FCS3270 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps 1 Kathleen C. Ruppert, Wendell A. Porter, Randall A. Cantrell, and Hyun-Jeong Lee 2 1. This document is FCS3270 (originally titled Energy Ecient Homes: Fluorescent Lighting ), one of a series of the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2008. Revised July 2015. This material was initially prepared with the support of the Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Energy Oce, which is now the Oce of Energy, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The revised versions were completed with the support of the Florida Energy Systems Consortium ( http://oridaconserves.org ). Any opinions, ndings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reect the views of the sponsoring organizations. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. Kathleen C. Ruppert, UF/IFAS Extension scientist, Program for Resource Ecient Communities; Wendell A. Porter, lecturer and P.E., Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering; Randall A. Cantrell, assistant professor, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences; and HyunJeong Lee, former assistant professor, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your countys UF/IFAS Extension oce. U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Quick Facts Compact uorescent lamps/bulbs, commonly referred to as CFLs, cost less than regular incandescent lighting in three ways. Replacing incandescent bulbs with ENERGY STARcer tied CFLs in the rooms where you spend the most time, like your family room, living room, and kitchen, will result in tangible dollar savings and comfort. Fluorescent lighting is available in varieties to suit almost any need from ambient mood lighting to crisp task lighting. Terms to Help You Get Started ballast: e device that stabilizes the electric current for stable operation of a bulb. Depending on the bulb, it can either be attached to the bulb (generally as in compact uorescent bulbs) or be a part of the xture (as with pinbased and uorescent tubes). Units with separate ballasts and bulbs are preferable because ballasts last much longer than bulbs. bulb, lamp vs. xture: Lamp is the industry term for what we commonly refer to as a light bulb whereas a xture is the housing unit that connects the bulb (lamp) to a power source. CCT (Color Correlated Temperature): A measurement of the appearance in tone of any given light source, i.e., how warm or cool it is, with warm being closer to the yellow/orange end of the color spectrum, and cool being closer to the bluish end. Measured in Kelvin (K) temperatures. CRI (Color Rendering Index): A measurement of how accurately the emitted light renders the color of illumi nated objects. CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp): A uorescent tube of small diameter wound into a coil, spiral, or typical incandescent bulb shape so that it is comparable in size and shape to conventional incandescent light bulbs. ecacy: See lumens per watt (LPW). uorescent: Light source that, when electrical current is applied, glows because of a chain of events initiated by the currents arc. hardwired (dedicated) systems: ese systems consist of a ballast and uorescent bulb socket permanently wired into a xture by the manufacturer, or as part of a retrot kit. incandescent: Light source that glows because of its lament being heated to a high temperature.
2 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps integral light: Bulbs that combine a bulb, ballast, and standard screw base in a single sealed assembly, which must be discarded when the bulb burns out. ey can be installed in any standard screw-type light xture where incandescent bulbs are normally used. Kelvin (K): A measurement for the characteristics of visible light in determining color temperature, oen used for categorizing CCT. kilowatt-hour (kWh): Used on utility bills to dene a unit of energy usage, e.g. a 100-watt light bulb (0.1 kW) used for 10 hours (0.1 kW x 10h) consumes 1 kilowatthour of energy during that time. lumens: Units of measurement for brightness issued by a light source, e.g. a candle generates about 13 lumens while a 100-watt incandescent bulb generates about 1,750 lumens. lumens per watt (LPW): An indicator of a bulbs ef ciency determined by dividing the number of lumens generated (as indicated on the packaging by the bulb manufacturer) by its wattage; the higher the LPW, the greater the eciency. Sometimes referred to as ecacy. mercury: One of the earths natural, metallic elements used in small amounts in CFLs and uorescent tubes that requires special handling because of its behavior when exposed to air. modular units: is type of unit has a separate twoor four-pin base bulb that plugs into a separate adapter or ballast. When the bulb burns out, a relatively inexpensive replacement bulb can be installed in the original ballast and pin base. reector bulbs: Perfect for providing directional light, as with recessed lights in kitchens or ceiling fans. ere are outdoor reector bulbs as well that are generally much larger than the reectors designed for indoor use. e outdoor types are sealed to withstand the weather and generally should not be used with timers, photocells, and motion sensors unless otherwise specied on the package. watt: A unit of electrical power/power consumption. How much would I save by switching to compact uorescent bulbs? Lets compare an incandescent bulb and a CFL with the same light output. A 60-watt bulb does not necessarily provide more illumination than a 15-watt bulb. Why? Because watts measure energy use while lumens measure light output Lumen information appears on bulb packaging. For example, a 60-watt incandescent bulb produces about 800 lumens. You can replace this 60-watt incandescent bulb with a 15-watt CFL and get the same amount of lumens (light output), but the CFL will use 45 watts less energy (U.S. Department of Energy, n.d.-a). See Table 1 to compare estimated purchase price and residential energy costs of three dierent lighting technologies with similar light output (lumens)incandescent, CFL, and light emitting diode (LED). Is it true that uorescent lighting is harsher than incandescent? is is not necessarily true. Two factors, the color render ing index (CRI) and color correlated temperature (CCT, sometimes called K), aect a lights harshness. Fluorescent lighting is generally more uniform than other light sources. What is the color rendering index (CRI)? CRI measures the perceived color of objects under articial light on a scale of 0 to 100. e higher the number, the more natural and vibrant an object will appear. Incan descent bulbs usually have CRI values of 100. Old-style uorescents had values of 62, at best, which is why people used to complain that uorescents gave false colors. A CFL with a CRI of 80 or more is suitable for everyday residential use. What is the color correlated temperature (CCT)? CCT is a measurement of the appearance of the light source itself, how warm or cool it seems. It is measured in Kelvin temperature from 0 to 10,000+ and expressed as (K). Oddly, the lower the Kelvin number is, the warmer (more yellow) the light color. As the number goes up, the bluer the light source will be. For instance, a CCT of a standard incandescent bulb can range from 2800K to 3100K, which provides warm, white lights. A uorescent with a CCT of 3000K will provide the same warm, white light that an incandescent bulb produces. A 3500K uorescent bulb gives about the same light as a halogen. Some bulb manufacturers promote 5000K to 6000K, which produces cooler (bluer), white light, as a daylight bulb.
3 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps What should I look for when purchasing bulbs? Eciency Compare brands for price, lumens per watt (LPW), and hours of life. To calculate lumens per watt, divide the lumens by the watts. For instance, an 800-lumen, 60-watt incandescent bulb would have an LPW of approximately 13 (800 divided by 60); an 800-lumen, 15-watt CFL would have an LPW of about 53 (800 divided by 15); an 800-lu men, 9-watt LED would have an LPW of about 88. Remem ber, the higher the LPW, the greater the eciency and the more light you receive for the energy used. As a result of changes in the Appliance Labeling Rule, renamed the Energy Labeling Rule, comparing light bulbs is now much easier (Federal Register, 2015). e label on the front of the package must include brightness (lumens) and estimated annual energy cost of using the bulb three hours per day at a rate of 11 cents per kWh. A lighting facts label, as seen in Figure 1, must also be on the side or back of the package. is label must include information on bright ness (lumens), energy cost, bulb life, color temperature (CCT), wattage and, in some cases, voltage and mercury information. For more information on the light bulb law, see the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Frequently Asked Questions publication at http:// www.energystar.gov/ia/products/lighting/cs/downloads/ EISA_Backgrounder_FINAL_4-11_EPA.pdf Color On newer packaging, you will be able to locate the light appearance or CCT information on the lighting facts label. See Figure 1 as an example. On older packaging, compare CRI and Kelvin Temperature (CCT) if displayed on the product packageCRI will be a 2-digit number and Kelvin will be a 4-digit number with K, for example, 3500K. For an idea of how a room will look in varying shades of white light (warmyellow or coolblue), see the ENERGY STAR Choose a Light Guide at http://www.drmediaserver. com/CFLGuide/index.html Instructions for Appropriate Use When you purchase a bulb, check its packaging for any restrictions on use. For example, some bulbs should not be used in enclosed xtures and some may specify that the base be up or down. Many are for specic xtures, such as recessed cans, dimmer switches, or outdoor xtures. Bulbs used incorrectly can cause re and/or electric shock. is pertains to all bulbs, such as using a 100-watt bulb in a xture that calls for 40 watts. ere have been some reports of people experiencing health issues as a result of operating CFLs in the home. An online document from the government of Canada ( http:// healthycanadians.gc.ca/drugs-products-medicamentsproduits/consumer-consommation/home-maison/c-afceng.php ) may be of assistance in this regard. Contact your personal physician if you have questions as the authors of this document cannot address medical concerns. Can I use dimmers or 3-way switches with CFLs? Yes, but you need to nd the right bulbs. Manufacturers produce CFLs that will work in standard incandescent xtures with dimmers or 3-way switches, but using the wrong kind can be dangerous and costly if the bulb fails. Read package directions carefully to pick the right CFL for your purpose. Incorrectly installed bulbs can cause res. What is dierent about an ENERGY STARcertied CFL? A CFL must meet specic criteria to earn the ENERGY STARcertied label. ese criteria include very specic requirements for ecacy (LPW), CRI, CCT, product packaging, and warranty provisions. Figure 1. Sample ENERGY STARcertied CFL label Credits: http://www.ftc.gov/os/2010/06/100618lightbulbs.pdf
4 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps e ENERGY STAR website has links to a wealth of infor mation to help you select and purchase CFLs (ENERGY STAR, n.d.-a). See the ENERGY STAR program require ments for all lamps (light bulbs) at https://www.energystar. gov/sites/default/les/ENERGY%20STAR%20Lamps%20 V1%201_Specication.pdf or the light bulb key product criteria at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lamps. pr_crit_lamps What is dierent about ENERGY STARcertied lighting xtures? Light xtures that have earned the ENERGY STAR label combine exceptional features while using less energy. Compared with traditional or standard xtures, certied xtures (ENERGY STAR, n.d.-b): Use 70 to 90 percent less energy and about 70 to 90 percent less heat than typical models using incandescent light bulbs; Deliver convenient features such as dimming capability on some indoor models (xture must have a dimming ballast to be dimmable) and automatic daylight shut-o and motion sensors on some outdoor models; and Carry a manufacturer-backed warranty of at least three years. Should I turn o the uorescent lights when I leave the room? Contrary to popular belief, turning o uorescent lights really does save energy. Frequent switching may shorten bulb life, but electric bill savings will more than compensate for the shorter lifespan, especially if you end up using more CFLs than incandescents. e U.S. Department of Energy (n.d.-b) recommends that you turn o xtures using CFLS if you will be out of the room for more than 15 minutes. See the publication When To Turn O Your Lights ( http:// energy.gov/energysaver/articles/when-turn-your-lights ) for specic recommendations. Ive heard that CFLs contain mercuryhow do I dispose of them? What if I accidentally break one? As a general rule of thumb, CFLs require special handling, so dont throw them away with the regular household trash. While CFLs can be recycled, they should not be thrown into your recycle bin either. Check http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastetypes/ universal/lamps/index.htm or http://www.lamprecycle.org/ or call 1-800-CLEAN-UP, or access http://www.earth911. com/business-policy/business/out-about-recycle-with1-800-cleanup/ or contact your local waste-management agency for proper disposal guidelines in your community. For current information on what to do and what not to do when a CFL is broken, refer to http://epa.gov/c Note that this same website also contains links to information on proper disposal. By using CFLs, you can reduce power demand that will help reduce mercury emissions from power plants. Mercury emissions in the air come from both natural and manu factured sources. Coal-red power plants are the largest contributors because the naturally occurring mercury in the coal is released into the air when coal is burned to make electricity. In fact, coal-red power generation is responsible for more than 50% of the mercury emissions in the United States (ENERGY STAR, November 2010). ough uorescent bulbs do contain very small amounts of mercuryan average of 4 milligrams compared to older thermometers containing about 500 milligramsit is sealed within the glass tubing and is not released when the CFL is intact or in use. Moreover, with proper handling, mercury in the CFLs can be recaptured through recycling. Summary As a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, eective January 1, 2012, screw-based light bulbs will use fewer watts for a similar lumen output. e standards are technology neutral, which means any type of bulb can be sold as long as it meets the eciency requirements (U.S. EPA, 2011). e way we shop for bulbs changed from looking at watts (how much energy is used) to looking at lumens (brightness of the light). By the year 2020, most light bulbs must be 60%% more ecient than incan descents are today. CFLs were one of the rst technologies to address a more energy-ecient light bulb for the home owner. Today, LEDs are even more energy ecient than CFLs and are also an aordable lighting for the homeowner as they continue to increase in performance while decreas ing in price. e future is getting brighter.
5 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps References and Resources Earth 911. Retrieved May 16, 2015, from http:// www.earth911.com/business-policy/business/ out-about-recycle-with-1-800-cleanup/ Federal Register. (May 13, 2015). Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule), 16 CFR Part 305 Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/ text-idx?rgn=div5&node=16:188.8.131.52.29 Federal Trade Commission. (June 14, 2011). FTC Materials will help shoppers understand new light bulb labels coming in 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.c.gov/ opa/2011/06/lightbulbs.shtm Government of Canada. (February 24, 2014). e safety of compact uorescent lamps. Retrieved May 16, 2015, from http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/drugs-products-medica ments-produits/consumer-consommation/home-maison/ c-afc-eng.php Lamp Recycle Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2015, from http://www.lamprecycle.org/ Miller, C., Sullivan, J., and Ahrentzen, S. (2012). Energy Ecient Building Construction in Florida ISBN 978-09852487-0-3. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/Program for Resource Ecient Communities. U.S. Department of Energy. (n.d.-a). How energy-ecient light bulbs compare with traditional incandescents. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://energy.gov/energysaver/ articles/how-energy-ecient-light-bulbs-compare-tradi tional-incandescents U.S. Department of Energy. (n.d.-b). Energy SaversWhen to turn o your lights. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from http:// energy.gov/energysaver/articles/when-turn-your-lights U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (June 27, 2014). Recycling mercury-containing light bulbs (lamps). Re trieved May 16, 2015, from http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/ hazard/wastetypes/universal/lamps/index.htm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Backgrounder. (Spring 2011). Energy independence and security act of 2007 (EISA) frequently asked questions Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.energystar.gov/ia/products/lighting/cs/ downloads/EISA_Backgrounder_FINAL_4-11_EPA.pdf U.S, Environmental Protection Agency, EN ERGY STAR. (n.d.-a). Light bulbs for consumers. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www. energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=nd_a_product. showProductGroup&pgw_code=LB U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR. (n.d.-b). Residential light xtures for consumers. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.energystar.gov/index. cfm?c=xtures.pr_light_xtures U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR. (n.d.-c). Light bulb key product criteria. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lamps. pr_crit_lamps U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR. (n.d.-d). Savings calculator for ENERGY STAR certied light bulbs. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://www. energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cs.pr_cs_about#how_work U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR. (November 2010). Frequently asked questions: Information on compact uorescent light bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury, November 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://www. energystar.gov/ia/partners/promotions/change_light/down loads/Fact_Sheet_Mercury.pdf and http://www.energystar. gov/index.cfm?c=cs.pr_cs_mercury&_ga=1.258074306.9 70674748.1431795806 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR. (September 2014.) ENERGY STAR Program Require ments for Lamps (Light Bulbs): Partner Commitments). Retrieved May 15, 2015, from https://www.energystar. gov/sites/default/les/ENERGY%20STAR%20Lamps%20 V1%201_Specication.pdf and https://www.energystar.gov/ sites/default/les/specs//ENERGY_STAR_CFL_V4.3.pdf
6 Energy Ecient Homes: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Table 1. Estimated Cost to Household Comparison: Incandescent, CFLs, and LED Bulbs Light Output (Lumens) Bulb Type & Energy Use Bulb Purchasing Cost A Rate Life (hours) Energy Cost B for 10,000 hours use at $0.12/kWh Total Cost for 10,000 hours (Bulb[s] + Energy Cost) Total Cost C for 25,000 hours (Bulb[s] + Energy Cost) 800 Incandescent: 60 watts $1.00 1,000 $72.00 $82.00 $205.00 CFL: 13 watts $2.50 10,000 $15.60 $18.10 $44.00 LED: 8.5 watts $8.00 25,000 $10.20 $18.20 $33.50 1,200 Incandescent: 75 watts $1.00 1,000 $90.00 $100.00 $250.00 CFL: 20 watts $3.50 10,000 $24.00 $27.50 $67.00 LED: 16 watts $20.00 25,000 $19.20 $39.20 $68.00 1,750 Incandescent: 100 watts $1.00 1,000 $120.00 $130.00 $325.00 CFL: 23 watts $4.00 10,000 $27.60 $31.60 $77.00 LED: 19 watts $23.00 25,000 $22.80 $45.80 $80.00 A Estimated purchasing costs do not include taxes, shipping, handling fees, recycling fees, or travel expenses associated with acquisition of bulbs at point of purchase, nor do they include additional taxes, fees, or charges required by your utility provider. B watts rate life / 1000 = kWh; kWh price per kWh = Energy Cost C CFL bulb cost at 25,000 hours was estimated for 2 bulbs (using a 12,000 hour CFL). In some cases, a third bulb purchase may be required because some CFLs are rated at 10,000 hours. This would increase the CFL cost by 1 bulb. Note: Actual light output, bulb cost, and rated life may vary by product. Utility rates vary by provider. See the potential savings when choosing more energy-ecient bulbs for your home by using the Savings Calculator for ENERGY STARCertied Light Bulbs easy-to-use spreadsheet at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cs.pr_cs_about#how_work