparent in that it fur-
nishes a steady source of income, such as is enjoyed by growers nowhere else.
That what can be done here pays is evidenced by the fact that the tomato crop
of one county-1,400 cars-sold at an average profit of $I,ooo per car. Beans
have turned out 300 hampers an acre, which sold for $8.oo the hamper. Strawber-
ries have set a yield of $2,400 the acre, for 125 acres. The past season's straw-
berry crop around Plant City, a thriving city in the eastern part of Hillsborough
county, sold for $I,ooo,ooo, in round numbers. It was actually some thousands
more than that.
Grape culture is being extensively engaged in at many points in this section.
They produce well and bring very satisfactory returns. The vineyards of South-
west Florida give their yield some two or three weeks ahead of those of any other
section, so the grapes reach the markets practically without competition. For these
reasons this is coming to be quite an important industry, large acreages being con-
stantly turned to grapes.
Basically, Southwest Florida is agricultural. The soil ranges from gray to a
very dark muck; some of every class of it known to the section being at present un-
der cultivation and producing favorable crops. Only a small per cent of the land
has been brought under cultivation, while thousands upon thousands of acres wait
for settlers to come and bring them into yielding.
Forty different varieties of feeds for live stock are indigenous to Southwest
Florida. These, fostered by the advantages which an inexhaustible supply of water
and an ideal climate afford, assure forage, hay and grazing plants in large variety
and at all times.
The principal product of this section is now, as it will be many years to come
no doubt, citrus fruit. $400,000,000 is the value placed upon the Florida citrus in-
dustry. One county in Southwest Florida-Polk-produced more than a fifth of
last year's crop. This section produces considerably more than half of it. Still
there are many acres of prime citrus lands which are as yet untouched.
It is upon this background that the almost miraculous development which has
taken place in Southwest Florida has been predicated. Here, too, is the token of
the development which is yet to come. It is a land of unlimited and practically un-
Poultry raising and the live stock industry, two things which go with climate
and soil, are being rapidly developed here. The conditions for both approach the
ideal. Due to the facts of the climate the expense of housing is comparatively notn-
ing. Necessary food stuffs can be grown with little effort, and at small expense.
Local markets readily consume the poultry and eggs, and are ready to consume many
more than are produced. Splendid transportation facilities, both by rail and water,
Page Thirty there
..- k p
SOUTH FLORIDA: r-Oranges and grapefruit, golden globes of sweetness. 2-Natural beauty spots of
South Florida. 3-Public buildings in Winter Haven. 4-IWinter crops. 5-Scenes around WIintcr lHaven
the city of one hundred lakes. 6-Various winter crops raised in South Florida. 7-Winter strawberries,
celery and cucumbers. 8-Three of South Florida's thriving industries, pineapple farm, celery field, orange
grove. 9-Stock raising in South Florida. 1o-Temple Terraces Country Club, Hillsborough River, near
Temple Terraces, magnificent golf course at Temple Terraces and beautiful woodland road near Tampa.
furnish guarantee of markets for what live stock may be raised. Those who may be
looking for a location for either poultry or live stock raising can find unusual advan-
tages and opportunities here.
Dairying is also largely followed. Still the supply is not yet sufficient to meet
the local demands. This fact and the others which have been related in regard to
climate and feedstuffs emphasize the opening offered here in this line.
Bee-keeping is another important industry. All conditions necessary for its suc-
cess are to be found in Southwest Florida and the yield of honey is both unusually
large and of unusually fine quality.
Three-fourths of the natural resources of Florida are to be found in this terri-
tory which has been named as Southwest Florida.
Phosphate was discovered here in 1888. In 1920, the state of Florida pro-
duced 3,369,384 tons of phosphate, valued at $19,383,362. This was 80 per cent.
of the United States supply, and two-thirds of the world's supply. Ninety per cent.
of this was produced in Southwest Florida, the richest producing counties being De-
Soto, Manatee, Citrus, Polk and Hillsborough.
An important source of actual and potential wealth in this section is the tim-
ber lands. The lumber and naval store output runs annually into millions of dollars,
with an untold wealth of timber-pine and hardwoods-that has not yet been cut. In
its display at the recent South Florida Fair, which is held annually in Tampa a single
county, Pasco, showed 170 different varieties of woods. The lumber output for Polk
county was last year 60,ooo,ooo feet, of the value of $I,500,000.
Returns from the fishing industry in Florida totaled $14,000,000 last year.
The larger part of this is in Southwest Florida; the many miles of coast line and
thousands of fresh water lakes making this a thing of great importance and greater
Florida is the world's chief producer of Fuller's earth. Large commercial de-
posits of this are to be found in Manatee County.
Southwest Florida contains vast quantities of china clay and kaolin.
The only sponge exchange in the United States is located at Tarpon Springs, in
Pinellas County, which is the largest sponge market in the world. The sponge crop
gathered, made ready for market and sold there, brings millions of dollars.
Manufacturing has been but little developed in Southwest Florida, other than
in Tampa. The location and situation is ideal for many manufacturing enterprises.
More clear Havana cigars are manufactured in Tampa than in any other city in the
world, while the world's largest manufactory of packing house machinery is at Dune-
din, Pinellas County. This plant enjoys the distinction of having not long ago ship-
ped a $25,000 order of machinery to Jaffa, Palestine. Crate manufacturing adds
largely to the production and pay rolls of this section, millions of crates being re-
quired each season for the citrus and vegetable crops. It is doubtful if more or
better opportunities for manufactories of almost every kind are to be found any-
where than in this part of Florida. The advantages which are offered are many
and varied. This statement is made upon no less authority than Roger W. Babson,
the internationally known gatherer and analyzer of statistics. In a recent article he
pointed out that capital, power, raw material, markets and labor were the essentials
of manufacturing; and he gave this section high rank in relation to power, markets
and labor. Of our raw materials he said: "It is evident that on this point Florida
scores heavily. Florida has actual or latent resources in lumber, agricultural prod-
ucts, live stock products and mineral products. It should begin to establish cotton
mills, clothing factories, canning factories, furniture plants and the like." What has
been and is being done at Tampa, however, is probably the surest proof that manufac-
turing pays here.
Southwest Florida's manufacturing presents some unique features, as does her
agricultural and horticultural activities. The skins of sharks and porpoises are utilized
Page Thirty fire
at Fort Meyers. High grade mattresses and "horse hair" filling are made from the
gray Spanish moss which is found in abundance. A good grade of paper is derived
from the common saw grass. An excellent grade of craft paper is manufactured from
the cabbage palmetto. The roots of this quite plentiful plant are turned into scrub-
bing brushes, while a plant has just been established for manufacturing oils and soap
from the palmetto plant.
Thriving towns and cities have sprung up from small hamlets and out of waste
places in this territory; all of them increasing rapidly in population and business and
promising still more marked growth in the immediate future. Outstanding among
these are Inverness, Arcadia, Avon Park, Lake Wales, Sebring, Wauchula, Brooks-
ville, Plant City, Leesburg, Fort Meyers, Haines City, Winter Haven, Orlando,
Palmetto, Manatee, Winter Garden, Winter Park, Kissimmee, Bartow, Fort Meade,
Tarpon Springs, Clearwater and Okeechobee. All of these have special points pecu-
liarly their own which make them most attractive as places for winter or permanent
residence, or for business. The same is to be said of any of the towns in the section
which are worthy of the name.
Millions of dollars have been spent on the road system of Southwest Florida within
the past few years and every city, town and county in the section is now at work on
extensive paving programs. The roads here are second to none and there are, prob-
ably, more miles of hard surfaced roads in the counties which have been named as
composing this wonderful section than in the same number of counties in any of the
states of the Union. Its territory is traversed by the Dixie, Lee-Jackson, Old Span-
ish Trail, Central Florida and Tamiami highways.
Schools throughout this territory are housed in buildings that are commodious
and attractive beyond the ordinary. These schools all hold exceedingly high rank.
Nearly all the towns have public libraries. Practically all of the denominations have
regularly organized churches, many of the church buildings comparing favorably
with those to be found in the larger cities of the country. It is quite evident that
Southwest Florida has not underestimated the value of schools and churches, despite
the tremendous activity with which it has engaged in other things.
Transportation facilities are good. The Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard
Air Line are the principal railroads. Both of these have a number of auxiliary and
branch lines; and there are a number of other short lines. There is no part of the
territory without railroad facilities. Within the past year the Florida, Western and
Northern road, an auxiliary of the Seaboard, has been constructed across the state, giv-
ing a direct route from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean. This is the largest
single railroad building enterprise undertaken in the United States since the World
War. Two other lines are now in contemplation which will cross the state lower
down in Southwest Florida. A waterway to the ports and markets of the world is
found at Tampa.
This railroad development is perhaps the surest indication of the development
which has been and is still going on here. Still some statements from the latest pub-
lication of the State Agricultural Department are interesting. It is found that Flor-
ida's annual income is $428,000,000, derived thus: Fruit crops, $30,ooo,ooo; field
crops, $22,000,000; truck crops, $18,ooo,ooo; milk and butter, $7,000,000; eggs and
poultry, $8,000,000; live stock, $9,000,000; minerals, $20,000,000; lumber, $30,000,-
ooo; naval stores, $20,000,000; fisheries, $14,000,000; manufacturing, $15o,ooo,-
ooo; tourists' trade, $1oo,ooo,ooo. Approximately 75 per cent. of this is from South
Florida. Sumter and Orange Counties are listed as producing more than $1,ooo,ooo
worth of field and truck crops, each. Osceola, Sumter and St. Lucie Counties are
shown as producing from $1oo,ooo to $200,000 worth of Irish and sweet potatoes,
each. Each of the other counties of the section are credited with up to $ioo,ooo
worth. Sumter County raises over $50,000 worth of sugar cane. Each of the other
counties grow up to $50,000oo worth. Polk County produces over 4,000,000 boxes of
citrus fruits. Hillsborough, Orange and DeSoto Counties produce, each, over I,ooo,-
ooo boxes. Each of the other counties produce up to I,ooo,ooo boxes. Hills-
borough County leads in manufacturing tobacco. Hillsborough and Polk Counties,
each, produce more than $500,000 worth of dairy products a year. Pasco, Orange,
Hardee and Lee Counties, each, produce more than $1oo,ooo worth. Each of the
other counties produce up to $Ioo,ooo worth. Manatee County produces $300,000
worth of naval stores the year. Hillsborough County turns out over $20,000,000
worth of manufactured products a year. Lake, Orange, Polk and Pinellas, each,
produce more than $4,000,000 worth and Manatee and DeSoto Counties, each, more
than $I,ooo,ooo worth. Polk, Pasco and Hillsborough Counties, each, have more
than $I,ooo,ooo invested in live stock. DeSoto County has more than $500,000 so
invested. These statistics give a clearer idea of just what it is that backs up and is
making this wonder section.
And so the story might be carried on and on. There is no end to it, as there is
no end to the opportunities which await those possessed of industry and intelligence
who will come here and put themselves in partnership with a climate that is un-
equaled and soil that can be made to produce anything.
The past ten years have been magical ones in Southwest Florida. The next
ten hold every promise of still greater things. The amount of land which has been
brought into use is negligible and the opportunities in cities, towns and country are
greater than they have ever been before.
Southwest Florida is on the eve of discovering herself.
Adding lake and river fronts to the eleven hundred miles of sea coast, Florida has 9,500
miles of beautiful water front, enough to accommodate one million homes and have five million
people dwelling comfortably on the margin of our waters.
Florida has the finest sea beaches in the world-many of them 500 to 1,ooo feet in width.
Some of the largest springs in the world are in Florida. One of these has a daily flow 'of
ten million barrels of water, is eighty feet deep, clear as crystal and large enough to float a steam-
Florida produces the best oranges and grapefruit on earth.
I' ae Thirty-scei
i-Tvpc of substantial school '..''., in .Miami, -where educational facilities yield first place to ino
city in AImerica. 2-DIade County Court House and Miami City Hall, Miami, (A. Ten Eyck Brown, archi-
tect). Miami is startling the country with its ''.1 projects. 3-Miami Realty Board Building on First
Avenue, Northeast. A '7 V... worthy of finest I., ..-. traditions. 4-This new spire is now the dom-
inating landmark on It .. interesting sky-line. The Daily News Tower stands on Baylshorc Drive,
overlooking Bay Biscayne.
:.iami---f/ Treasure-House of Permanent
Wealth, a City of Opportunity and
HE following vivid and complete description of Miami, with its resources
and its beauties, appeared in the New York Times of March 15, 1925.
The entire statement rests on the expert authority of George E. Merrick,
one of the most significant figures in the life of Florida:
Miami has been misrepresented in a flood of articles which give the
impression that it is a boom town, whereas its growth from a population of 1,681 in
1900 to III,000 in 1925 is the result of the development of the permanent produc-
tive resources of the American tropics, according to George Edgar Merrick, who was
in this city yesterday at the Hotel Biltmore, arranging with John McEntee Bowman
the details of a $10,ooo,ooo suburban development.
Mr. Merrick, who is less than forty years old, has created a city of tiles, con-
crete, steel and coral rock out of what a few years ago was his father's orange grove.
This is Coral Gables, near Miami. What was an agricultural property a little more
than a decade ago is to-day a varied landscape of lawns and gardens, broken by the
white and red of fine residences in the Spanish and Moorish style.
"The recent articles in Northern papers and magazines about Miami have been
in many instances so unfair to the real Miami that it seems to me time to bring out
the facts behind its great, healthy, substantial growth," he said.
"The 'smart Aleck' writings regarding this great Miami growth, even by financial
writers, is akin to the solemn European conclusions reached by some of our near states-
men after a month's visit in Europe. Comparing the steady, healthy and tremendous
growth of all Florida but Miami, particularly, to Klondike rushes and Texas oil field
booms, as done in recent picturesque articles in New York newspapers and magazines,
is simply silly, sob-sister, sensational writing.
"Miami merits a more mature consideration and exposition of its remarkable
growth and the factors and potentialities which are steadily forcing it more and more
into the national limelight.
"I might say here that I am not a promoter, just snapping upon a new chance
for easy exploitation in Miami. I have lived and worked in the upbuilding of Miami
for twenty-six years and I am almost as close to a native son as you usually find in
Miami. I have done everything from rubbing the coral rock, clearing pine timbers,
planting tomatoes, developing grapefruit and alligator pear groves, and have been in
personal contract with most of Miami's principal resources in the actual and manual
working of them out. And so on, to the developing and marketing of what is now
probably America's greatest realty development, which is Coral Gables.
"Coral Gables is only one of many great developments in Miami. There is, for
instance, Miami Beach, which twelve years ago was a mangrove swamp, but by the
genius, energy and millions of Carl Fisher has been transformed into the greatest win-
ter playground of the nation, and where there has been invested in construction alto-
gether probably $Ioo,ooo,ooo.
"It has been said in some of these articles that Miami is in the throes of a wild,
fantastic boom. Now, on the contrary, Miami never had a boom, and is not having a
boom now. To back up this statement of mine it is necessary to make a further
emphatic assertion, which is that should no further persons commonly designated as
'tourists' ever again visit Miami it still would steadily become a great city.
"My father and my family are examples of what I mean. We went to Florida
twenty-six years ago, not as tourists, but to take advantage of the natural resources;
Pace Th irty-nine
I-Drive at Point Ticw,, Miami. 2-The Commoner as a Bible Teacher, WVilliam Icunings Bryan con-
ducting his Bible class, the largest in the world, at Royal Palm Park, Miami.
the advantage for real and broader living and the potentialities for tremendous profit
to be taken out of the ground in \I;.n11 And we found them. Disregarding realty
value and enhancements entirely, we found them.
"To-day and every day in Miami, Dade County, in the great Everglade empire to
the west and south of Miami, and in that great only American tropics which is the
backbone of Miami, hundreds of people are finding and making their own, those same
things that drew our family to Miami. And the hundreds of to-day are healthy,
naturally and, just as logically as the endless chain scheme works, becoming the thou-
sands and hundreds of thousands of to-morrow and the day after.
"From, and because of the establishment of our own family at Miami (and also
disregarding realty phases entirely), over 800 people have come to Miami in our own
single endless chain. Once a Miamian always a Miamian-and the resent tremendous
growth is largely due to the cumulative effect of these endless chains started by satis-
"Miami has had one continuous, steady growth from the one thousand inhabitants
of twenty-five years ago to the hundred thousand or so inhabitants of to-day. True,
it has been growing faster, gathering momentum with each year, and it will continue
to grow with still increasing momentum for at least ten more years, into a city of i,-
000,000 inhabitants, which we surely expect.
"The bank deposits of Miami are a fair barometer. They have grown steadily
and surely from an aggregate of only a few millions fifteen years ago into about one
hundred millions to-day. The fact that Miami is now an all-year city and not just a
tourist resort is shown by the fact that its bank deposits will fall off hardly more than
ten per cent. during the summer.
"Can you call a city a boom town, whose building permits last year were close to
$30,000,000 in greater Miami, and whose building permits in the same area this year
will exceed $60,ooo,ooo, and all of which is materialized in concrete, reinforced con-
crete and everlasting coral stone? These are surely not the materials of which a boom
town is made. Miami has for years been dubbed by architectural and building maga-
zines the 'Concrete City.' In boom cities of the Middle West, of the Southwest and
the West you sometimes read of frame schoolhouses burning, sometimes with loss of
"Throughout the entire Miami area there is not a single frame schoolhouse.
Literally millions upon millions are invested in the most modern concrete buildings of
architectural beauty and ideal arrangements, far surpassing anything else in school
building architecture, yet worked out in this country. The same phase is apparent in
the churches. An $800,ooo Catholic Cathedral, a $600,ooo Episcopal Church, dozens
of $oo00,ooo churches supplanting $1oo,ooo ones and in the most beautiful style of ec-
clesiastical architecture, by national architecture authorities. Does this seem like a
"A million dollar causeway built only five years ago of stone, concrete and steel
and designed to meet the needs of twenty years is now to be doubled to meet present
"Thousands of miles of the most permanent kind of highways gridiron the entire
Miami area and make every part of this entire and only American tropical country
literally a part of the City of Miami.
"A five million dollar overseas highway is stringing together the 150-mile chain of
matchless Florida Keys into a super-Riviera highway which will be the most wonder-
ful motor road in the world.
"A great Tamiami Trail, costing over a million dollars, is being thrown across the
Everglade Empire to the Gulf Coast, making direct connection with all the Gulf Coast
cities and making directly tributary to Miami millions of feet of untouched cypress and
the future produce of thousands of square miles of rich lands.
"Nearly $20,000,000 has been spent by the State of Florida, in draining and
fitting for agriculture that great Everglade empire of millions of acres, the develop-
ment and exploitation of which will most directly affect Miami. Men who are largely
responsible for the sale of the Everglade bonds enabling this great drainage project,
and government men familiar with same, say that the properly developed potentialities
of the Everglades alone would make a city of a million people out in Miami.
"Several varieties of rubber are indigenous in this area. American rubber manu-
facturers are just turning their attention to experiments, apparently proving that
Everglade rubber culture is a practical thing, great pulp manufacturers from the
North are turning their attention to the Everglades, with its various fibre grasses grow-
ing wild and the many tropical fibre plants which would be cultivated thereon, and are
actually beginning great manufacturing enterprises based thereon.
"One great sugar company has successfully invested in the neighborhood of Miami
over $1o,ooo,ooo in the sugar industry.
"The expensive sea island cotton, finest grade wrapper tobacco, have been proved
to grow successfully in the Everglades. Think of millions of acres richer than any
other area on this continent, and capable of producing not only the staples of the tem-
perate zones, but all the higher priced commodities of the tropics. Why, many a city
in the Middle West has been built into great size on the potentialities of its envelop-
ing corn and grain lands which may make from $1o to $5o per acre per year. Here
are millions of acres which will produce crops ranging in yearly profits from $ioo to
T1,000 per acre.
"Here is the ideal beef-producing section of the United States; with all-year
natural forage, capable of growing only the most luxurious tropical grasses twelve
months of the year. There are none of the freezes or droughts common to other
beef-producing sections to contend with, there is minimum danger of cattle diseases.
"The casual observer sometimes asks, 'How can you expect a great city here at
the jumping-off point of Florida?' Havana has been made a great city by reason of
the same resources behind Miami. Despite every handicap known to man, and with
never in its history any tincture of progressive spirit, Havana, just across the Gulf from
Miami, became a great city.
"Great Middle Western cities were built in twenty-five years by farmer migration
from the East. Why is it not reasonable for a million people to be drawn in ten
years from the congested East and semi-congested West and Middle West to Miami,
where the lure, promise and results are a hundred to one more powerful than they were
in the Middle West migration?
"A great city, Los Angeles, was brought into being on the far side of the continent
from the congested East, which furnished its population. Economically, should not
Miami, which is comparatively a New York suburb, with its vastly greater range of
resources and opportunity, grow in'vastly greater ratio and extent?
"The great factor which is building Miami is that same urge which pulls the
Canadian from the place of his birth; which pulled my family from Massachusetts;
that is pulling Mid-Western towns that have reached their limit of opportunity for
young men. It is pulling from the great congested centers like New York that offer
but really pitiful living advantages for the middle-class family.
"All of these are finding what they want in Miami and are sending back for their
friends and relatives just exactly as did the people who have populated other new sec-
tions of our country. But in the case of Miami, the pull is stronger. The popula-
tion building works faster, because there are many, many times the resources and
potentialities and many times the lure and opportunities of any other new section that
has ever been developed in our nation.
"The lure of the tropics is a great and definite thing alone to build upon. The
Miami area and thence on south to Cape Sable (all of which is tributary to Mi.iai),
comprises absolutely the only American tropics, and in that great fact Miami owns
and will forever hold a priceless American monopoly. We are 600 miles south of the
southernmost tip of California. It is the only point in the nation from which the
Southern Cross may be seen. It is the only spot in the United States where the royal
I'a/ile Por~tij-t href
palm grows wild, where the cocoanut naturally thrives and the flowers and vines of
the South Sea Islands are as common as roadside weeds.
"In this Miami tropics is grown nine-tenths of all the tropical fruits that are
grown in our nation. We have a practical monopoly in the growing of the better
types of the alligator pears which mature twelve months in the year in Miami. For
six months in the year Southern Florida feeds the nation with all winter vegetables.
Citrus fruits and their by products are worth millions of dollars annually to the
Miami tropics. The alligator pear industry alone is destined to become in the United
States a larger business than the banana. This alligator pear growing alone will dur-
ing the next ten to twenty years give splendid livelihood and even fortune to hun-
dreds of thousands of people that will come to the M.;.iimi area. There are in Miami
hundreds, yes, thousands, of people who have started in the winter vegetable business
with less than $500 who are now comfortably fixed.
"I know of no other place in the United States where a farmer can take a mule
and $1o worth of tools and share crop on a ten-acre piece of ground and usually net
from two to five thousand dollars for his season's operations.
"These factors are permanent. The Miami monopoly of the finest all-year clim-
ate on the globe-yes, these things are permanent. Miami must continue to grow
steadily into a great city, should all tourists (purely tourist type) cease to visit here.
But will the tourist cease to visit Miami? You may just as well try to make sparks
cease flying upward!
"Within forty hours of three-quarters of the population of the United States is
Miami. Within forty hours of seven-eighths of its wealth. Only four days' com-
fortable automobile ride for the great American family out of snow and ice into ever-
lasting June. Why should a tourist stop going? And a tourist of one year is a
Miamian of the next year.
"James Deering, after traveling the world over and visiting its favorite rest, pleas-
ure and health places, looked in at Miami for several days one year. The second year
thereafter you find him building a ten-million-dollar estate in Miami. He is typical of
hundreds and hundreds, the aggregate of their estates running into hundreds of millions
"In one afternoon in Miami there dropped into my office the president of one of
the nation's greatest railroads, the head of one of the nation's greatest chain of hotels,
two of the nation's greatest bankers, one of the greatest writers and one of the great-
est living artists. And that was simply a sample afternoon. What other new section
of the United States draws so many such men automatically? At a gathering in Coral
Gables recently, upraised hands showed thirty-eight states represented. 'Who's Who
... .. ;> i ll -!" ,,*
S. A. Ryan Auto Agency.
in America' finds most of its most noted members either living the year round or win-
tering in Miami.
"Miami was discovered in a large way by the most prominent Americans during
the war period, when it was difficult to get abroad. Now they don't care to go
abroad. Miami is the magnet drawing the most aggressive, progressive go-getting
element from every state west of the Mississippi.
"Miami's port bill has just been approved by congress and the president, appro-
priating nearly $2,000,000 for the completion of its wonderful deep water harbor.
Despite its poor facilities in the past, its shipping has grown to the point where a dozen
large steamer lines and many small freight lines, enter Miami and its shipping has al-
ready grown to tremendous proportions.
"With the completion of this harbor Miami will readily take its place as the
great Pan-American port of the Atlantic. It is the logical contact port with all of the
West Indies, Central and South America, and with a great commercial trade expansion
with the United States. Miami's port will grow into something far greater than New
Orleans, Galveston or Savannah in the past. Also, with the completion of the deep water
program it is likely to mean the throwing across the Everglades, for instance, from
the present terminus of the Atlantic Coast Line, ioo miles away, the railroad links
which will connect with the great Florida phosphate fields, and the great freight steam-
ers from every port in a short period will be loading phosphate in Miami port.
"All-year business in Miami has grown to the extent that the Florida East Coast
Railroad is now engaged in double tracking its 400 miles, giving us the equivalent of
another railroad. It is likely that the Seaboard and one other railroad from the West
Coast will shortly be in Miami.
"Industries are springing up with all-year growth of the city. There are now
over 150 profitable industries readily expanding. Great natural assets, like our coral
rock, are worth untold millions to M\Iini. Among other natural industries may be
noted the fish and sponge industries.
"Miami is to-day the most cosmopolitan and American of American cities. It is a
city and country where, despite the mingling of ultra-conservative stock, no public bond
issue has ever been voted down. It is one American city that can boast of having its
civic affairs handled for years by a commission of its five bank presidents; where,
though in the Far South, sectionalism is never thought of, where the community church
idea has been carried to its furthest limits, where capitalism and industry work ideally
together; where the crudities of the ordinary new country, the half-baked stage that
has been in the development of every other American city, never existed, because na-
tional experts in every line are living in our midst and actually working out the future
"In Miami the nation has truthfully regained its youth. Optimism is the very air
that you breathe-the same air that inspired Flagler in his seventieth year to plan the
$100,000,000 overseas railroad, which at first his competitors called 'Flagler's folly,'
but by getting Cuban freight traffic, is now one of the nicest paying railroad proposi-
tions in the United States. It is essentially that life impelling quality of the very
Miami air that draws men of great and small affairs back to Miami. It is not, how-
ever, a foolish optimism, taking no account of obstacles or wasting time in pipe
dreams. It is simply an optimism born of tremendous resources and founded upon a
range of potentiality and opportunity absolutely new to American life an optimism
founded on the fact that in a single one of its years of 365 sun-filled working days
may be compressed what would ordinarily be a life-time of effort in the common, starved
older North or Western communities.
"Miami is the minting in America, in one fine, shining piece, of the substantial
compound of that very American dream of freedom-opportunity and achievement."
The Jiomie of L. AISO), on Brickcil Avenue, Miami, ncar Bay Biscayne, is one of the exquisite resi-
iics tliat liaie set off tiis beautiful section of lliani as one of the iost charming and exclusive residential
districts in America.
p F,'- i'f "
i',ami--- The 7 romantic Story of the Origin and
Expansion of a -_3etropolis of Wealth
and -Many 7-Marvels
By AGNEW W sVELS
--'HI' history of Miami and of Dade County are so closely interwoven that
any discussion of the one must necessarily involve the other. This is par-
ticularly true of its material progress. The limitations of these pages
S preclude more than a cursory discussion of either.
Dade County was created by legislative action taken February 4, 1836.
There had, however, been some semblance of civilization in the region prior to that
date, for as early as 1835, there was a settlement at Indian Key, an island about
seventy-five miles south of Miami. It was here that on August 7, 1840, Dr. Henry
Perrine and several others met death at the hands of Seminoles, who were then on the
warpath. Dr. Perrine was living there while conducting a series of experiments look-
ing to the development of cordage fibre plants and other tropical growths on a section
of land near the present town of Cutler and which had been granted him by the fed-
eral government. Indeed, Dr. Perrine may be said to have been the pioneer resident
of the county.
The county owes its name to Major Francis Langhorn Dade, who was killed,
together with all but three of his detachment of a few over one hundred men, on De-
cember 28, 1835. This military body was marching from the fprt at Tampa to Fort
King, near Ocala, when they were ambushed by an Indian force.
The county's boundary originally extended for a distance of one hundred and fifty
miles up and down this Lower East Coast, reaching from a point a short distance
north of Stuart to the Monroe County line on the south, a few miles variation
meaning nothing to either county in those days. Since then a part of the county was
given over to create Palm Beach County and still later these two were subdivided to
There is a strong probability that Miami received its name from the old Spanish
name of the river that flows through it, the Sweetwater, this name remaining attached
to it long after Spanish relinquishment of the land. On certain old Spanish maps of
peninsular Florida the principal river emptying into Biscayne Bay is set down as the
Rio dos Maamas, or "the river of sweet water." In September, 1874, an attempt was
made to restore this Spanish name as W. W. Hicks was commissioned as postmaster
at "Maama," but to those unfamiliar with the facts the name seemed to be a ridiculous
spelling of Miami and on September 22, 1877, the name Miami was restored to the
There are certain evidences hereabout that seem to indicate a civilization antedat-
ing the coming of the Seminoles and possibly that of the Caribs. This testimony is
found in two sets of stone steps located nearly ten miles apart, and cut with a precision
of line that bespeaks the fine work of the Spaniard or some equally skilled artisan
-certainly not the crude handiwork of a savage. One of these is the steps leading
from the bay to the Punch Bowl, that strange receptacle in the rocks on the west shore
of the bay on the Brickell lands, south of the city; the second and more recently dis-
covered set are near Little River, on lands formerly owned by the late R. E. Mac-
Donald, and now being developed by T. A. Winfield as a subdivision.
John W. Ewan, who was known as "The Duke of Dade," when he represented
the county in the legislature, has expressed a belief that these were wrought by a
party of Ponce de Leon's men, who attempted a settlement either on their way to or
from planting the Spanish flag at St. Augustine, his theory being that Viscaynos, one
l- Thc beginning of Miami in Sho ing !he first Post Office and a group of pioneer settlers. This
particular spot is now, the site of the Hotel Royal Palm. From left to right the men are EI. G. Sewell, 7. L.
Townley, John Sewell, C. 7T. McCrimmon, J. E. Luminus. The gang of workmien pictured above was soon
increased by hundreds. _-An aerial viewo of .M1iami made in 192'4 showing the Royal Palm Hotel in fore-
ground.-(Copyright i)-'4. nderzood & I'ndecrwood, Aerial f)ept.)
of de Leon's officers, stopped here and gave to the beautiful bay an Anglicization of
his name-Biscayne. The presence of the Spanish conquistadors may explain the
mystery of the huge copper pan in the possession of Captain C. J. Rose and which he
rescued soon after it had been dredged from the Miami canal at its beginning at the
forks of the Miami River, near Musa Isle. It was filled with solidified lime deposit,
doubtless the work of centuries.
Fort Dallas was built in the summer of 1836, following an Indian uprising and as
one of the military outposts for the protection of troops in their endeavor to stop the
smuggling of arms to be sold to the Indians, these being brought here from foreign
ports. The construction work was executed under Colonel L. M. Powell and upon its
completion the outpost received the name of Fort Dallas, in honor of Commodore
James Dallas, then in command of naval operations in West Indian waters.
The land on which these buildings were erected was originally part of a Span-
ish grant, made in 1808, to Thomas Eagan, also sometimes spelled Hagan in certain
documents. This land was subsequently sold to Colonel Richard Fitzpatrick of
Charleston, South Carolina, who came here with a shipload of slaves and building
material, his plan being to raise cotton on the hundred acre tract which he had ac-
quired, but this did not prove profitable, and in 1835, the land was taken over by Fitz-
patrick's nephew, W. F. English, presumably also of Charleston. At the state con-
stitutional convention held at old Port St. Joe in 1838, Dade County was represent-
ed by Colonel Fitzpatrick, he being a landholder about that time.
In a suit for reimbursement for timber destroyed in connection with the erection
of the military post here, Colonel Fitzpatrick testified that after the withdrawal of the
troops on February I, 1842, the Indians came in and burned "the blockhouses, stock-
ades, pickets and other structures."
Evidently there were a number of small, crude buildings and two more substan-
tial ones, one of which had two stories, the lower part being built of native rock and
doubtless used as an officers' quarters, while the other, a long, squat building, was the
barracks for the privates. The larger of these two buildings was used by the Wo-
man's Club to house the public library following the sale of the club building, once
located at the southeast corner of Flagler and Southeast First Avenue, and so used
until the completion of the new woman's club building on the bay front.
The barracks building was constructed wholly of rock and stood immediately
west of the larger one. It is more than likely that these two structures were erected
by Colonel Fitzpatrick, the larger one as a residence, both being later taken over by
the war department and the other necessary buildings added. The march of prog-
ress is rapidly changing the appearance of that once sequestered spot, Fort Dallas
Park, and the sale in 1925 of the land on which stood the old barracks building was
followed by the statement by the new owner that he would raze the old building to
give place to a modern one, hence it seemed that the historic structure was doomed
to be lost to the city, but through the heroic efforts of the Woman's Club and the
Daughters of the American Revolution a popular subscription of something over
seven thousand dollars was raised and the contract let for removal of the landmark
to a place of security.
The site selected was in the northwest corner of the park skirting the east shore
of the Miami River and not far from the Scottish Rite temple. The old building
was dismantled, the pieces carefully numbered and again erected and completely re-
stored to its former condition; all later-day changes were eliminated so that the build-
ing is now historically true to its original arrangement, both interior and exterior.
For a time a sort of seat of government was maintained at Indian Key until the
Indian depredations forced a move further northward to the Cape Florida vicinity,
where there was a garrison, then later to the mouth of the Miami, where a small
group of houses had foregathered about the military post, Fort Dallas. Then, on
February 19, 1879, the county seat was voted to be moved to Juno, situated in the
northern part of the county and now but a memory. A court house was built there
1 9 3;
I r.- 77
Bus NS STREETS OF MIAMI: -First enuc at the Post Office. 2-LookiIg west on Flaglcr Street
3-North side of Flag/cer Street, -' west, showing the new building of the Bay of Biscayne Bank under
nistruction. 4-South side of Street, looking cast. 5-Looking cast on Flaglcr Street. First Na-
tional Bank Huilding with Flag.-(Above photographs taken in 1924.)
BI_;,SINI' ;;sar ST REET FI+M: -!ist.zenea tePs O7e. -Loknzeto Falr "re
3--ort sieo lge ".e,' 1'sso.n h ebidn f h ~3 flieyeBn ~e
,'mstucian 4-Sut sie f ,.' Sret, ooht est.5-Lokig estonFlalr tret.FistNa
tina Bank Bulig"ih lg-(ble htgah akni 9>.
Hotel Royal Palm, Miami, showing partial view of grounds.
and dedicated with considerable eclat. In the meantime, Miami kept growing, and in
1889, was able to regain the location of the county seat.
Dade County's first representative in the state legislature was Temple Pent, the
first person to whom there is any record of a marriage license having been issued in
the county, this record being made at Indian Key. Mr. Pent sat in the house during
the session of 1845, while L. W. Smith was the senator from the "Southern" district,
of which Dade County formed a part. Iater Temple Pent was elected state senator.
The early state records have been lost or destroyed, but those who have represented
the county in the state legislature since the war of 1861-65, the year of their service
and their post office address were as follows:
Isaiah Hall, of Key Biscayne, 1868; William H. Gleason, Key Biscayne, 1872-
74; W. W. Hicks, Key Biscayne, 1875; J. J. Brown, Miami, 1877; John W. Ewan,
Miami, 1879; R. B. Potter, Biscayne, 1881; John J. Brelsford, Lake Worth (now
West Palm Beach), 1883; John W. Ewan, Miami, 1885; James Wood Davidson,
Figulus, 1887; W. D. Albury, Miami, 1889; E. N. Dimmick, Palm Beach, 1891;
Fred S. Morse, Miami, 1893; Henry E. Sewall, Sewall's Point, 1895; R. B. Potter,
West Palm Beach, 1897; Fred S. Morse, Miami, 1899; R. H. Burr, Jr., Little River,
1901; Graham W. King, Ojus, 1903-1905; John W. Watson, Miami, 1907; George
O. Butler, Miami, 1909; John W. Watson, Miami, 1911 ; George A. Worley, Miami,
1913; R. E. McDonald, Fulford, 1915; John W. Watson, Miami, 1917-19; Ben C.
Willard, Miami, 1921; John W. Watson, Miami, 1923; Norris W. McElyea,
In that early period mail facilities were afforded at Indian Key, occasional boats
bringing the mail from Key West, which was the receiving place until the coming of
the railroad to the towns north within carrying distance. At first accommodation of-
fices were maintained at one of the few stores that located about the old barracks.
In those days, the office of postmaster was a perquisite that belonged to the leading-
and generally the only-merchant who would afford space for the small number of
boxes and other facilities necessary for the handling of the few letters and fewer periodi-
cals that came to the place. George Ferguson, who conducted a store about two miles
up the river, was the first postmaster. Then the Brickell store, near the mouth of the
river, housed it for some time; at another time it was at Little River and during this
migratory period it bore several names such as Biscayne, Key Biscayne and Figulus.
The official establishment of a post office here was on April 9, 1850, with George
W. Ferguson as postmaster. His successors and the date of their appointment were
the following: Robert M. Hale, November Io, 1855; John Duke, February 11, 1856;
Michael J. O'Brien, December 6, 1856; George W. Ferguson, July 2, 1858; Robert
R. Fletcher, July 25, 1860; William H. Hunt, May 6, 1866; Charles F. Barager,
October 14, 1869; Charles E. Barnes, August 26, 1870, under the name "Figulus";
Andrew Price, December 12, 1870; Ephiram T. Sturtevant, April 26, 1876; Ernest
C. Lyman, September 7, 1877; Edmond Barnot, June 21, 1878; Mrs. Sarah G. Glea-
son, September 19, 1882; Hannibal D. Pierce, June 21, 1883; Edmond Barnot, Sep-
tember 6, 1883.
The office under the name of Biscayne was discontinued, March 12, 1888, and
the Washington records show that those who served as postmasters at Miami were,
dating from their appointments, W. W. Hicks, September 22, 1874; Alice Lovelace,
January 25, 1876; John W. Evans, probably John W. Ewan, April 24, 1876; W. H.
Benset, September 14, 1879; Alice A. Brickell, February 27, I88o; James A. Mc-
Crory, August 28, 1889; Alice A. Brickell, December 16, 1890; Joseph S. Warner,
May i, 1897; H. C. Budge, April 11, 19oo; Morgan E. Jones, May 20, 1912; F. M.
Brown, March o1, 1914; A. E. Cully (acting), January I, 1919; John D. Gardner,
January 2.2, 1922.
The first big event in the life of the young city was the coming in 1898 of 7,500
United States troops at the time of the Spanish-American War, the first arrival of
soldiers being on the night of June 24. From that on, the men in blue poured into
the city at the rate of a thousand a day until the full complement had arrived. For
their accommodation the city had prepared a large campground which it had tender-
ed to the Secretary of War, the camp being centered about what is now Sixth Street
and extending from the bay to the river. It was known as Camp Miami and the troops
quartered here consisted of the First and Second Regiments of Alabama, Texas and
Louisiana, also a third brigade of Northern troops. Their coming was not an un-
mixed blessing and when the order was issued on August I for a movement of these
troops to Jacksonville, beginning on the following day, the order was hailed with de-
light by the better class of citizens.
Local preparation for the protection of the city began on April 14, 1898, when
Robert Ranson arrived here to begin work of supervising the construction of a for-
tification on Brickell Point that commanded a view of the river, bay and Norris Cut,
Fishing on the Southeastern Coast of Florida is the angler's delight. The two above pictures represent
a day's sport for each party.
I'ule Fifty-lt o
i-One of the most delightful drives from Miami Beach to Fulford, in which all the scenery of the
South Sea Islands may be found. 2--One of the many beautiful Royal Palm Avenues near Miami. 3-
Noyal Palm Hotel Gardens.-(Photos by F. A. Robinson.)
the inlet from the Atlantic that then had considerable depth. The defense consisted
of a two hundred foot face built of heavy timbers these reinforced by great banks of
sand, the latter being placed in position by the railroad's dredge. Four guns were
mounted-two of eight-inch caliber and the others of ten-inch.
Other protective activities consisted of the organization by Judge Ashton of a
cavalry company of sixty-eight men; also one of infantry, the latter at Cocoanut Grove
and of which Captain John J. Haden, a West Point graduate, was selected as captain.
On two occasions the city has staged fetes that brought it much fame. The first
of these was a "mid-winter-festival" held from January II to 16, 1915, being spon-
sored by the Knights of Dade, organized for that specific purpose and largely from
among the business and professional men. It was a great success as was its succes-
sor, the Palm Fete, held from December 7 to II, 1920, and backed largely by the
Chamber of Commerce.
The real growth of Miami and of Dade County started with the coming of the
Flagler railroad, now known as the Florida East Coast, the first train reaching Miami
on April 15, 1896. Prior to that time, the town had been a struggling village, prob-
ably dating back to the occupation of Fort Dallas barracks. Its citizenry numbered
some splendid men, but they were all too busy trying to obtain the wherewithal to buy
food and to erect homes to pay much attention to making a model city.
When the railway extended its lines from West Palm Beach to Miami, it found
much of its revenue was derived from the shipping that entered Biscayne Bay, hence
the railway company soon moved its cheap little station from its position on the main
line, not far from where the present station is situated, to a point on the bay in
proximity to the docks of the Peninsular and Occidental steamship line, which was
one of the railroad company's several interlocking corporations. Isidor Cohen, a
pioneer resident, states that when located on the bay front the railway station stood
on a block of ground now largely occupied by the Daily News Tower. This did not,
however, prove to be a practical location and the structure was soon changed back to
its original site.
With the beginning of train service, there came an influx of splendid people
directly and indirectly connected with the railroad's business affairs. This force was
soon after augmented by another body of enterprising men, driven by the great
freeze in northern Florida in the winter of 1897-8 which so seriously crippled the
citrus industry that many of those engaged in the business there came here to start
life anew, so that citrus fruits were for many years one of the big money crops and
is yet no mean factor, though all the close-in groves have been cut up into subdivisions.
Biltmore, the subdivision west of Buena Vista, was formerly a grapefruit grove, some
of the old trees yet standing. Up to 1923, the large area bounded on the south by
Thirtieth Street and on the north by Thirty-Fourth, reaching from Northeast Second
Avenue nearly to the bay, was also a citrus grove. The same holds good of several
other subdivisions surrounding the older part of the city. When the city cemetery was
located on what is now Northeast Second Avenue it was so remotely situated out
among the palmettoes that it was thought to be safely beyond human habitation.
An election was held on July 27, 1896, to determine whether to incorporate the
town and the proposition carried overwhelmingly, so that the village that never was
a town jumped at once into the ranks of a city and soon became famous as the
Magic City, a distinction it has since worn in name and in fact.
So young is the rapidly-growing city that many of its early business and profes-
sional men are yet in the ranks of activity, among whom are John B. Reilly, its first
mayor; John and E. G. Sewell; Isidor Cohen, E. A. Waddell, E. V. Blackman, Dan
Hardie, John W. Watson, J. F. Chaille, H. H. Filer, Salem Graham, E. L. Brady,
Frank T. Budge, John Seybold, G. A. Worley, S. Bobo Dean, Frank Wharton, H. M.
King, F. B. Stoneman, Captain J. H. Welsh, T. V. Moore, B. B. Tatum, H. F.
Atkinson, J. E. Lummus, E. B. Douglas; among those coming a few years later are
D. W. Moran, Charles Thompson, Harry Tuttle, Z. T. Merritt, Mitchell D. Price,
F. H. Rand, F. M. Hudson, T. A. Winfield, J. K. Dorn, Charles A. Mills and to
the list might be added a host of others.
Both in 1920 and 1922, Miami held first place in building construction in Flor-
ida; in 1923, it dropped to second place by a narrow margin, but in 1924, it easily
regained its lead and the figures for the first five months of 1925 were four times as
great as those of the previous year, indicating that last year's phenomenal record will
Miami Biltmore Hotel and Country Club, Coral Gablc;.
be greatly outdistanced. The exact figures for the "Twin Cities" for the years in-
dicated being as follows: 1921, $6,919,505; 1922, $6,130,449; 1923, $11,388,866;
The era of better building in Miami may be said to have begun with the erec-
tion of the Hotel McAllister, about 1918. Prior to that date, the greater portion of
the commercial structures were of poured concrete but the McAllister is of steel.
Now the better buildings use this form of construction, with a variation of rein-
forced concrete for the members, with curtain walls of hollow tile or concrete blocks.
A few of the more notable buildings completed or begun during this year of 1925
are the Daily News Tower, on Bayshore Drive at Sixth Street, the second unit of the
large structure of the Bank of Bay Biscayne, McAllister Hotel Annex, Central Ar-
cade and the fifteen-story office building being erected for the Realty Board, their
claim for it being that it will be the largest and finest building owned by any similar
board in the world.
At the April bank call, there was on deposit in the banks of Miami the sum of
one hundred and fifteen million dollars. As an evidence of the commercial growth of
the city the figures for corresponding periods for the past few years are quoted as
follows: 1922, $17,639,307; 1923, $25,750,961; 1924, $38,966,856; 1925, $115,-
ooo,ooo. These figures do not include the deposits of the several suburban banks.
In finances Miami ranks first of any city in Florida, the per capital bank deposits
being the largest in the state. This is also confirmed by the amount of business car-
ried through the clearing house. For the first three months of 1924, these figures
showed $51,117.39; for the corresponding period of 1925 they were $151,867,-
583.72, or an increase of 197 per cent.
At present Miami is the third city in population in the state. It is situated on
the west shore of Biscayne Bay, about three miles wide at this point. Here may be
found the most equable climate in the United States if not in the world. The state
census, taken early in 1925, gives the population of the city, within the corporate
limits, as being 71,419. The state and federal census for the past five-year periods,
is as follows: 1900, 1,854; 1905, 3,500; 1910, 7,240; 1915, 16,027; 1920, 29,571.
The material progress of the city is further shown by the realty valuations, a
table of which is appended. A study of these figures show two peaks or high-level
indices in 1905 and again in 1915. Since the latter date the valuation for taxa-
tion purposes has been climbing steadily and materially.
Year Assessor Net Valuation Millage Taxes Levied
1897 J. M. Graham...........S 161,994 20 $ 3,239
1898 R. M Smith ............ 243,182 20 4,863
1899 R. M Smith ........... 278,360 20 5,566
1900 R. M. Smith ........... 306,544 20 6,129
1901 R. M Smith ........... 363,197 20 7,268
1902 R. M. Smith ........... 397,822 20 7,956
1903 M. R. Kellum .......... 535,872 20 10,717
1904 M. R. Kellum .......... 683,750 20 13,675
1905 M. R. Kellum ........... 1,054,360 27 28,467
1906 J. F. Jaudon ............ 1,203,020 23 27,669
1907 J. F. Jaudon ............. 1,322,720 23 30,422
1908 W. B. Hinton .......... 1,470,600 30 44,118
1909 T. C. Hinton ........... 1,455,593 30 43,679
1910 T. C. Hinton ........... 1,508,007 30 45,242
1911 T. C. Hinton ........... 1,656,975 36 59,651
1912 T. C. Hinton ........... 1,999,418 32 63,981
1913 T. C. Hinton ........... 4,638,045 23 106,675
1914 T. A. Price ............ 6,630,810 21 139,247
H!lom of .S'. Bobo Dean, on thec .iami Rivcr in S;t. John's ',ark,. Mr. DPcii -,as formilcrly ,ditr anii
wi'n,'r of the Miami "Mlcropolis," no-' the Miami ",')(/ily \'Tc's,
I .if -.vir
Year Assessor Net Valuation Millage Taxes Levied
1915 T. A. Price ............ 13,251,400 I2i. 162,329
1916 T. A. Price . .. 21,149,950 12 253,799
1917 T. A. Price . . .... 23,938,340 13 311,198
1918 J. W Boyd ............ 28,509,010 15Y2 441,889
1919 G. D. Brossier .......... 40,695,584 13 529,042
1920 C. K. Cring ........... 55,233,418 17 938,968
1921 C. K. Cring ........... 58,571,310 16 937,140
1922 C. K. Cring. ............ 64,964,790 17Y2 1,136,883
1923 C. K. Cring. ............ 70,341,895 22 1,547,521
1924 C. K. Cring............ 87,661,714 20 1,763,234
The forerunner of the present Chamber of Commerce, with a membership of
approximately 1,700, was the old Board of Trade organized early in 1900 by E. G.
and John Sewell, Gaston Drake, J. K. Dorn, John B. Reilly, E. V. Blackman, B.
B. Tatum, George B. Romfh, William Mark Brown, E. B. Douglas, J. E. Lummus,
John C. Gramling, Isidor Cohen, Frank B. Stoneman, John Seybold, E. A. Waddell,
J. A. McDonald, Dr. J. M. Jackson, W. M. Burdine, J. L. Townley, F. W. Hahn,
Frank Wharton and W. W. Prout, the last named being its president, followed by J.
B. Reilly, who served for several years while the Rev. E. V. Blackman was the secre-
tary for a long period. The organization had no fixed office or meeting place and
the secretary's salary, doubtless owing to a stringency in the board's funds, was
reduced to the munificent sum of five dollars per month.
This organization's first activity was to interest itself in helping Henry M. Flag-
ler obtain government aid in digging a ship channel down the bay, connecting with
deep water at Cape Florida, and such help was finally received. Other early enter-
prises fostered by this board were a bridge to span the bay and afford easy access to
the beach, Everglades drainage, a fair and racing circuit. It was not willing that
the light of the "Magic City" should be hidden under a bushel, hence appropriated
one hundred dollars with which to pay for a page in a Jacksonville paper in which
the town's advantages were extolled.
This board's aim for deep water was high as they then asked for a twenty-four
foot channel and it now seems that after the lapse of a quarter of a century these
hopes are to be realized as Congress has made the necessary appropriation to deepen
the present eighteen-foot channel to twenty-four. The money for this will not be
available for about two years and the city is manifesting its characteristic enterprise
by advancing the funds for immediate prosecution of the work. In like manner the
Tamiami Trail, the great cross-state highway, now seems to be due for early com-
pletion as Governor Martin declared some weeks ago that it must be completed if
he was obliged to do it himself.
The municipal docks, built and maintained by the city, with its own trackage
leading from the railway's main line thereto, has already been enlarged once and more
room is demanded for shipping. At present boat lines are operated from New York,
Baltimore, Charleston, Jacksonville, New Orleans, Key West, Havana, Nassau, etc.
Transportation facilities are further increased by motor-bus lines running on regular
schedules as far north as Jacksonville.
The city's commercial area embraces a population that approximates three hun-
dred thousand. It is conservatively estimated that the three hundred hotels and apart-
ment houses in the city and on the beach accommodate 350,000 winter visitors, the
number being an ever-increasing one.
During the last few years a number of islands have been created in the bay north
of the Causeway by bulkheading and backfilling, the pioneers of these being Palm and
Star Islands, the Venetian Islands forming a newer group yet in the process of com-
pletion. The latter connect with the two shores by a newer causeway that replaces the
------ -I-*/'' / -s- r .
old Collins bridge, long famed
for being the longest wooden
f bridge in the world.
S c In the spring of 1925, real
estate values took a decided up-
ward turn in the face of the
steadily-rising prices that began
about five years ago. A great
lItl many subdivisions have been add-
Ric[ ed during that time or are in the
ll U process of making, among the
S E more pretentious of these being
Sthe famed Coral Gables which
ICEE E follows strictly after Spanish
lines in its architecture as well as
lE in street names. An arts and
crafts section is now being added
eie a oeand already has a fine printing
establishment in operation. A
Si EE trolley line leading to this suburb
was inaugurated in May of this
i r EEE vear.
t. m Another of the better close-
in subdivisions is Miami Shores,
Sbl along Biscayne Bay, which is be-
ing developed into one of the
finest residential districts in the
World. More remote but quite
SC a iad k under cnstrcti extensive enterprises are Ful-
The leo' Ctral nlsrpade p. oe under costruction. It ford El Portal and Holl wood.
eill be coimpleted irn time for th coing season. Kihnel ford, Portal and Hollywood.
Elliott of Miamti and Pi'ttsburgh are the architects. This firm has The town of Hialeah, but five
played an important part in the Miami r program, having years old, is a good example of
designed a considerable number of the city's trnest buildings. Florida marvels. In January
last a million dollar racing plant was put to use and jumped into immediate success.
Here was also operated the first permanent Jai-Alai fronton in the United States. The
Florida East Coast Railway is now constructing immense yardage there preparatory
to moving its yards and shops from the Buena Vista section to the larger area. A
belt line now in operation from Little River to Hialeah will be continued south to
Larkins, thus diverting heavy through shipments of freight. This belt line will also be
the terminal of the new line now being extended from Okeechobee to Miami.
So active have been real estate operations in Miami that the new Silver Crest
subdivision of over two hundred lots was sold out in May in ten minutes while a
few days later another similar sized plat was closed out in fifteen minutes. In April,
when Buena Vista took a spurt, men stood in line to select a lot.
The local newspaper field is well covered with four daily and three weekly
publications, the latter being The Post, Central News and Miami Life. The dailies
are The News Metropolis, the oldest paper in the city; The Herald, The Tribune and
The Illustrated Daily Tab.
The first newspaper printed in the city was the Weekly Metropolis, the first
issue of which appeared on Friday, May 15, 1896, with Walter S. Graham as editor
and M. F. Featherly as "local editor," the paper setting forth the geographical fact
that it was "printed in twenty-five degrees and twenty minutes north latitude, in
an cl,,.u, Miami, a town with over a thousand souls and the plat of the town not yet
f',o 1-'itff tl- inht
In April of the following year, the name
of E. P. Byington appeared as "editor and
manager" and in September, 1897, the
Featherlys-W. M. and C. G.-purchased
S ,the paper but on December 29, 1899, they an-
nounced the sale of the same to B. B. Tatum
S* r of Bartow. The paper had been a weekly
Publication up to this time. Some of the early
files of the daily are missing, but the twenty-
first issue of The Daily Metropolis bore date
of January I, 1904, hence the daily publica-
tion must have begun on or about December
12, 1903, Mr. Tatum having M. F. Feather-
ly as associate editor.
Some time prior to January, 1905, Mr.
kl- H ~ Tatum organized the Miami Printing Com-
Spany with himself as president and S. Bobo
'L Dean as secretary-treasurer. Prior to his com-
ing to Miami, Mr. Dean had been editor of
the Palm. Beach News.
SOn April 20, 1909, announcement was
........-........-.. a made of the purchase of Mr. Tatum's interest
in The Metropolis by A. P. Bendle, of Colo-
''' .. rado Springs. In October, Mr. Dean's name
Gateway to Home of Gordon E. Mayer. appeared at the masthead as editor and man-
ager, Mr. Bendle remaining a part owner, a
relationship that continued until the issue of January 16, 1916, when Mr. Bendle's
name disappeared from the paper's heading as president of the concern.
On April Io, 1923, announcement was made of the sale of the paper to Honora-
ble James M. Cox, former governor of Ohio, and on May i5th of the following year
Colonel Morton M. Milford entered upon his duties as editor of the publication. Soon
after the transfer the old Metropolis title had the prefix "News and" added to make
the paper conform to the name of the three other papers owned in Ohio by Gov-
ernor Cox, The Dayton News, the parent paper; The Springfield News and The
Canton News. Early in January, 1925, the newspaper was moved into the magnifi-
cent plant it had erected at the corner of Bayshore Drive and Northeast Sixth
Street, this being the finest newspaper building and plant in the South and represent-
ing an outlay of a million and a half.
The Miami Evening Record began publication late in 1901. The twentieth is-
sue of Volume V is dated January 4, 1907, with A. T. and A. -L. LaSalle as owners
and F. B. Stoneman as editor, the concern later becoming the LaSalle-Stoneman
Strange to say the first morning paper printed in Miami appeared as The Morn-
ing News in the summer of 1904, with E. T. and G. W. Byington as owners and
editors. In 1908, a hyphenated title appeared, The News-Record, with F. B. Stone-
man as editor.
No. i, Volume I, of the Miami Weekly Herald appeared on December 2, 191o,
the second issue carrying at its masthead the information that F. B. Shutts was pres-
ident of the Herald Printing and Publishing Company, also that F. B. Stoneman was
the editor. Direct connection with the early files of the Daily Herald is here lost but
the twenty-eighth issue is dated January I, 1911, hence publication must have begun
early in December, 19to.
The Flagler estate had for many years held a considerable block of the stock
--Granada Apartment Homes, Miami. 2-Studebaker sales and shoIC room. 3-Interior vice of Fair-
fax Theatre. Giving a general idea of building construction in and about 3Miami-all erected by P. J.
Davis Construction Company, Miami.
of the Herald Publishing Company, this holding having been transferred to Mr.
Shutts, according to formal announcement made in October, 1919.
On February 5, 1925, The Daily Tribune began its second year. It was for a
number of months printed at Miami Beach, then was moved over to the mainland,
where it soon began issuing a Sunday edition in connection with its appearance as an
afternoon paper but this feature was soon discontinued. The editor is Clayton Sedg-
On January 12, 1925, The Illustrated Daily Tab made its bow to the Miami
public as a morning paper, following the tabloid size and general style of the Cor-
nelius Vanderbilt, Jr., chain of papers.
Shore Line Palm Island in Biscayne Bay, S ,' Home of L. T. Highleyimail.
Page Sia. ty
The Jfiami Chamber of Commerce, One of the
First Reasons for the Prosperity and JAet-
ropolitan zJodernity of Jfiami
S there a spot in America where the name and renown of Miami has not
been heard? The immense scale of financial operations here, with the result-
ing brilliant projects of development, refinements on the beauties of nature,
growth in the artifices of commerce and the luxuries of living, all of which
has accrued to the profit of thousands, is to-day known and wondered at
throughout the country, and is every year drawing to Miami the class of citizens whose
presence here will accelerate the process of development and enrich the institutions of
To the Miami Chamber of Commerce is primarily due the widespread fame of
the city of sunshine and perpetual opportunity. Further, in the actual undertaking of
numerous and highly significant improvements,
the Chamber of Commercial has been the
active instrument in the original launching of
Through his personal investment of
energy, time and money in the cause of
Miami's advancement, and through his ag-
gressive administration of the Chamber of
Commerce, Everest G. Sewell, president of the
Chamber, stands to-day a unique figure in the
history of city-building in America. Settling
in Miami in 1896, the year that it was found-
ed as a city, Mr. Sewell, who with his brother
established the first store in the city, early
foresaw the potential wealth and high civiliza-
tion latent in Miami, and having aroused the
enthusiasm and co-operation of public-spirited
men, entered on a systematic and audacious
campaign of city advertising. Governed al-
ways by the idea of attracting the better ele-
ment of merchants and citizens to Miami, the
Chamber of Commerce broadcasted to the
country, in terms of dignity and vivid descrip-
tion, the amenities of Miami, which in its es-
E. G. SEWVELL, President sence was its climate. In the years that have
Miami Chamber of Commerce followed, the Chamber of Commerce has
executed or sponsored the developments that
have given Miami more than a climate to boast of. This organization is respon-
sible in great part for the myriad features of commercial, agricultural, industrial and re-
sort life that are to-day the component elements of the "Magic City," and thanks to
the Chamber of Commerce, Miami is the most widely advertised city in the world.
From the engagement of Arthur Pryor's renowned band for the city's public park
to the final victorious step in the long fight for a harbor for Miami that will accom-
modate the world's largest ships and a shipping commerce of immense proportions, the
Chamber of Commerce, during the presidency of Everest G. Sewell,, has been a con-
stant, vigilant force for the advancement of the institutions of Miami.
The harbor enterprise has been the dominant personal enthusiasm of Mr. Sewell
since his coming to Miami, and how effective has been his agitation and exertion is
P'age Sxi !1-,o,,e
attested to in the circumstance that already the great Clyde Line steamers have made
Miami a regular port of call, and that Congress in the last session has voted the ap-
propriation of more than a million and a half of dollars for the further improve-
ment of Miami Harbor.
Throughout the years of Miami's development, Mr. Sewell has not only ad-
ministered with success the affairs of one of the foremost mercantile institutions of
the city, labored in the many tasks of city advertising and of improvements initiated
and sponsored by the Chamber, but has persistently and energetically prosecuted the
harbor project, with a view to making Miami a world port. Re-elected in 1925, with
his object accomplished, Mr. Sewell has the satisfaction of knowing that for thou-
sands, and for future millions, he has been principally instrumental in creating .i
medium of. untold prosperity.
During the decade in which Mr. Sewell has guided the destinies of the Chamber
of Commerce, and therefore to a large extent, Miami itself, over one million dollars
was subscribed for advertising; the bank deposits during this ten-year period increased
from $3,351,000 in 1914 to $106,531,312.54 in 1925, or an increase of 3,079 per
cent., while the Miami population grew from a town of 7,000 to the "Magic Cit3'
of over ioo,ooo, which is to-day attracting nation-wide attention.
The Miami Chamber of Commerce, recognized throughout the United States a,
uniquely progressive and efficient, has in addition completed the program represented
by the following activities:
First: Inaugurated advertising in Northern newspapers and magazines and ex-
pended more money in this way during the past nine years than all the other resorts
Second: First in Florida to inaugurate the giving of free band concerts by a
nationally known band.
Third: Built a new band stand in Royal Palm Park and worked out a plan of
having reserved seats. By fitting Royal Palm Park with proper seating capacity there
has been created a community center for visitors and home people.
Fourth: Inaugurated advertising through high-class literature without advertise-
Fifth: Inaugurated the idea of producing lithographic posters for railroad ticket
office windows and other information bureaus.
Sixth: During the administration the William Jennings Bryan Sunday School
Class in Royal Palm Park was organized and was the first large outdoor Sunday School
class to be organized in the United States.
Seventh: Promoted the creating of a Harbor in Biscayne Bay and $630,843.I2
has been appropriated by the Government to complete the channel, making a total of
nearly one and a half millions expended by the Government; secured adoption of the
twenty-five-foot project and the appropriation of $i,6o5,ooo to complete same.
Eighth: Promoted the establishment of steamship lines to Miami.
Ninth: Promoted the dredging of the Florida Everglades and the completion
of the Miami Canal to Lake Okeechobee.
Tenth: Promoted the building of the Miami Studios, which company has ex-
pended, and caused to be expended in the community, approximately $I,ooo,ooo.
Eleventh: Advocated the building of the Causeway to Miami Beach.
Twelfth: Increased the travel to Miami approximately I,ooo per cent.
Thirteenth: Increased the Tourist season in Miami about six weeks.
Fourteenth: Responsible for increasing the realty values in Miami, by bringing
thousands of new visitors and settlers each and every year, at least fifty per cent. of
the total increase during the past nine years, which increase we estimate in the city
limits at real values $350,000,000, of which at least $200,000,000 should be credited
to the activities of the Miami Chamber of Commerce.
Fifteenth: During the above period the bank deposits have increased from $3,-
339,927 to $106,531,312.64.
Sixteenth: Promoted the building of a high-grade road to Jacksonville, which
has since become the Dixie Highway.
Seventeenth: Gave the Palm Fete in December, 1920, and the Fruit and Flower
Festival in January, 1924, opening guns to lengthen the season in Miami. The cham-
ber also inaugurated band concerts in December, 1916, so as to assist in lengthening
Eighteenth: Brought three aviation stations here during the war, on which the
Government expended in this community about $4,000,000, thereby eliminating the
great danger of a panic at that time.
Nineteenth: Inaugurated the idea of putting out road signs, billboards and
electric signs in Northern states and cities.
Twentieth: Backed bond issues for public schools, good roads and city improve-
Twenty-first: Kept the Chamber of Commerce out of politics.
Twenty-second: Protected the interests of the citizens in preserving Biscayne Bay
for harbor, boating, scenic and sea breeze purposes.
Twenty-third: Retained the Miami Harbor on the mainland of this city.
The officers are: E. G. Sewell, president; C. E. Riddell, managing secretary and
treasurer. The following are vice-presidents and directors: R. V. Atkisson, civic;
Crate D. Bowen, waterways; M. O. Fullam, mercantile; John C. Gramling, legisla-
tion; Norman W. Graves, traffic; C. D. Leffier, industrial; H. H. Mase, conventions;
John B. Orr, city planning and beautifying: George K. Palmer, membership; J. S.
Rainey, agricultural; I. E. Schilling, good roads; E. G. Sewell, publicity; Frank
Smathers, entertainment; F. B. Stoneman, tourists' grievance; B. B. Tatum, Ever-
glades; S. D. McCreary, hotels. Directors at large: W. W. Culbertson, James A.
Donn, J. A. Guyton, O. A. Sandquist, George C. Stembler. Civic club directors: Crate
D. Bowen, Rotary; Walter S. Bigelow, Advertising; Lon Worth Crow, Realty Board;
Francis M. Miller, Exchange; Lorrain G. Smith, Kiwanis; Rev. R. N. Ward, Civitan;
W. H. Burwell, Lions.
IPaw/r Si.rt!l thre
Residence of Charles L. Briggs, Miami
ET picturesquely on a terrace sloping gently to the shores of Biscayne Bay, the home
of Charles L. Briggs on beautiful Brickell Avenue, Miami, is one of the most pre-
tentious and charming residences in that delightful section. Designed by Gordon E.
Mayer, of MIiami, the house is thoroughly Italian. The screened loggia is the central
feature of the interior, opening on to the main hall, where the massive Italian stair-
.*ase leading to the second story has for its design a similar one in northern Italy. About the cen-
cral patio on the second story is a cloistered gallery upon which the rooms open through wide
French doors. Sweeping stairs descend from the patio, winding around in a fountain pool built
,n at the base of the eastern wall and supporting the patio balustrade. The dining room is fin-
ished in red gum, worked to a finish that equals in richness of color that of Circassian walnut.
At the east end of this room large doors open on to a wide dining terrace which gives on to the
attractive Italian formal garden and terraced lawns extending from in front of the house down tc
the bay. From the drive, steps lead to a pergola and large domed fountain, the central motive of
the admirably planned landscape gardening effects. A Venetian boat-landing comprises the central
feature on the water front. The growth on the grounds about the house has been preserved as far
is possible in its primitive luxury. Sweet-bay trees arch before the entrance, and dense natural
foliage has been augmented by planted shrubbery. Japanese grass, bougainvillea, dwarf poinsettias.
:limbing jasmine and night blooming jasmine are among the decorative plants, and an expansive
flower garden on the western side affords a hundred varieties of cut flowers for the house. Clusters
o)f coconut palms stand out nobly against the beautiful tropic background of sea and sky. The roof
of the house is of roughened Mission tile of many complementary colors, as is that of the garage.
The well appointed garage has in its second story rooms for servants, with baths and a sleeping
PIy/e Si.rxt! frttm)
zciami each--Where Sports and Fashionable
S'-; 1,V cities anywhere in the world are so delightfully situated as is Miami
,ii j--,; Beach. Located on the Atlantic Ocean, almost four miles across beauti-
,'. ".,. ful Biscayne Bay from Miami, it combines all the qualities to make for an
-,'' I. ideal resort community, and its tropical loveliness and wondrous waters
have quickly made it one of the most appealing places in America.
Until 1914, it was a jungle, and was connected with Miami by a long, narrow
wooden bridge-a neglected and forgotten community, all told not regarded as be-
ing worth more than a couple of hundred thousand dollars. To-day it is connected
I-Internationally fanned specd boats passing the FUltwaood l Hotel. 2-Scores of actss holiday
colors, world-fanmcd speed boats, a sea of burnished gold: thliiese arc a fe(i reasons wiy thousands arc flock-
ing South. 3-"Staiiding Room Only." A part of thei cowd that caie to the last race day at the Miami
Jockey Club track in HIialcah.
~~~- ~ ..*
i-Lorge passenger ships center lbhe part of Mia ini, Sica in er George Wfashini g/an en/cnn ig the harbor.
,Snurf bat/u im is enj oyed cen er day in t/ie yca r oni Fl/orida beac/is esA doaily secc (ii t Sout Bififea c/i 3i amin
<'a~~ Orgu U4
(' N .rh ItiIr r P"
r. A- .
If'licre battling is ali'avs good-'lliamni Brach Casino.
with Miami by a magnificent causeway, a wondrous city of world famed hotels,
costly homes, fine apartments, splendid churches, fine schools, and all else that goes
into making a community that has won regard as one of the marvels of America, and
one of the playgrounds of the nation.
But for all of this Miami Beach is accepted as being in its early magnitude.
Over six million dollars were spent in 1924 in new apartment houses, homes and
hotels, and indications point that this will be far surpassed in 1925. Statistical re-
ports show that in 1915, Miami Beach had a population of twenty-five. To-day it
is a community of more than 5,000, has twenty-eight hotels, eighty-five apartment
houses, ninety-five miles of roads, sixty-nine acres of polo fields, 363 acres in golf
courses, and nineteen public tennis courts.
The building of Miami Beach has been accomplished largely through money,
vision and courage. It has been the development of sand bars and swamps, the build-
ing of beautiful homes, hotels, auditoriums, casinos and boulevards on land pumped
from bay and seas, and much of this enterprise is to be credited to Carl Fisher. Mr.
Fisher started the enterprise with his millions, and other millions have followed.
Miami Beach has in the past built hotels unlike any other city in the world. A
thickly populated center, or a busy corner near the center of the city's activity is
PI'a/e Si3't!!-.Ce n
A group of Miami Beach Hote/s.
not selected. Instead the owners in the past selected a point far from the developed
sections, moving materials and men to the point, proceeded to build first the grounds,
then the building, sometimes a half million dollar project oftentimes more, and
then awaited the building of the city around the hotel. In 1916, Miami Beach had
one small hotel, a two-story frame building.
While Miami Beach is reputed among its winter visitors as providing the high-
est class of sports-the champions in golfing, swimming, polo, motor boat racing,
boxing, diving, in fact every sport to make a resort popular,-business is by no means
in the background. From May, 1923, to May, 1924, transactions in real estate alone
amounted to $i5,ooo,ooo, while during the past year they have gone away beyond
this. The Carl Fisher properties alone sold more than $o10,ooo,ooo worth of prop-
The ocean beach at Miami is undoubtedly one of its greatest attractions, and
probably making it so is the fact that it has a very gradual incline, one that permits
wading far out from shore. The outer reefs are a barrier to modify the force of
the waves, there is no undertow and the water warmed by the Gulf Stream is warm-
ed to an even temperature. There are three bathing casinos, all admirably equipped,
and one, the Miami Beach Casino and Roman Pools, rivaling any found in the United
Property valuations, however, probably best reflect the growth and development
that has come to Miami Beach and for this the following table is submitted:
,g ^ir tl -('i!/lh t
HOME OF JAMES F. 1\ATTHEWS, BELLE ISLE
Situated on beautiful Belle Isle, that favored spot lying in quiet tropical luxury in Bay Biscayne, the
home of James IF. Mattlhews presents one of the finer aspects of the life of Miami. Mr. Matthews' Flor-
ida estate fronts on Bay Biscavne and I'enetian IW'ay, comprising an area of about 55,000 feet, laid out in
the delightful style possible where tropical growth has been disciplined under the skilled hand of maln.
Together -with this splendid residence, Mr. Maltthew's maintains a large boat slip on the 'west bay front.
The ball room occupies the floor above.
MIAMI BEACH PROPERTY INCREASE
Assessed Valuation-1915 ............$ 224,000.00
Assessed Valuation-- 916. ............. 335,120.00
Assessed Valuation-1917 ............. 647,500.00
Assessed Valuation-1i918 ............. 832,745.00
Assessed Valuation-1919 .............. 2,579,600.00
Assessed Valuation-- 920 ........ ... 3,933,700.00
Assessed Valuation--192 . . ..... 5540,112.00
Assessed Valuation-1922 . . ..... 6,235,539.00
Assessed Valuation--1923 ........ ... 8,222,485.00
Assessed Valuation-1924 . . .... 12,260,250.00
Unimproved property assessed at one fourth of valuation. Improved property
assessed at one-tenth of valuation.
A, III;e7 .V /
" ,- f ,
4-\'c Hom of Pal i Bach Pos- t. ,'I
,'. I< 'r.tf -y
j- .... i ", o o.-----
\\~r P\.~ l;(H: 1-`1 ..iC1S~~lflllt. 1- 7Ir C__. -lcre --h olcn r;;
!"~ra nllo 'rlr cchIot
West Palm Beach-,-l \(ew vtJetropolis
"A stretch of the whitest of white sand, two lines of steel rails, a few acres of pineapples, a couple
of houses and 'scrub' on every side! This was West Palm Beach in September, 1894.
"The remainder of the town was on paper, but in the twinkling of an eye came hundreds of workmen.
who were building the Hotel Royal Poinciana, and quickly pitched their tents: in the 'Y' formed by the
railroad tracks were at least fifty tents which became the negro quarters. This stage in the growth of
the town beggars description. It was simply unique."
-From the Lake Wl'orth Historian, 1896.
HUS we have historical introduction to a city that is now proving to be one
of the marvels of Florida. And strange indeed is the contrast it suggests.
West Palm Beach is to-day the seventh city in Florida, a city whose popu-
lation has increased 121 per cent. in the past four years, a city whose build-
ing permits are amounting to almost a million dollars a month, and a city
where in one recent week (in May, 1925) real estates sales amounting to close to ten
million dollars were reported.
The county seat of Palm Beach County, and separated from the Atlantic Ocean
and that famed playground of wealth, Palm Beach, only by Lake Worth, one of the
most beautiful of all Florida waters, West Palm Beach is described as being "the
tourist's elysium, the motorist's joyland, the golfer's delight, the fisherman's hawela,
the canoeist's lure, the aviator's joy-spaces, the yachtsman's reaches of glorified
waters, the surf-bather's liquid happiness, and the place where all lengthen the calendar
of their years-each one seasoned rich with contentment and unalloyed happiness."
Like most all Florida cities the rise of West Palm Beach to its present moment
of metropolitan promise has come within the past few years. In 191o, the popula-
tion was 1,739. In 1920, it was 8,659, and now in 1925, it is officially listed as 19,-
132. However, the latter figure is from the Florida state census report and is un-
doubtedly short of the actual permanent population. The Greater Palm Beach Cham-
ber of Commerce estimates the permanent population of the city and that of Palm
Beach to be in excess of 30,000, and the prediction is quite general that this will have
been increased to Ioo,ooo by 1930.
Another remarkable evidence of the city's growth and prosperity is to be gleaned
from its reports on building permits. In 1920, building permits in the Palm Beaches
were $1,670,737. In 1924, they were four times as great, amounting to $8,851,360,
while in January, February and March, 1925, they were continued in this proportion,
with total amount reaching $2,076,7 I. In West Palm Beach alone, in April, 1925,
building permits totaled $976,265. In addition to this West Palm Beach has a pro-
gram of municipal improvements that will probably require two million dollars to com-
plete. It already has more than 1oo miles of paved streets, a splendid system of
storm and sanitary sewers, and practically all of the other advantages and conven-
iences to be found in any city, but these are being added to continually. Principally
among improvements, the growth of the city and its consequent increase in traffic has
necessitated the widening of all streets and this work has already been begun, giving
splendid evidence as it goes along of the progressive policy that is preparing for a
much greater West Palm Beach.
Bank deposits too are an important indication of a community's prosperity, and
testifying to the greatness of West Palm Beach in this respect, bank deposits in West
Palm Beach banks show a total of more than twenty-six million dollars. In 190o,
they amounted to a little more than five hundred thousand dollars, and in 1920, they
had reached only $3,446,071, all of which offers quite a contrast to $26,888,204.38,
the figure attained by banks of the city early in 1925.
Among other advantages West Palm Beach has a source of water supply that is
I'Poa/c 'cccnty-ot, cC
Lak 'or i (-lause'a(1' co ecti g Pa ilt Beach ad '1. alm r ach ) z
SLa' 3--4 yPical Ifest's Pal Bech oeal lo e. 4 oma's Club.lon
Q-( \.I's C lu'. o
,!/0 r o
1 g1 o I f I o
..i.. '.. 31 i 111 r
r-El F'crano, West Painm Beach. 2-Alma Hotel, VWest Palm Beach. 3-Palms Hotel, West Palm Beach.
4-Billows Hotel, Palm Beach.
one of the finest in the South; a climate that is always moderate, with average tem-
perature of seventy-two degrees in winter and eighty-one degrees in summer; a fine
system of highways; one of the most fertile and productive back countries in Flor-
ida; fine hotels, apartments, homes, churches, schools, parks, and in fact all else that
makes a city inviting and desirable.
Transportation facilities at West Palm Beach are among the best on the entire
East Coast. In addition to the main line of the Florida East Coast Railroad it has in
the past year become the eastern Florida terminal of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad,
and the extending of this line to West Palm Beach from Tampa, giving direct cross
state rail-service, as well as a new line to the north has undoubtedly had much to
do with bringing about much of its present prosperity. It also has the Dixie Highway
passing directly through its center, giving a fine highway to both the north and the south.
The Conners Highway too, reaching Okeechobee City and the Everglades from the
tilI l I .
i-The Palm Reach Mercantile Building. --Citizens Bank ',:-'. Wests Palh e.ach. 3-Datura .-.rcade.
]-cst Palm Beach.
en t S'f-fouAn
i O 119 J;FQ RMAI..i
East Coast has West Palm
Beach as its eastern terminal
and this road connecting with
N) F State Road No. 8, has given the
City a direct highway to Tampa
and St. Petersburg, a distance
SI that motorists can easily travel
-.- in eight hours. The building of
S. Bl t this highway has practically
Opened up an entire new trading
territory to West Palm Beach
and its value to the city is almost
S i Iincalculable.
Further, among the progres-
sive steps that are being taken
The Electrical IHome, Ilcst Piali Beach. to build a greater West Palm
Beach it has been announced that the American Light and Power Company, through
its local subsidiary, the Southern Utilities Company, will spend a million dollars in
West Palm Beach alone in the improvement and extension of its service.
The federal government too is soon to erect a new post office in West Palm
Beach, and the city, a new city hall also, but in comparison to the many stupendous
projects that have and are taking place these are mere drops in the bucket. Like in
the other great cities of Florida, Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Orlando, and
others, the real estate developer has been active in West Palm Beach and everywhere
in the city is to be found evidence of his work-and worth. New subdivisions are be-
ing added daily and fine new residential colonies are arising so fast that it is almost im-
possible to keep pace with them. New hotels, new apartments, new office buildings,
and all else that is required in building ways to meet the demands of a swift growing
city are being started and completed with a rapidity that is almost breath taking.
During the past two seasons from eighty to a hundred thousand tourists have
visited West Palm Beach, and greater numbers are being expected and prepared for
during the coming season, and just as Florida is destined to have a great future so
is West Palm Beach, its seventh city. Its future as a commercial city is assured, and
just as it has in the past, it will for entertainment and pleasure, virtually continue as
a part of Palm Beach, sharing the resources of the resort to a large degree, as well
as offering those which are individual.
Figures, however, give the best testimony of the progress of West Palm Beach
and here in condensed statement they are:
1910 .......... ........ 1,739 1922 (estim ated) .......... 12,500
1920 .......... .... ..... 8,659 1923 (estimated).......... 16,ooo
1921 (estimated) .......... o,ooo000 1924 (estimated) .......... 20,000
1925 (estimated) .......... 25,000
BUILDING PERMITS POST OFFICE RECEIPTS
1910 (no figures available)......... 1910 ................ $ 12,183.27
1920 ............... $ 992,305.00 1920 ................ 20,257.11
1921 ............... 1,481,695.00 1922 ................ 75,55500oo
1922 ............... 2,718,544.00 1923 ................ 90,136.00
1923 ............... 2,285,808.00 1924 ................ 121,438.02
1924 .... ........... 5,128,515.oo
ASSESSED VALUATIONS BANK DEPOSITS
(March 14 each year)
1910 .............. $ 478,000.00 1910 .............. $ 551,387.77
1920 .............. 15,000,ooo.oo 1920 .............. 3,446,071-38
1922 .............. 18,707,32 .o0 1922 .............. 6,132,373.71
1923 .............. 10,329,379-35
1923 .............. 22,000,000.00 1924 .............. 12,490,801.79
1924 .............. 30,000,000.00 1925 ......... ..... 26,888,204.38
THE PALM BEACHES-MARCH 31, 1925
Population ...................................... ... 30,000
Building permits (January, February and March) ........ $ 2,076,711.00
Assessed valuation (1924) ............................ 42,705,266.00
Actual valuation .............. ................ ... 1o00,000,000.00
Post office receipts (January, February and March) ...... 71,206.00
Bank deposits ....................................... 30,000,000.00
CEght Epochs in Florida History
Eight governors served through eight distinctive epochs in the history of the state.
General Andrew Jackson served as Military Governor 1821 to 1822. At that time there was
not even a territorial government and war was being waged with the Seminole Indians, which
necessitated a military executive.
William P. Duval served as the Territorial Governor from 1822 to 1834.
William D. Moseley was the first Constitutional Governor-1842-5.
John Milton was the War Governor from 1861 to 1865. He was a real farmer governor,
being one of the best farmers of his day.
George F. Drew was the "Reconstruction Governor" from 1877 to 1881. He followed the
days of "carpet bag" rule. He saw and proved the wonderful agricultural possibilities of the
state. He took the light sandy soils of the Suwannee River section and made them yield a hun-
dred dollars per acre. He had fine thoroughbred cattle, horses and hogs and set the pace for real
William D. Bloxham was governor for two terms: From 1881 to 1885; also from 1897 to
1901. He found the state heavily in debt and sold 4,000,000 acres of land for $1,000,000, thus
clearing an obligation that was heavy when the population was only 338,406.
W. S. Jennings was a man of vision who saw the possibilities of the Everglades if drained.
The agitation he started was taken up by his successor and the project of drainage begun. He
served from 1901-5.
Napoleon B. Broward was the man who secured the needed legislation to begin the great
work of reclaiming the Everglades. He served from 1905 to 1909.
When a monument was erected to Governor Broward for his great work in beginning the
development of the Everglades, another monument should have been erected to R. J. Bolls, who
was the first man to prove the possibilities of the Everglades. Although persecuted and suffering
many losses, he never lost faith in his vision and devoted his life to pioneering in this unsolved
enigma of Florida.
Palm Beach--- Where Wealth Winters
...- ,T is doubtful if there is another winter place in America that is accorded
,., -, more publicity or more favorable word than Palm Beach. Its fame has
been spread to all of the countries of the world and along with Ameri-
i-1^, cans, Europeans, in goodly numbers, are yearly forsaking Nice, Monte
Carlo, Deauville, and the continental rivieria for its tropical charms and
delightful waters. It is the winter playground of wealth and fashion, and undoubt-
edly always will be.
Nature is at its best at Palm Beach, and blessed with a climate that is a
lure beyond resistance, it offers a thousand pleasures and healthful recreations. Situ-
ated in Palm Beach County, some three hundred miles south of Jacksonville; lying upon
a narrow strip of land facing the Atlantic Ocean, and separated from the mainland and
West Palm Beach by beautiful Lake Worth, Palm Beach enjoys geographical location
that is much to its advantage. It is on the furthermost curve of the eastern coast
line of Florida, 102 miles east of Jacksonville, and within a mile of it sweeps the deep
blue, warmth-giving Gulf Stream. The near approach of the Gulf Stream gives a
uniform temperature to the ocean at Palm Beach that makes bathing delightful every
day in the year. The temperature of the water never falls below seventy degrees.
Also because of its far eastern location, and because of desire to avoid the current of
the Gulf Stream, many large vessels barely skirt Palm Beach in their routes to the
North and the South and the sight of them is one that is not ordinarily witnessed at
a seashore resort.
Here, amid tropical loveliness, is situated the famed Royal Poinciana Hotel,
one of the largest hotels in the world, and one of the finest. Other hotels of mag-
nificence, catering to those who know and want the best, are also in abundance, and
here also are groups of the most palatial homes to be found in America. Here is
Whitehall, the famed residence of the late Henry M. Flagler, the east coast's great
builder, and here, too, are the homes of others whose names are synonymous with the
wealth and power of America. Truly the directory of Palm Beach residents reads
not unlike that of the social register. Only beautiful and highly improved estates are
found in Palm Beach, and something of its richness may be found in the fact that it
has an actual assessed property valuation of more than twelve million dollars, and
an actual valuation conservatively estimated to be at least thirty million. And that it
is a growing community is indicated by the fact that its permanent population has in-
creased from 1,500 in 1924 to 2,500 in 1925, and that the assessed valuation of its
property has jumped from $5,980,450 in 1920 to $12,705,266 in 1924. Its build-
ing permits, too, reveal the trend of wealth to further establish winter homes at Palm
Beach. In 1920, building permits amounted to $678,432. In 1924, they amounted
to $3,722,845, and even a greater building program is being carried out in 1925. In
March, 1925, fire completely destroyed the famed Breakers Hotel and the Palm Beach
Hotel, but already work has begun to rebuild them, each on a far more magnificent
scale than they were before. Another new hotel, the Ambassador, is being construct-
ed at a cost estimated at $2,000,000, but probably the greatest of its projects is one
coming to Whitehall, the former residence of Mr. Flagler. This mansion of the
great railroad magnate is being converted into what is described as being destined to
be one of the greatest, if not the greatest exclusive resort hotels in the United States, and
perhaps the world. The building is to be ten stories high and will be at the cost of
some $2,ooo,ooo, with each room being furnished at a cost reported to be in excess
Here, too, is other construction that will add to the conveniences offered by Palm
Beach. Mr. Paris Singer is now engaged in producing a replica of the Via-Mizner,
I'ayr S<' rcn til -seene
I6F A($h"lEiLS clus
PALM BEA\CH i:-The finest deep sea fishing in the world is found off the Coast lat Palm Beach and
the Palm Beach Anelers' Clu/b is famed throughout the country. 2-Coconut Gro;ve-Ocean Boulevard.
,-.A typical Palm Reach home. 1--l- orth Avenue, showing I'ia MiznIer at the left. 5-Ocean Boulevard.
Pflt/f .S'r ri'ii ftt-<'lflrt
I-It might be an Andalusian Monastery, but it is the Everglades Club, Paln Beach. 2-Hotel Royal
Danelli, Palm Beach.
just directly across the street from the Everglades Club, to be known as the Via-Singer,
and like the Via-Mizner, a popular rendezvous for society in Palm Beach during the
winter, the Via-Singer will supply on the ground floor rooms for fashionable stores
and shops, while the two top floors will be used as club rooms and apartments. Mr.
Singer is also engaged in establishing a vast amusement center on the ocean north of
Palm Beach, which will include the erection of a large hotel and the building of an
aerial ferry over the inlet, as well as a bridge that will connect the resort with the
With these additions and with the Royal Poinciana continuing with the appeal
of its stately elegance, Palm Beach will offer even greater attractions to those of
means during coming seasons. The Royal Poinciana has long been noted as the
largest tourist hotel in the world. The length of the building, from the north entrance
to the south entrance is 934 feet, and if the wings were stretched in one continuous
line they would cover a distance equal to seven New York City blocks. It contains
i,066 guest rooms and 460 private baths, and its service requires more than 1,200
But back of all this is its natural beauty that has made Palm Beach and at-
tracted wealth to it. The name Palm Beach tells its story and gives reason for its
place in the sun. Of a profligate, luxuriant nature, it has by the consummate art of
the landscape gardener been converted into a superb semi-tropical open air conserva-
tory. Exquisite combinations of nature and art are revealed in the smooth asphalt
2'l~ S;c ot-ln
r e," |M MON" SOW ..
y, ..de. .. .
S-w .z .
The estate of Charles R. Myers is one of the intriguing spots of Palm Beach. Set among pains and
charming shrubbery, it overlooks the pleasant waters of Lake Worth. Mr. Myers, who has his permanent
winter residence at Pain Beach is the owner of the renowned Breakers Hotel in Atlantic City.
palm-shaded walks and drives along the Atlantic or Lake Worth, where one has
charming glimpses of palm-fringed waters, and these alone offer a grandeur that is un-
surpassable in scenic loveliness. The stately royal palm, the cocoanut palm, the
traveler's tree, the royal poinciana, the poinsettia, the flaming hibiscus, the banana, the
beautiful vari-colored crotons, masses of flowers, and climbing roses and vines, also
all combine with the green lawns and plants of the landscape gardener to make the en-
tire setting of Palm Beach one of the most beautiful spots in all America.
Palm Beach owes to a shipwreck the cocoanut trees which have given much to
its distinguishing beauty and name. Years ago the Spanish brig Providencia-aptly
named-laden with cocoanuts, was wrecked upon the coast, giving seed from the
cocoanuts washed ashore to the trees which have since arisen in luxuriance and pro-
Golf, tennis, fishing and yachting are among the sports afforded in major degree
at Palm Beach. The Palm Beach Golf Club and the Palm Beach Country Club each
have eighteen-hole golf courses and their annual tournaments are important fixtures in
the Florida golf calendar, while for years the Florida state tennis championship
tournaments have been held on the courts of the Royal Poinciana Hotel. To the fish-
erman Lake Worth offers the bluefish, spotted sea trout, cavalle, red-snapper, bar-
racuda, pompano, sawfish, mullet, and red-fish. The principal fishing, however, is out-
side of the inlet and here the kingfish and the sailfish, two of the games of all fish
are found. As for yachtsman Lake Worth offers a harbor that is ideal and here dur-
z-Gardens of the Royal Poinciana Hotel. 2-Poinciana Courts, aJhere nationally renowned tennis play-
ers meet. 3-Yachts lying at anchor on Lake Worth.
The charming home of Cooper C. Ligho tbo'~n, mayor of Palm Beach.
I-The Beach Club, Palm Beach. 2--1'inter Residence of Colonel Edwiard R. Bradlcy. Palm Beach.
m'C l Ei]i ti, -tf io
J-Bethesda-I/y-lth-Sca. NCt-, Episcopal Church, Palm Beach. 2-St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church
UT est Palm Bfeach. 3--EPiscopal Church overlooking the lake, [Vest Palm r each.
ing the winter are to be found pleasure crafts of every type, the majestic yacht, the
speed boat, the fishing boat, and boats for all else that makes life afloat attractive.
The following statistical survey of Palm Beach gives other definite and interest-
ing information of the favored resort:
POPULATION ASSESSED VALUATIONS
(Permanent) 1910 ................. $ 1,o31,030
1920 ................. . 1,135 1920 ......... ..... .... 5,980,459
1924 ... .... ...... ........... 1,500 1921 ......... . 7,496,027
1925 ................. ... 2,500 1922 ................ 8,229,431
1923 ........ .... 9,343,478
BUILDING PERMITS 1924 ................. 12,705,266
1920 ............. .... $ 678,432
1921 ......... ........ 798,737 POST OFFICE RECEIPTS
1922 ......... ...... 886,945 1922 ............ ..... $ 3,585.05
1923 ...................... 2,405,431 1923 .. .............. 18,158.74
1924 ............ .. 3,722,845 1924 ................. 22,515.18
1923 .............. $ 682,310.81
1924 .. ............ 1,139,213.72
1925 .............. 2,392,266.36
I'a;;/ l ''iI/ht/-. th er
Palm Beach County---fA J3Mfaster Work of
ST is the proud boast of Palm Beach County that Henry M. Flagler, Flor-
ida's master builder, chose Palm Beach County as the site of his famous
".] Royal Poinciana Hotel, because of the unexcelled climate and the wonder-
:.. l ful health conditions he found there. This, and the fact that thousands
of others, among whom may be listed many of the wealthiest people in
America, annually pay tribute to its clime and beauties, is reason for Palm Beach
County to feel that it is in the center of an earthly paradise.
The world knows of the mild winter climate, but only those that have spent a
summer in Palm Beach County can appreciate the even temperature, the delightful sea
breezes, the cool nights of a land where the summer temperature very rarely exceeds
ninety degrees and averages eighty to eighty-two degrees. This, with an abundant
rainfall and a diversity of soils adapted to nearly every product of man's need and
comfort, all add to make Palm Beach County, a county that is accepted by all as be-
The glories of Palm Beach and West Palm Beach are sung throughout the world,
but of the county itself not so much is known, and by reason of this a study of its re-
sources and an analysis of its possibilities are upon first acquaintance almost startling.
Palm Beach County contains 1,720,520 acres of land, and has within its borders some
twenty distinct soil types, fourteen of which are very productive. Approximately 8oo,-
ooo acres of its total area is made up of muck lands, and within the border of the
county lies almost altogether the entire custard apple land which is considered the
highest type of muck soil. The remaining land is made up of six phases of the St.
Lucie series, running from light sand to heavy hammock; six phases of Parkwood
series, varying from sand to clay loam; and two phases of the Palm Beach sands and
two phases of Portsmouth sands.
The muck lands, where properly drained (and this is being done, Palm Beach
County sharing largely in the great reclamation project of the Everglades) are adapt-
ed to trucking, live stock production and avocado growing. The lighter soils, mak-
ing up the coastal plain, are nearly all adapted to the production of some truck, tropi-
cal or sub-tropical fruit crop. The most famous citrus fruits and those of the high-
est quality are produced on the hammock type of Palm Beach soil. The lighter soils
are adapted to the production of the mango, pineapple, guava, and other tropical
fruits. The high pine table lands, especially where there is a subsoil of clay or marl,
are especially suitable for the production of citrus fruits. A large area of the lighter
soils produced avocados economically, where mulched.
With such a richness and diversity of soil Palm Beach County naturally prides
itself upon its agricultural possibilities. In past years the county has enjoyed a top-
most place in agricultural production, and with intensified effort being only at the be-
ginning, far greater days andachievements are ahead. Over a million acres of the
Everglades are in Palm Beach County and when all of their rich, black fertile soil is
added to the cultivated area of the county, it will undoubtedly be one of the richest
agricultural sections of the United States.
Among crops which are now produced extensively in Palm Beach County, and in
which the county is a leader among all of the counties of the State, are cabbage,
tomatoes, onions, squash, eggplant, peppers, English peas, beets, string beans, lima
beans, limes, oranges, pineapples, bananas, sugar apples and cocoanuts. Many other
products are grown with a high degree of success, but these are among the most out-
1',IlrC Eli/lt/ l-/ire
PALM BEACH COUNTY: I-Palm Beach citrus fruits were pri.c winners at the St. Louis World's Fair in
1904 and their fame has been ever growing since. 2-Banana trees. 3-Paw-Paw trees. 4-Sugar Can'
thrives in Palm Beach County-just another evidence of the county's richness.
As far back as 1904, Palm Beach County was recognized as a champion pro-
ducer of citrus fruit, a world's fair prize winner, and its production of oranges and
grapefruit have for years been a staple and substantial business, with crops annually
producing hundreds of thousands of dollars for grove owners.
Sugar cane is also another important crop in Palm Beach County, as is corn,
that great staple crop of many agricultural sections. The black, rich soil of the
Everglades is peculiarly adapted to corn culture and crop shows remarkable yields.
Roasting ears have been shipped out of Palm Beach County in carload lots to North-
ern markets, when the North was frozen up and shivering. Dairying, cattle and hog
raising are, too, all made more productive by the addition of this crop to the many other
feed crops raised.
The pineapples, a plant extremely susceptible to frost, has also long been a produc-
ing and profitable crop in Palm Beach County. The sandy ridges along the coast are
admirably suited to pineapple culture and the warm sunshine and gentle rains do the
rest. Increased acreage is being planted each year and more scientific methods of
growth and care are being used to build up profitable and heavily producing crops.
In one year it was reported that eighty per cent. of all the pineapples grown in Flor-
ida were produced in Palm Beach County.
Too, while the rest of the United States is shoveling coal and snow, the Palm
Beach County farmer is planting potatoes. In eighty days, he has his product ready
for the market and sells without fear of competition of the four million acres of North-
ern and Western potato planters who can not plant until spring, and because of
reaching the very earliest markets with prices best, Palm Beach County, with seven
per cent. of all Florida's crop, has received as high as twelve per cent. of all returns
for the year's production.
The wise farmer, according to literature supplied by the county, from which
many of the illustrations and quotations in this article are taken, plants corn between
his potatoes at the last cultivation. The digging of the potatoes cultivates the corn.
The corn matures in June and July and the farmer plants cow peas and gets a third
crop off his land for one season.
Palm Beach County is also famous for the excellence and the quality of her
tomatoes. Its rich muck, and hammock, and even the lighter lands have returned
good profits to the growers. Tomatoes are shipped out in carload lots, and in one
recent report Palm Beach County was credited with having raised and shipped almost
as many tomatoes as all the other counties of the state combined. Other vegetable
production further offers many possibilities. The table can be supplied with fresh
vegetables, the surplus can be sold to the local markets and the pantry shelves filled
with home canned products, all profitable and valuable, but without thought of
producing for the outside market.
String beans is another important truck crop, and carloads are shipped annually,
with excellent mid-winter profits to growers, and it is said of Palm Beach County that
a bungalow on a tract of land large enough to properly cultivate an orange and grape-
fruit grove in the background, gardens and fields producing all the needs of the table,
cows, poultry and hogs, fattening and producing food for the house; staple crops grow-
ing products for the market, needs only the addition of a man's energy and ambi-
tion to produce an ideal home, a home of plenty and of the assurance that the power
to produce and to reward is limited only by determination and energy.
Relative to cattle raising, Palm Beach County possesses a number of advantages
for profitable growing of live stock, many greater than those found elsewhere. Among
these are its mild, equable and healthy climate, comparative freedom from animal
diseases, a long grazing season, and soil adapted to the growing of numerous im-
proved grasses and forage crops, especially such legumes as the velvet bean, cow pea,
I',ge Eight!-scre- i
P.LM BEACH COUNTY: I-Truck farming is one of Palm Beach County's most important industries.
'-Cabbage is an important crop in Palm Beach Coun t3. 3-Palm Beach County's fertile soil is a great
producer of potatoes. 4-These fine type porkers testify that hog raising is being successfully carried on
in Palmi Beach County.
soy bean and vetches, beggarweed and peanuts; and a copius and will distributed rain-
fall. This with the addition of corn, sorghum and Japanese cane for ensilage, gives
a balanced ration for every need.
The departure, too, of the cattle tick has made possible the introduction of
blooded dairy cows in Palm Beach County, and rich, pure milk is now being pro-
duced with both profit to the dairyman and the consumer. By careful tests and ob-
servations high-grade animals of Northern and Western dairy stock have produced as
well if not better under conditions in Florida than in their native states.
The mild climate, year-round pasturage, unsurpassed silage crops, together with
a steadily increasing demand for dairy products, assures success for the dairyman.
Hog-raisers and poultry growers are also finding many advantages for their enter-
prises in Palm Beach County and needless to say ventures in both are paying hand-
Such a wealth of agriculture is naturally productive of fine thriving cities and
towns and Palm Beach County has these in abundance, with West Palm Beach, now
Florida's seventh city, as its county seat. Palm Beach and West Palm Beach both
have their own destinies and each are presented in detail elsewhere in this work.
However, we have the other communities on the famed coast line of Palm Beach
County, at Stuart, Hope Sound, Jupiter, Lake Worth, Boynton, Delray and Boca
Raton, and those of Canal Point, Panokee, Belgrade, and Okeelanta in the back coun-
try, all communities that are thriving and ever moving forward with the onward
march of Florida.
Here also in the county are being developed fine resort communities in addition
to Palm Beach and West Palm Beach. Lake Worth, Delray and Boynton as well
as the other coast cities have added to the renown of Palm Beach County as a glori-
ous playground in winter, but even further laurels are ahead for the county. Here,
at its southernmost tip, at Boca Raton, is to be found the latest enterprise of Mr.
Addison Mizner, world famed architect of Palm Beach, and his associates, number-
ing many of the wealthiest men in America. Here at Boca Raton, Mr. Mizner is
creating what is intended to be one of the finest resorts in the world, a vast project
in which the Ritz Carlton Hotel Company alone will spend six million dollars for
the building and establishment of one of its famed hotels.
Palm Beach County further has fine schools, fine churches, fine highways, and
a fine system of county government, and beyond all doubt its community life and prog-
ress form one of its greatest assets. To keep its schools up to a high standard its
residents pay taxes, give voluntary subscriptions, float bond issues, and in fact do any-
thing that the child shall not be hampered in his education. Visitors from large
Northern and Eastern cities do not hesitate to place their children in Palm Beach
County schools, while spending the winter, knowing the facilities and instruction
are equal to their own metropolitan educational systems.
As to churches, all religious denominations and sects are represented, and many
flourishing congregations, housed in valuable and substantial church buildings, are
to be found throughout the county.
Palm Beach County was organized in 1910 and its growth has been steady and
substantial from the beginning. The county has been fortunate in the selection of
its various officers and the affairs of the county have been handled well by the various
boards of county commissioners. Its present board, and one that is doing much
to further promote the interests of this great section, is composed of Joseph E. Bell,
West Palm Beach, chairman; Thomas F. Dempsey, Jupiter; C. W. Bell, Pahokee;
B. B. Raulerson, Boca Raton, and H. N. Gaines, Stuart. In legal aid to the coun-
ty, the board is ably served by Frank Wideman.
Through the energies of these gentlemen, and others who have preceded them
in office, an efficient system of county administration has been developed and this has
placed Palm Beach County well to the front and her bond issues for roads, bridges
and other improvements have always commanded top prices. During recent years
millions have been spent in county improvements and every dollar has been reflected
back in the substantial character of its development. However, other great improve-
ments are to come and just now, in May, 1925, the county has improvements in
process that will entail an expenditure of a million and a half dollars, and a bond
issue is now being considered-that will likely be carried-to provide $6,ooo,ooo for
improvements that will include the widening of the Dixie Highway from one end of
the county to the other, the building of a thirty-foot ocean boulevard to run the en-
tire length of the county and the building of other numerous roads and bridges.
Palm Beach County is justly proud of her good roads. Her main highways are
well built and adequately maintained. And to these roads others are being rapidly
added. The famed Dixie Highway intersects Palm Beach County and gives an out-
let to both the north and south, and notably, during the past year the Conners High-
way, built through the Everglades at the cost of a million dollars, has given the
county a fine highway east and west, a highway that has practically opened up its
back country and a highway, connecting with State Road No. 8 at Okeechobee City,
has given the county a direct cross state road from the East Coast of Florida to the
West Coast, from West Palm Beach to Tampa and St. Petersburg.
Truly, a great section, in a great State.
Florida entertains a million tourists yearly-a winter visitor for each resident of the state.
1 hey leave from fifty to one hundred million dollars in the state annually.
There are many beautiful hills and fertile valleys in Florida. It is not all flat.
The northern boundary of Florida is farther south than the southern boundary of California.
The total acreage of improved Florida farms in 1912 was 1,854,549. The total acreage
in 1923 was 2,503,200, an increase of 34 per cent.
Florida ships one-tenth of the fresh fruit and vegetables of the United States, thus contribut-
ing materially to the comfort and health of the nation.
Tampa---Its History and Progress
BY GRAHAM FORRESTER
AMPA is the largest city in Florida. The state census which was com-
pleted on April 15 of this year gives her a population of 94,808 and
Jacksonville, which has led heretofore, 94,206. This census shows Tam-
pa to have come from 51,o68 to her present figure in the five-year period
since 1920. Jacksonville had 91,558 under the 1920 count.
The revelations of the census reports as to Tampa's growth are interesting and
tell in a forceful way of the city's progress. In 1870, the population was 796; in
1880, it was 720; in 1890, it was 5,532; in 1900, it was 15,839; in 1910, it was 37,-
782; in 1915, it was 48,160; in 1920, it was 51,608; in 1925, it is 94,808. The per-
centage increase for the last five-year period is 83.68.
It is found from the recent census that the population of Tampa and the ter-
ritory immediately contiguous but not included in the city limits is 121,607.
Business and commercial growth have, if anything, exceeded the population in-
crease in Tampa. The business section of the city gives the impression of a city of
250,000 population. Business transactions not infrequently involve $I,ooo,ooo.
Tampa is unique among Florida cities, at least, if not among those of the nation.
It is a port city, a manufacturing city, a jobbing city, a railroad city, a residence city
and a much favored city with winter visitors. Where can be found another city with
so many foundations? In Tampa, it is but a short automobile drive from a factory
working 2,000 people to the exclusive Bayshore section with its splendid stretch of
salt water in front, its palm bordered boulevards, its spreading lawns and imposing
mansions. It is a shorter one from extensive railroad yards to the most magnificent
public park on the peninsula, which is a favorite "lazying" place and playground for
winter visitors. From a wholesale house which does an immense annual business to
the famous Tampa Bay Hotel is but a few minutes. Tampa is metropolitan, her
people cosmopolitan. Skyscrapers and tropical shrubbery are elbow neighbors. Pure
Anglo-Saxon and proud Castilian live side by side. Far and away the larger part of
the people are native Americans, native born Floridans, and those who have gathered
here from every State in the Union, but there are also to be found French, German,
Spanish, Dutch, Flemish, Swedish, Norwegian, Italian, Portuguese, Roumanians, Greeks,
Poles, Slovaks, Russians, Ruthenians, Bulgarians, Yiddish, Hebrew, Magyar, Fin-
nish, Turkish, Chinese and Japanese among Tampa's population. Tampa's percent-
age of negro population is less than that of any city in the South.
There is but little of note about the history of Tampa. It was established first
as a small fishing camp, then became a trading post, where the pioneers of the neigh-
boring section came to buy their supplies. Commerce consisted of small schooners,
bringing to Tampa, mainly from Cedar Keys, supplies of merchandise delivered at
that point by rail, Tampa not having yet been blessed with railroad connection; while
other small boats sailed from Tampa to the fishing points to the South. When the
orange industry began to develop and a railroad was built to the struggling town it
began to show some signs of future importance, but not sufficient to attract outside
attention. During the War Between the States a garrison was established in Tampa,
but there was no fighting in or about the city. Its pioneer male citizens were called
upon to take part in the various Indian wars.
Tampa first took a place on the map when Henry B. Plant built his railroad
into it and accompanied this enterprise with the building of the Tampa Bay Hotel, the
great caravansary which remains as the most notable monument of the railroad mag-
nate. This hotel is the property of the city of Tampa, and is the only hotel in the
'. Mi .
TA.L PA : T-No where under the sun is golfing more popular than in Florida. Billy Cruickshank, Leo
Diegel, Gene Sarazcn and Johnny Farrell on the Palma Ceia Links in Tampa. 2-World famous girl
swimmers compete for honors in Temple Terrace Pool. 3-Ships like these do sail the seas, and Tampa
often sees them. f-Easter sunrise service observed in Tampa. 5-Pirate boat approaching Tampa in Gas-
parilla festival. 6-Speed boat skimming waters of Hillsborough Bay. 7-Hillsborough County Court House
in foreground, Hotel Hillsborough in rear. 8-Home of Cuesta, Rey and Company, one of Tampa's world-
famed cigar industries.
country which is city-owned. The Tampa Bay became a popular winter resort from
the beginning and served to bring to Tampa many distinguished visitors who spread
the news of the attractions of the city and section throughout the other parts of the
country, with the result that a movement of home-seekers and investors set in, very
slowly at first, but later reaching a steady and increasing volume.
During the Spanish-American war Tampa occupied a prominent place in the head-
lines and date lines of the newspapers by reason of the fact that it was selected as the
camp and point of embarkation for the army for the invasion of Cuba, under General
Shafter. Some 50,000 troops encamped in and about the city and a great fleet of
transports conveyed these soldiers from Port Tampa to Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt,
then merely the lieutenant-colonel of the "Rough Riders," camped with his command
at Tampa and sailed from Port Tampa to the exploits which really formed his in-
troduction to the people of the United States. On the site of his camp the city is
erecting a commodious school building which will bear his name. The most notable
men of the country visited Tampa during these stirring times and comments of the
papers were largely unfavorable, owing to the fact that the town had no public improve-
ments to speak of, its streets being unpaved and undrained, its facilities for caring
for crowds inadequate and its sanitary conditions bad. It was not until after this ex-
perience that the citizens of Tampa took stock of these deficiencies and set about cor-
One who saw Tampa in the army days of 1898 would be astounded to see the
present modern city, with all its up-to-date improvements. Perhaps no better index
to the progress of Tampa is to be found than is contained in a comparison of the pub-
lic improvements and utilities which it has to-day with those which it so greatly lacked
in Spanish war days.
Tampa had on February i, this year, 225.42 miles of paved streets; 410 miles
of paved sidewalks; i I miles of sanitary and 7.5 miles of storm sewers and $700,-
ooo from a bond issue for a system of general storm sewers and so forth. The water
system is municipally owned and on the first of this year was serving 14,614 patrons.
A new water plant is now under construction at a cost in excess of $1,200,000. Tampa
maintains a modern police department and one of the best fire departments in the
South. Both of these are kept at high standards and emphasize the determination
to provide the very best protection for person and property. The city's interest in
health and sanitation are evidenced by this year's appropriations of $150,696.35 for
the sanitary department; $13,663 for the street cleaning department; $37,755 for
the health department; $19,170 for the engineer's department, operation of sewers,
purification plants, etc.; $3,390 for sewer maintenance. The city owns and operates
a commodious municipal dock which was constructed at a cost of $600,000. Three
bridges span the Hillsborough River, connecting the eastern and western sections of
the city. Three more are to be immediately constructed, at a cost of more than $300,-
ooo each. The city hall occupies a half block in the heart of the business district
and is one of the handsomest public buildings in the South.
Tampa's city government is by commission. Perry G. Wall, mayor-commis-
sioner; W. J. Barritt, mayor pro tem; W. A. Adams, S. L. Lowry, Sr., and James
McCants constitute the Board of Commissioners. They have envisioned Tampa and
are helping to build it wisely and conservatively, yet most progressively. It was dur-
ing the term of former Mayor D. B. McKay, from 1910-1920, that Tampa caught
the spirit of municipal improvement and made most marked advance in this respect.
Most of the public buildings bear Colonel McKay's name on their corner stones or
historical plates, as does the splendid bridge across the Hillsborough, on LaFayette
Street. What is being done now in the way of municipal building and construction en-
terprises is being builded largely upon the foundations then laid.
In direct connection, it is worth while to consider the public utilities in Tampa.
Gas and electricity are furnished by the Tampa Gas and Tampa Electric Companies,
TAMPA: I-Outdoor Bandstand in Plant Park. 2-Beautiful Lawn of One of Tampa's Private Homes.
3-Loading Phosphate. 4-Bayshore Boulevard.
Pnie Yii'ctt-fot, r
respectively. The gas company laid twenty-two miles of mains into new territory last
year and increased its patrons by 1,867. On December 31, 1924, the books of this
company showed 11,437 gas stoves in service in Tampa. At the close of last year
the electric company was serving 19,350 patrons.
Telephone service is supplied by the Peninsular Telephone Company. On Jan-
uary i, this year, it had 14,546 stations in service in the city.
Street car service is given by the Tampa Electric Company. The system covers
the entire city and suburbs, extending to Port Tampa and Sulphur Springs. The new
type of one-man cars are used. The company has two generating stations and all
modern appliances and apparatus for up-to-date service. Fares are 5 cents, with a
half fare for school children and a liberal system of transfers. This rate of fare
has been maintained continuously, even through the World War period when street
car fares were increased everywhere else.
Tampa does business. It has 13 banks, with three more under charter and active-
ly preparing for their opening days. On December 31, 1924, the capital, surplus
and undivided profits of these totaled $6,714,770.65. This is $1,714,770.65 more
than was paid for the entire State of Florida when it was purchased from Spain. On
the same date bank deposits amounted to $46,743,396.29. In 1910, bank clearings
were 543,387,295.09. In 1920, they reached $125,210,452.16. For 1924, they
were $195,979,545.41. The first three months of this year have seen these increase
at the rate of $2,500,000 a month.
Seeking for the source of this large volume of business we come first upon the
port. Tampa is the seventh largest port in the United States, according to United
States government statistics. It is the nearest adequate port of this country to the
Panama Canal; so declared in a resolution formally adopted by the House of Repre-
sentatives and the Senate of the National Congress and signed by the President of
the United States. Customs receipts last year were $2,063,051. The water ton-
nage was 2,190,268, of which I,010,595 tons were phosphate. It is literally true
that "ships sailing the seven seas" put in and out of Tampa. The leading import is
oil. Thousands upon thousands of barrels of fuel and refined oil are brought in each
month from Mexico, Texas and Louisiana. Five oil companies have large storage
tanks here; the Gulf Refining Company, Standard Oil Company, National Petroleum
Corporation, Mexican Petroleum Corporation and the Texas Company, distributing
from Tampa throughout a large portion of the South. Tobacco comes next, large
quantities being brought in from Cuba to be converted into Tampa's famous cigars.
Cocoanuts constitute a large item. A year's import of nuts from Honduras and
Jamaica through Tampa was 10,297,o00, New York alone outranking this city as a
cocoanut importing port. Cedar logs come in large quantities from Cuba and Mexico
for the manufacture of cigar boxes and containers. Ebony, mahogany, mahowa and
other Central and South American hardwoods are imported for use in local furni-
ture factories and for distribution throughout the United States. Phosphate, lumber,
naval stores and citrus fruits are the leading exports, in the order named, followed
by quantities of general merchandise and cargo furnished Cuba, Mexico and South
America by Tampa dealers. Regular sailings are maintained between Tampa and
practically all of the important ports of this country-especially those of Boston, New
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
Next is the "back country" upon which Tampa relies and which relies upon
Tampa. There is not to be found anywhere a city so advantageously situated in this
regard. The estimated yearly income of Southwest Florida is $300,000,000 the year.
More than the usual proportion of this which finds its way to the commercial center
of a district-and Tampa is the undisputed commercial center of this one-comes
TAMPA : i-Tennis Club, Davis Islands, Tampa, where fine courts brought championship tournaments
in season of 1925. 2-Producing mian-made islands in Florida. Huge pumps at work on Davis Islands.
3-Dredges used in building Davis Islands. 4-Administration Building, Davis Islands, Tampa's thirty
million dollar real estate development. 5-Waiting to buy Tampa real estate-a part of the line that stood
for forty hours to invest three million dollars on the opening day of the sale of Davis Islands. 6-Com-
munity Building in Florida; just a few of the houses built on Davis Islands within the first few months of
Pa ine ity-six
TAMP.\: I-Court House Square. 2-Franklin Street, Looking South. 3-Franklin Street, Looking North.
here, furnishing cargoes for ships, buying Tampa's manufactured products and swell-
ing wholesale and retail trade.
Then follows the manufactories. Tampa is not only the largest city in Florida
but, also, the greatest industrial center. It is a manufacturing city. The State De-
partment of Agriculture lists Hillsborough County as manufacturing over $20,000,-
ooo worth of products per annum. "Over $20,000,000 worth" is rather an indefinite
amount. The total is, probably, nearly twice as much. Practically all of this is done
in Tampa. Long known as "The Cigar City," because of the fact that it manufactures
more clear Havana cigars than any place in the world, Tampa deserves now to be
known as "The Industrial City." It has more than 400 manufacturing plants, large
and small. Something like half of these are cigar factories. The others cover a
wide range, from a furniture factory to one where rubber stamps are made. Noticea-
ble among these, for the reason that they can not be conducted everywhere, are a glass
and bottle factory and a large fish chowder cannery. The weekly industrial pay roll
of Tampa is $755,135.oo00. Location, climatic conditions and excellent transportation
facilities-both by rail and water-the improved harbor and banking facilities are
reasons enough for the multiplying of manufacturing plants in Tampa until it comes
to be the leading industrial city of the South.
Because it is so outstanding, a more detailed telling of the cigar industry in
Tampa is interesting:
More than 200 cigar factories, big and little, are listed at the Tampa office of
the Internal Revenue Bureau. Nine of these factories are known as "bonded" es-
tablishments, bringing in their tobacco from Cuba under bond and operating under
the direct supervision of the United States Customs and Internal Revenue Bureaus.
Tampa's cigar factories have the record of having turned out cigars at the aver-
age rate of 2,000,000 for each working day of the year.
These cigars are of five grades-A, B, C, D, and E-the first being the five-cen-
ters and the last the ones that retail for from twenty-five cents up.
Total internal revenue taxes paid on the cigars manufactured in the Tampa dis-
trict in 1924 amounted to $3,856,766. This is in addition to the customs duty paid
on the imported tobacco, which ranges from a basis of $1.5o a pound for the finest
wrapper leaf down to 28 cents a pound on the lowest grade filler tobaccos.
Tampa's cigar industry supports, directly and indirectly, at least 25,000 persons
-enough to make a fair-sized city in itself, and a cigar-making population greater
than the population of any city in Florida except Tampa, Jacksonville, Miami and
By far the larger proportion of the Tampa cigar-makers are from Cuba, Key
West and Spain, with a sprinkling from other West Indian points.
Five factories turn out the cedar boxes and tin containers in which Tampa-made
cigars are sent to every corner of the earth.
One Tampa cigar factory-the establishment of Cuesta, Rey & Co. is, by
royal appointment, purveyor of cigars to King Alfonso, of Spain, and the Spanish
Illustrative of the fame and wide travels of Tampa-made cigars is a true story
which is too good not to be told here. Some two years ago a gentleman from one
of the United States was in Rome, Italy. He was dreadfully lonesome and homesick,
and entirely unable to speak the language of the land. One day he was sitting in a
park, when to his surprise his neighbor on the park bench turned to him and asked,
in fairly good English, if he would have a cigar. Making affirmative reply he was
handed a Hava-Tampa. He enjoyed a good smoke and a pleasant hour with a new
friend. The aftermath of this incident is striking. The gentleman to whom that
cigar was given in far off Italy says that he was impressed that a city which turned
out such cigars must be a good one. The result is that he is now a large property
owner in Tampa.
Tampa does a large wholesale business. It has 140 wholesale concerns, includ-
ing all lines of business, serving a population of 500,000, with a trade total aggre-
gating $50,ooo,ooo annually. One of the outstanding recent features is the enlarg-
ing of its trade with Southern countries, particularly Cuba, the Isle of Pines and
Honduras. This trade is handled in connection with the importation of fruit from
these countries. This unlimited development.
Retail trade in Tampa undoubtedly averages larger per capital than in almost any
.1 Daily SPort in Plant Park, Tampa.
city in this country. This is due to the character of the population and the large
number of winter visitors. It would be a matter of impossibility, almost, to ever
prepare an accurate list of the retail establishments here; but among them are 5 big
department stores, 40 dry goods stores, over 300 retail grocery stores, 85 retail drug
stores, 18 hardware stores, over 50 furniture stores; 15 jewelry stores, over Ioo
restaurants, 30 bakeries, 8 ice factories and no telling how many, or how varied, other
Factories, wholesale and retail concerns are housed in buildings which bespeak
solidity and present the sky line of a much larger city. Among the outstanding build-
ings of Tampa may be mentioned the Citizens Bank Building, Maas Bros. Depart-
ment Store, Citrus Exchange Building, Masonic Temple, Hillsboro Hotel, City Hall,
Peninsular Telephone Building, Stovall Building, Stovall Nelson Building, Bayview
Hotel, Tampa Terrace Hotel, Federal Bulding, Bayshore Hotel, Exchange Bank, De-
Soto Hotel, Tribune Building, and many others. Work is now under way for a new
13-story building for the First National Bank. The Tampa Board of Trade is soon
to erect a 15-story structure, and plans are made for the 14-story Pulver-Plant Hotel.
Banking, shipping, wholesaling, retailing and building are not all that Tampa
thinks about. Tampa's school buildings are modern in construction and equipment,
and additional buildings are added yearly to take care of the ever-increasing demand
for more space. The city schools as well as those throughout the county are operated
on the same modern standard as schools in much larger and more densely populated
cities in the North and East.
Pupils graduated from the senior high schools are admitted to all colleges to
which graduates from any high school are admitted. The course of study comprises
branches which will fit the pupil for the commercial world as well as for more ad-
vanced academic work. Manual training, home economics, which include sewing,
cooking and home management, are taught; current history and events, science, chem-
istry, botany and the rudiments of agricultural work, physical culture for the girls and
athletics for the boys are additional features. An athletic instructor is in charge of
the physical training department for the high school boys, and a physical directress has
charge of that department for the high school girls. Members of the graduating
classes who expect to go into teaching work may take a teacher's training course as an
additional feature of their last year of high school work. The high school also
recognizes credits in musical training taken outside of the school if proper examina-
tions are passed.
A great many people who would prefer to spend the winter months in Florida
hesitate on account of taking the children out of school, and Tampa has eliminated
this worry on the visitor's part by admitting the children of winter visitors to public
school on the same basis as resident children. This makes it possible for parents
coming to Tampa for a part or all of the winter season to enter their children for
the period without a break in their school work.
Aside from the excellent public schools maintained there are a number of private
schools conducted by competent educators, and there are two business colleges teach-
ing various commercial lines. There are kindergartens, convents, dancing, vocal and
instrumental music, and classical schools.
Just now $1,ooo,ooo is being expended in the construction of new school build-
ings in the city.
A total of ninety-nine churches and chapels, representing practically all denomi-
nations, provide for the spiritual needs of Tampa's people in addition to the Salva-
tion Army, the Volunteers of America, and similar organizations that combine the
religious element with general uplift and rehabilitation work and charitable activi-
ties. Church property in Tampa, and immediate suburbs, represents aggregate in-
vestment value of nearly $3,000,000, while the combined membership of the city's
churches is over 18,ooo. Among the church edifices are to be found some of the
finest in the South; while the work that is being done in the outlying districts having
large foreign populations is a wonderful instrumentality in the Americanization of
aliens coming to our shores.
The Tampa Public Library system contains 22,045 books. Each of these books
were let on an average of seven times during the past year, making a total circulation
of 163,423 volumes, which is an increase of 2,200 over last year's record.
The appropriation of the library was $18,500. Of this o1 cents was devoted
to circulation of each book, $3,213 was spent for new books; 2,389 volumes were
purchased and o09 were donated. Since, however, 1,193 books were worn out, lost
or stolen, the total increase in books is 1,305 volumes.
The library subscribes to 149 magazines and periodicals, including one news-
paper from almost every State. Eight of these are new.
During the year the library has registered 2,790 borrowers, bringing the total
to o1,891 patrons.
A small branch was opened last April at DeSoto Park. This branch has 5oo
books belonging to the Seaboard Air Line Traveling Library, in addition to library
The Story Hours have continued popular, with an attendance of over I,ooo per
Tampa's present hospitals are the Gordon Keller, owned and operated by the
city. There are accommodations for seventy-five patients. This hospital is rated
high among the institutions of the State.
The Bayside Hospital is an excellent private institution, located in a quiet spot
on Bayshore boulevard, on Hillsborough Bay. It has every modern equipment, with
accommodations for fifty patients.
The Centro Asturiano Club maintains a sanitarium (the Centro Asturiano Sani-
tarium) which can handle thirty-five patients.
The Centro Espanol Sanitarium, operated by a similar club, has accommoda-
tions for sixty.
Dr. Cook's Sanitarium is another private institution, having accommodations for
The Clara Frye Hospital, for negroes, is a private institution, but is assisted by
the city. A great many charity cases are handled here.
A maternity home has been started by Miss Nelle French. The institution will
accommodate six lying-in patients with the surroundings of home life.
Dr. Mills' Sanitarium is a private institution, caring for nervous cases only, and
has accommodations for twelve patients.
Extensive additions are to be made to the municipal hospital holdings, $1,350,-
ooo having been provided for the erection and equipment of new hospitals for both
whites and negroes.
Tampa gets the daily news through two leading daily newspapers-the Tampa
Morning Tribune and the Tampa Daily Times. These papers are everything that
publications in a live growing city like Tampa are supposed to be. Both carry full
Associated Press leased wire reports, maintain a staff of correspondents throughout
the State, are subscribers to the best syndicate and feature news service and have com-
plete and modern plants. Their circulation extends from coast to coast. They cover
the field and rank among the best daily papers of the Nation.
There are also published here The Florida Grower, a weekly magazine of na-
tional reputation, devoted primarily to the agricultural and citrus fruit development;
The Observer, a weekly newspaper devoted to local issues and activities; the Pack-
1'afic O ,ur 1/C i tidrd