Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 1 Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 Article Producing Tutorials With Digital Professionals: Primary Sources, Pirates, and Partners Shelley Arlen Melissa J. Clapp Cindy L. Craig University of Florida Abstract Once accepted as strictly functional, low key, step by step introductions to services, resources, and how to search databases, library tutorials are now branching o ut into innovative multi media W eb based presentations to appeal to a wide audience. Librarians and their instructional materials are taking advantage of an increasingly expanding toolbox of modern technologies and pedagogical techniques to capture the attention not only of students and library patrons, but Web viewers in general. This paper discusses the planning and creative processes involved in producing tutorials that address an identified instructional need using new technologies and a storytelling model. Also addressed are copyright issues, finding public domain images, and working with a production partner that is independent of the library. The videos described here were created to help students and others understand the differences between primary and secondary documents using a storyline based on the p opular topic of pirates. The project was made possible by a mini grant from George A. Smathers Libraries University of Florida.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 2 Creating library tutorials that engage viewers is a challenge in an era of non stop distractions and high end technologies. With television, computers, smart phones, and social media, people are bombarded with fast paced action and slick production values. To attract and maintain an audience, the tutorials must compete with the attraction of popular culture and m eet the sophisticated digital and visual expectations of today's media savvy society (Pressley, 2008; Zhang, 2006). Tutorials should also take advantage of pedagogical strategies that further learning and enable better retention of information, such as a s torytelling model. This model fosters learning by presenting information within a narrative that stirs curiosity and keeps listeners' attention by means of plot devices such as hooks, rising action, climax, and denouement. This paper begins by outlining t he authors' objectives in creating tutorials on primary documents and how those objectives were accomplished. The authors will then discuss some of the major issues involved: working with digital professionals, and finding and obtaining the rights to use d ocuments and images for educational purposes. Summaries of the scripts will give a flavor of the content and note particular features added to increase viewer interest. The paper ends with remarks on marketing and assessment. Why a Tutorial on Primary Doc uments? past, or accounts created shortly thereafter, is obvious to librarians and other academics. Primary documents are the basis for scholarly interpretations of th e past, and are cited as evidence for prevailing views on historical events. Primary documents have also gained attention in the last few decades as useful tools not only for doing historical research, but also for teaching critical thinking skills (Winebu rg, 2001). They can be analyzed and compared with other documents to determine veracity and reliability. Historical sources also allow students to empathize with the motives and feelings of people who lived in the past. In a library orientation for under graduates, historical documents are generally mentioned as one kind of research material along with articles, dissertations, and newspaper reports. They are briefly defined and examples are given, such as diaries, letters, and oral histories. Nevertheless, many students still struggle with the concept of primary documents. This confusion is surprising, as public schools regularly teach modules featuring historical documents. Since the 1970s, Document Based Questions (DBQs) have been taught in response to na tional calls for better education practices that emphasize training students how to think (United States, 1983; Boyer, 1998). In the 1970s, DBQs first appeared in Advanced Placement Exams in history (Rothschild, 2000). Public schools began requiring social studies teachers to assign DBQs. Now these exercises are taught across grade levels, typically beginning in the upper elementary grades. The DBQ consists of writing tasks regarding the purpose, context, and interpretation of a set of specific documents (Breakstone, Smith, & Wineburg 2013; Van Hover & Yeager, 2004). Students are given photocopies of eight or more sources and then
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 3 asked quest ions about them, compelling students to read the documents for understanding, apply critical thinking skills, and write arguments based on evidence. Because of widespread DBQ use in schools, college faculty expect incoming students to understand the basi cs of historical materials, but many in their classes do not. Anecdotes by colleagues reinforced the authors' observations: undergraduates often had difficulties not only identifying, but also understanding, how to use historical sources. The library liter ature, too, echoes the need for better instruction (Lombard, 2010; Malkmus, 2010). Given the need to teach undergraduates this skill, the authors saw an opportunity to create tutorials that could provide students with assistance in this area. The Web ha s made it much easier to access historical documents because archives, historical societies, and libraries have digitized their holdings. Prominent examples American Memory ( http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html ) and the University of North Carolina Documenting the American South ( http://docsouth.unc.edu/ ). Publishers offer Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600 2000 Empire Online To meet growing research needs, libraries continue to augment the ir holdings with expensive databases. Clearly, librarians have a responsibility to students with research assignments and to institutions investing in these online collections to ensure users understand what primary sources are and how they foster research Maximize Learning The tutorials, the authors decided, should be aimed at a broad audience. They should be most useful to high school and undergraduate students, but they would be accessible to all children and adults when uploaded to YouTube. A stand ard tutorial with low key, step by step instructions, however, was not what the authors envisioned. Influenced by the storytelling techniques Ken Burns uses in his Public Broadcasting Company documentaries, the librarians wanted to create videos that used historical materials to examine past events or issues in ways that would attract attention and keep viewers engrossed. They should entertain as well as educate. On one level, the tutorials would engage viewers with stories and eye catching visuals. On ano ther level, they would present information regarding historical documents as well as illustrate the research process. The instruction would be presented unobtrusively in palatable doses. Storytelling is an ancient art; it is considered an essential human characteristic (Bruner, 2003; Hsu, 2008). It is a technique especially well suited to primary documents. Every storyteller knows that information delivered via a story is a much more effec tive teaching tool than merely presenting facts. Stories are inherently interesting, while a listing of facts can be monotonous. Viewers are much more likely to recall material when it is incorporated in the context of a story. Good stories insert hooks (d evices such as rising action, climax, and denouement) to maintain attention. They compile facts into meaningful experiences and engage the audience on an emotional, as well as
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 4 intellectual, level. With a narration that moves forward logically from one stat ement to another, building on what came before and promising more revelations, the storytelling Making primary sources the focus of instructional videos offers unique pedagogical opportunities. A kind of visual grammar, akin to unwritten language, is provided through drawings, etchings, maps, handwriting, or even an old fashioned typeset. Pictures have an emotional, primitive power that words do not have. They produce instant reac tions and leave lasting impressions, even if those impressions are later modified. The variety of documents used in the videos (gallows confessions, bills of sale, government proclamations) gives clues to their relative subjectivity or objectivity, and i constitutes a research project based on historical documents. In effect, these tutorials do double duty and give added value: they show as well as tell. Collaboration wi th Digital Worlds Institute Not having the required skill sets needed to produce videos, the authors needed funding. They applied for a competitive mini grant from George A. Smathers Libraries and were awarded $5,000, the maximum given. On recommendations from faculty and staff, the new Project Team approached local video production agencies. With the grant money, the digital professionals would produce two short video tutorials (four to five minutes each) from the historical documents, scripts, and storyboards provided by the librarians within a deadline of one year. The videos would be narrated and incorporate special effects such as animation, music, and colorizing black and white images to attract viewer interest. One third payment would be made on signing the contract, one third after approval of draft sequences, and one third after the final products had been work, the librarians were fortunate to find a partner right on campus that could create the videos with the available budget. Digital Worlds Institute (DW) was excited by the prospect of working on the library tutorials. They considered it an opportunit y to experiment and be creative for a special purpose new to its agenda. The newest department in the University of Florida College of the Arts, DW offers degrees in digital creation and management. DW faculty and staff also have a research and service mis sion and frequently work on special projects, usually with grant money and commissions from educational, cultural, or scientific entities. Animation, special effects, music, narration, and design are expensive to produce; however, Digital Worlds agreed to waive their typical fee of approximately $1,000 per produced minute to create two four minute videos for the amount of the grant. The specific topics chosen for the tutorials would ultimately be based on the amount of primary material available; there h ad to be enough material to weave it all together into a coherent tale. After weeks of selecting topics then sifting through digital libraries to find supporting historical sources, the Team came up with two topics: the Black
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 5 Migration, the mass movement of African Americans from the South to Northern states for better job opportunities and greater freedoms; and the Sand Creek Massacre, in by a territorial militia. There was sufficient documentary evidence for both stories congressional hearings, newspaper clippings, photographs, oral histories and the authors were excited about the topics. At their first joint meeting, the authors presented their topics to the Digital W orlds staff and screened an example of their envisioned end product: a 30 second Camtasia video they'd created for "The Black Migration." However, the DW staff had concerns about the topics chosen and how they would connect with an audience. The topics, th ey said, were too sober and the video style had an institutional feel; the topics might interest professors, but not students. The tutorials, they pointed out, were not going to be created for particular history classes teaching these topics. Instead, the videos would serve a different purpose, one aimed at a broader audience. If the goal was to make the stories widely appealing, Digital Worlds suggested the topics should be popular ones that would attract all kinds of viewers and keep them interested enoug h to continue watching. A lighter topic, they insisted, would draw a larger audience. After consideration, the librarians agreed. However, since the Team needed to start the research process for images and information over again, they decided to create the two tutorials on the same topic. They brainstormed for a few days and chose a more suitable topic: pirates. Pirates, Scripts, and Storyboards The topic of pirates, icons of popular culture and wide appeal, was ideal for the project. The Golden Age of Piracy (circa 1650 1730) has kept readers and moviegoers captivated for centuries with its romantic, colorful, and often shocking tales. Legends h ave developed around these sea brigands and many misconceptions about them permeate western culture. Their universal appeal would make the tutorials easier to promote and, more importantly, present an excellent hook to draw viewers. For an era over 300 years ago, an impressive amount of historical documentation still exists about the exploits of this fearsome lot, and hundreds of secondary documents eir deeds. Pirates also appear in cartoons and advertising even restaurant logos and beverages and they are admired and reviled in a mix of light entertainment and dark drama. In planning the tutorials, there were opportunities to inform viewers about the different kinds of documentary evidence available: eyewitness accounts, court transcripts, woodcut portraits, and ballads. The stories could educate students regarding little known facts, present some surprises, and add telling details all of which could b e worked into an engaging script rather than baldly stated as facts. Creating a tutorial is a messy process, and this paper first discusses the general stages in this process before turning to the challenges of revising draft scripts that would satisf y the goals of storytelling and instruction and of making final decisions on which
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 6 documents to use. Writing the script entails not only composing a narrative, but also selecting visuals, and this process is a circular one, with each visual influencing the narrative which, in turn, influences the choice of image, and so on. The narrative and the images have to support one another. The Team first consulted databases and Early English Books Online Eighteenth Century Collections Online and Early American Imprints Online from Readex. All contained striking, often unique, images of pirates, ships, and other relevant documents. American Memory ( http://memory.loc.gov ) was another fruitful source. The documents selected were created several hundred years ago, supposedly in the public domain, though they did need to be credited. Digital Worlds asked for high resol ution images and when possible, the authors created TIFF files for high quality images. While Investigator contacted the holding libraries and archives for official permissio n to use their documents in the tutorials. (Permissions and copyright are discussed in the next section.) Because the Team did not know which images would make the final cut at this stage, permissions were sought for a great many more documents than were a ctually used. Also, additional research was necessary. In addition to the primary documents, secondary sources such as books and critical articles were examined for background, summaries, and particularly intriguing details that might add interest. Deta ils are especially important. Blackbeard supposedly terrorized his captives with his wild appearance: burning wicks were braided in his hair and beard. Daniel Defoe, noted author of Robinson Crusoe spent time in prison with pirates and, under an alleged p seudonym, wrote the definitive account of these outlaws and their deeds (Defoe, 1724). The notorious pirate William Kidd was actually a patriotic ship's captain who attacked vessels of enemy countries. These details offer fascinating insights into human ch aracter, motives, and the vagaries of history while bringing the past to life. The narrative morphed many times as the Team found more information and visuals, much of which had to be winnowed down later to fit a manageable script. A script has to be dr amatic and immediately engage the viewer; it must also present the Pyrates: Truth Be Told (Arlen, many were are illustrated, one being the whimsical image of a sea monster. Then a series of pirate documents are quickly introduced (title pages and images, layered quickly one on top of another) a s the narrator refers to primary sources as direct clues to who these pirates really were. Primary and secondary documents are defined with examples. The tutorial including fi ctional tales that were influenced by his book. Finally, the credits list collections that include pirate materials. The narrative, the images, sequences and scenes, and suggestions for special effects, are found in the storyboard s created by the Projec t Team. Storyboards can take on
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 7 many forms, but the authors created Word documents with tables that could easily be expanded or discarded. There are columns for narrative, sound effects, images, sources, and special effects. The rows in the table indicate parts or sections of the tutorial when one image should change to another or when the narrator should speak specifically to a document onscreen. These storyboards (see Appendix) enabled the Team to view each tutorial as a whole, ensure good transitions, an d eliminate images that were too similar. They also served as Digital Worlds' guides to producing the from the sources of the images, even if only as a courtesy to the holdi ng institutions, and address issues of copyright and fair use. The authors, however, not being intellectual property specialists, discovered some of their assumptions regarding fair use were incorrect. Primary Materials, Copyright, and Fair Use With the growth of the Internet and greater sophistication of browsers to search the Web, open source, copyright, and fair use have taken a prominent role in current affairs and cultural debates. One side argues that the public has a right to use older cultura l treasures not under copyright restriction. The other argues that institutions may have certain rights to the object or image in their collections no matter when they were created. The increasing availability of images on the Web has created problems for some libraries and archives. Some organizations work to protect the rights of owning entities: Due to the capacity of search engines to find images on the Internet, it is now very easy to access huge quantities of images. However, the majority of these wi ll still be protected by copyright and possibly other rights (such as rights in the object, the copyright in the image of t he object, or both) and authoriz ation will still be required for their use. (JISC, 2014, section 2, para. 3) In the United States, r eproducing copyrighted materials for teaching, scholarship, and research purposes are factors that may be considered "fair use" (United States Copyright Office, 2012). In practice, however, this determination is not as simple as it might seem. A number of websites such as that maintained by The Center for Media & Social Impact at American University ( http://www.cmsimpact.org/fair use/best practices ) maintain up to date information on the doctr ine of fair use and suggest best practices. While the authors believed their project met the doctrine's criteria, they proceeded cautiously, even in the pursuit of images from Wikipedia or the Creative Commons initiative. However, DW had a more liberal vi ew of acceptable use. They mentioned a "seven on screen more than seven seconds; the authors were never able to verify this alleged rule. Communication with the owning institut ions was time consuming and, at times, frustrating. In a number of cases, it was difficult to determine from a library or museum website which department or person to contact: Head Archivist, Reprography
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 8 Department, Curator of Manuscripts, Director of Libr aries, or Copy Unit? Not only was this a matter of confusing departmental titles, it was often difficult to find the needed links to any permissions webpage. (Most of these websites have since improved such access.) Each email sent out requesting permissio n gave a summary of the tutorial project and indicated how the image(s) would be used. A thumbnail copy of the image was included along with the exact citation given in a database and, in some cases, the Short Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641 1700 (Wing & Pollard, 1972). Since there can be a number of duplicate editions of works, all of varying quality, any pertinent information likely to be needed for correct identification was also included in the emails. Responses from the owning institutions varied, from not responding at all to sending pages of forms and instructions. Several emailed the di gitized documents the Team requested with no charge but simply a permissions form to fill out and return. The authors were unprepared when a number of unanticipated issues came up. Some institutions required use fees, regardless of the stated purpose. Thes e fees varied from one institution to another; charges were often assessed by category, such as type of media intended, presentation in how many languages, the size of reproduction, print run, reproduction fee (digital images online could not be copied), a udience (worldwide or accessible only to those within a certain IP range), and number of years or months the document would be in use. Some libraries required signed license agreements similar to those needed when purchasing databases from commercial vendors. Unfortunately, these multi page licenses usually included a paragraph on indemnity stating, in effect, that the institution signing the agreement (the Project Team's library) would be liable for any resulting legal problems, such as other claims to copyright. As a state institution, the University of Florida cannot sign such agreements. The authors explained Florida law, but only one owning archive agreed to delete the indemnity clause for the pirate project. At the time, the authors, who were not intellectual property experts, were unaware that other countries might have stricter copyright laws than the United States and that fair use was more restrictive; this difference was particularly problematic to the project as most pirate documents consulted were held by institutions in the United Kingdom. A recent online publication spells out the complex issues for permissions seekers to t ake into account when working with these institutions. The higher education organization JISC (previously known as the Joint Information Systems Committee), released a guide on using images for teaching and research. The guide indicates some restrictions a nd areas of potential confusion: Will the images be used in learning and teaching materials? Traditionally if analogue images were to be used for learning and teaching a certain leeway was given to those wanting to copy them by means of 'fair dealing'. Ho wever, the use of digital images within teaching and learning activities employing digital means
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 9 of dissemination, is far more restrictive and 'fair dealing' is considered much less of a defens e for copying. (JISC, 2014, section 4, para. 4) These restric tions could have been a major setback for the project; after all, how many copies of a 300 year old document still exists? The authors realized they had to radically alter their search strategies. After a few days of frantic searching, however, the Team di d find other, freely available materials that often were exact (or similar) copies of the images requested from those collections. Public Domain Images Searching for other images was not always simple or quick but there were alternatives. For one, the full text, out of copyright titles freely available in Google Books, Internet Archive, and other online collections were incredibly helpful. Also, George A Smathers Libraries strategy came as a result of the authors' experiences in searching. They realized that older woodcuts and engravings of illustrations were passed among publishers a nd re used again and again for hundreds of years. One reliable source for these vintage images, they discovered, is the ballad book, such as the published compilations of The Roxburghe Ballads (Chappell, 1871) and other works on traditional songs. These so ngbooks are often illustrated with the familiar black and white images of Medieval and Renaissance era couples, family gatherings, ships, and even gallows scenes. Google Books was a good source of pirate images from 19th and early 20th century books; i mages from these were used to supplement and fill gaps in the storylines. While not necessarily created by eyewitnesses, such documents can, for certain research questions, be evidential as they indicate the contemporary ideas and stereotypes about pirates that were common in those centuries. For example, they can answer the question: how did people of these later periods view Captain Kidd or Blackbeard: romanticized, vilified, comical? Barton (2005) offers clarification when he writes that a resource is i As a last resort, the Team purchased a book of royalty free images. Dover Publications, well known for its image books, has published a work specifically devoted to pirates: Pirates CD ROM and Book: Dover Electronic Clip Art (Menges, 2007). The images are available in various resolutions, including the TIFF format that satisfied Digital World's quality requirements. A number of documents that the Team had been told required use fees or license agreements were actually found in this book. The illustrations included some by Howard Pyle, one of the best and most prolific of the pirate painters. Pyle founded an art school where N.C. Wyeth studied before he illu strated editions of Treasure Island, Kidnapped and Robinson Crusoe As both artists heavily influenced how people think of pirates today, it was important to represent their work in the tutorials.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 11 Hollywood manufactured versions of pirates with what they learned from the tutorial and, for those who want mo re information, to visit the online collections listed onscreen. Captain Kidd: Pirate or Privateer? focuses on the infamous William Kidd, one of the best known pirates in popular culture. Few individuals, however, know his true history. His life story p resents a compelling mystery: the tale of an admired and courageous ship captain who somehow turned rogue and came to a tragic end. Primary and secondary documents indicate two sides to Captain Kidd: the fearsome, red coated pirate and the proper British g entleman. He began a sea faring career as a privateer, a legal form of piracy in which governments along with private investors sponsored ships and well respected captains to attack enemy vessels, commandeering both ships and cargo. But something went wron g for Kidd after one such expedition. Investors turned against him, and he was imprisoned on charges of piracy. Through surviving primary documents, the video examines the trial and execution of Captain Kidd, including an actual court transcript, a damning account by an alleged associate, a broadside ballad claiming to be Kidd's confession, and an image of his body hanging in chains by the Thames River. His guilt or innocence is still debated by historians today. Among the papers Kidd allegedly offered up on his arrest was an official, signed letter of marque giving him license to privateer on his government's behalf Curiously, the letter of marque and the other documents were somehow lost and could not be presented in his defense at trial. Two hundred years later, however, these documents were discovered, mysteriously misplaced in Britain's Public Records Office (Ri tchie, 1986). As Captain Kidd: Pirate or Privateer demonstrates, truth can be illusive. With the appearance of the license providing documentary evidence of his innocence, Kidd now appears to be exonerated of any crime. In fact, its disappearance suggests he may have been the victim of a political conspiracy (Dalton, 1911). This tutorial builds on Pyrates: Truth Be Told in presenting the view that existing primary documents are not necessarily accurate and may not tell the complete story. The fact that they survive is not because they are credible; it may simply be a quirk of fate. Marketing and Current Use Marketing is never complete. As long as a product or service is still useful, it can always be gainfully publicized. However, unless a particular progr am or event offers opportunities in the future, the major marketing outreach is done in the first year the product is available. Nevertheless, while marketing the pirate tutorials remains low key, these videos continue to be used by Smathers librarians in orientations and instruction sessions. The videos were launched in December 2011. In January of 2012, the librarians began showing them to classes. As of November 2014, the most currently available statistics provided by the UFDC, Pyrates has been viewed 331 times. Captain Kidd has been v iewed 377 times. The videos also continue to be viewed on YouTube, with Captain Kidd receiving 1,661 views and Pyrates 536 views, both noted as of March 11, 2015.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 12 In 2012, the first year, the Team's mark eting featured a number of strategies. Publicity included a "world premier" reception held at Digital Worlds and another viewing for library staff organized by the authors. Records with links to the videos were added to the library catalog, and the Univers ity of Florida Digital Collections uploaded them to its Institutional Repository. For several months after their release, the pirate videos were headlined in the "News and Highlights" section of the George A. Smathers Libraries home page, with links to the actual videos. The authors also created an exhibit by the Reference Desk in the Humanities & Social Sciences Library West. That exhibit included copies of documents, maps, and books; to grab attention, the case was decorated with a small treasure chest lo aded with "coins" and beads and scattered throughout were pirate hats, an eye patch, and playful foam swords. All this sat atop a large flag with skull and crossbones. Postcard sized flyers showing a colorful Blackbeard and the URL links to the videos were distributed and available as handouts throughout the libraries. The Project Team introduced the tutorials at several conferences. In 2012, they presented poster sessions at both the ALA Annual Conference in Anaheim, California, and the Florida Lib rary Association conference in Orlando. Both presentations included posters, pirate paraphernalia, and a laptop showing the videos in a loop. The authors also spoke at the Innovation in Libraries Conference on the campus of Florida State University Panama City that fall. Notices of the videos were sent to blogs and listservs, not only library outlets, but also history contacts, such as the U.S. History Teacher blog ( http://ushistoryeducatorblog.blogspot.com/2012/04/download youtbue videos.html ). One member of the Team created what has now become an essential marketing tool for all University of Florida libraries: a LibGuide LibGuide provides additional information on primary documents and pirates, and it links to the online tutorials. The guides of library colleagues also feature the videos. A record of this LibGuide was added to th e library's online catalog; its current use indicates that it continues to serve as a gateway for classes on campus with primary research assignments. The pirate videos are regularly viewed each semester in the Smathers' one credit course, Library and Inte rnet Research. Occasionally, a student will mention that a professor assigned the tutorials for extra credit. At times, unaffiliated websites have linked to one or both tutorials; however, these links prove temporary. The librarians are now working with a few national organizations and other libraries to add links to the videos from their primary sources webpages. Evaluation Every summer, George A. Smathers Libraries hosts two week long research labs for local International Baccalaureate students prepar ing for their 40 page Senior Essay. The tutorials were shown to two of these high school classes in the library's electronic classroom, and a short questionnaire was given afterwards. The questions included: What do you remember most from the vid eos? What is the most interesting thing you learned?
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 13 What surprised you about this topic? Why should you use primary documents in your history research? A total of 65 students completed the questionnaires. The biggest trend in the survey the leading to his execution. Many students were surprised to learn that a legal form of piracy actually existed at one time. Some were also impressed that there were fe male pirates and that they were as ruthless as the male pirates. A number of the responses indicated a curiosity with the way English words were spelled in the primary documents (e.g., tryal, pyrat, dye). In another trend, some students found the style the animation and growling narrator to be the most memorable aspect of the videos. Several responses mentioned the cartoon pirate that pops up on screen from time to time with a aid More importantly, most of the students indicated they had a better understanding of what primary documents are and why they are important for research. About half of the students mentioned the questionable reliability, accuracy, or validity of primary sources, apparently something they'd not previously thought much about. The other half wrote that primary documents are important eyewitness accounts of an event. Nearly all of the students we re able to name a resource for primary documents, most indicating the Library of Congress website. Conclusion Creating online tutorials with grant funding is an ideal opportunity to make high quality professional instruction tools. Video production partners have the skills and experience to create high end products. They ensure that the tutorials exhibit the lates t results of cutting edge technologies: the sophisticated, specialized effects that appeal to today's audiences. Librarians may consider it work for hire, but videographers are professionals who offer a number of services, including concept development, gr aphic design, image compositing, authoring, production assistance, and distributed collaboration. The production staff expects to have an equal partnership with the library in creating the videos and to have some freedom to improve or adapt the videos as t hey see the need. The suggestions and changes of a good digital production agency will undoubtedly add value to the videos. Two of the authors have subsequently worked on an additional grant funded video project with Digital Worlds: The French in Florida ( http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00025629/00001 ). This video, also based on primary documents, proved to be another success; its world premiere at the Florida Historic Capitol Museum in Tallahassee featured a string quartet that augmented the soundtrack and an audience of over 100 attendees. Before c ommitting to a collaboration with any production agency, librarians must ask for references, see examples of previous work, and meet several times with the production
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 14 studio to discuss respective needs and goals. They should also make sure to stipulate per iodic updates, joint meetings, and a deadline for completion before signing a contract. Especially recommended is to present a brief mock up or draft video that can begin the creative conversation between the librarians and the videographers in order that all parties understand and are comfortable with the plans and expectations. Unless the digital artists provide all images, copyright issues must be addressed, but the Web is an excellent source of free images from numerous digital libraries. The recent Web releases of public domain materials by the Getty, the British Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art indicate a greater willingness of libraries and museums to share images with those who wish to use them for non commercial or educational purposes. In general, however, librarians must be cautious in using visual materials. Just because the proposed project is the work of an educational institution, there can be no expectation that permissions will automatically be given, use fees waived, or indemnity clauses deleted from license agreements. Any negotiations take time as all involved come to agreements. First choice images may need to be replaced, topics and scripts reworked, and search strategies broadened. The authors recommend requesting permissions as soon as images are selected; this will leave time to find needed substitutes if necessary. The subject of pirates worked well in building stories based on primary documents, and the historical sources offered an excellent opportunity to exploit the n arrative possibilities of swashbuckling tales while fulfilling an instructional function. Flashy while the instructional subtext can be presented to an audience that may not even notice they are actually learning. As stories, tutorials can appeal to viewers' emotions and stir curiosity, especially if they address some controversial or popular culture topic. Libraries and librarians have much to offer their communities bu Sharing this information in engaging, as well as entertaining, ways can encourage greater use of the collections and enhance community relations.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 15 References Arlen, S., Clapp, M. J., Craig, C. L., Oliverio, J., McIntosh, H., & Williams, A. (2011a). Captain Kidd: Pirate or privateer? Gainesville, FL: The Digital Worlds Institute. Available from http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00008735/00001 Arlen, S., Clapp, M. J., Craig, C. L., Oliverio, J., McIntosh, H., & Williams, A. (2011b). Pyrates: Truth be told. Gainesville, FL: The Digital Worlds Institute. Ava ilable from http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00008736/00001 Barton, K. C. (2005). Primary sources in history: Breaking through the myths. Phi Delta Kappan, 86 (10), 745 753. Boyer Commission on Educating Undergradu ates in the Research University. (1998). Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for America's research universities Stony Brook, NY: State University of New York at Stony Brook for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Brand om, R. (2014, March 5). The world's largest photo service just made its pictures free to use: Getty Images is betting its business on embeddable photos. The Verge. Retrieved from http://www.theverge.com/2014/3/5/5475202/getty images made its pictures free to use Breakstone, J., Smith, M., & Wineburg, S. (2013). Beyond the bubble in history/social studies assessments. Phi Delta Kappan, 94 (5), 53 57. doi: 10.1177/003172171309400512 Bruner, J. (2003). Making stories: Law, literature, life Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. embed ded photos. Business Week. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014 03 06/since it cant sue us all getty images embraces embedded photos Chappell, W. (1871). The Roxburghe ballads Hertford: S. Austin and Sons. Craig, C. L. (2013). Tales from the source: What are primary documents? Companion website to the Tales from the Source videos. Retrieved from http://guides.uflib.ufl.edu/tales Dalton, C. N. (1911). The Real Captain Kidd: A vindication New York: Duffield and Company. Defoe, D. (1724). A general history of the robberies and murders of the most notorious pirates from their first rise a nd settlement in the island of Providence, in 1717, to
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 17 Scott, Walter. (1822). The pirate Edinburgh: A. Constable & Co. Stevenson, R. L. (1883). Treasure Island London: Cassell. United States. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: a r e port to the n ation and the Secretary of Educ ation, United States Department of Education Washington, D.C: National Commission on Excellence in Education. United States Copyright Office. (2012, June). Fair use Retrieved from http://www.cop yright.gov/fls/fl102.html Van Hover, S. D., & Yeager, E. A. (2004). Challenges facing beginning history teachers: An exploratory study. International Journal of Social Education, 19 (1), 8 27. Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts : Charting the future of teaching the past Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Wing, D & Pollard, A. W. (1972). Short Title catalogue of books printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America, and of English books printed in other countries, 1641 1700. New York: Columbia University Press. Zhang, L. (2006). Effecti vely incorporating instructional media into web based information literacy. Electronic Library, 24 (3), 294 306.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 18 Appendix: Early Draft of the Captain Kidd Storyboard WHO WAS CAPTAIN KIDD? (continued) NARRATIVE SOUND EFFECTS IMAGE SOURCE SPECIAL EFFECTS Many are the tales told about the infamous Captain William Kidd. But who was this man really? Bloodthirsty pirate? Sea chanty or jig Dover Animation: rocking sea Or dignified gentleman? Chamber music Wikipedia
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 19 Well, there is plenty of evidence to help learn the truth. This evidence -primary documents consists of accounts written or created at the time of an event. Surprisingly, many still exist to this day. Library of Congress. Law Library http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ cgi bin/ampage?collId=law lib3&fileName=law000 1_201000302205929p age.db&recNum=6 Like the tran script of his trial where Kidd maintained his innocence: Patience till I can procure my Sounds of crowd and gavel striking for silence. Library of Congress. Law Library http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ cgi bin/ampage?collId=law lib3&fileName=law000 1_201000302205929p age.db&recNum=6 But those documents, taken from him upon his arrest, had mysteriously disappeared. Sounds of prison bars clanging shut Bk of Buried Treasure p. 104 http://books.google.co m/books?hl=en&lr=&i d=tmFDAAAAIAAJ&oi= fnd&pg=PA1& dq=%22 Book+of+Buried+treas ure%22&ots=FMFpZD DeSD&sig=IbdxHAljOI mX0X0BYBmjosF9bY#v =onepage&q&f=false Document crumbles to dust.
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 20 Popular ballads were sung about him in the streets of London. Singing: My name is Captain Kidd, yes I am, yes I am. American Antiquarian Society But for crimes of piracy Sounds of sea battle, canon A century of ballads ed. by John Ashton p.209 The Benjamin s Lamentation for their sad loss at Sea, by Storms and Tempests Animation: ships rock on the waters, a canon fires And killing a mutinous crewman Fighting, shouting New England Legends GOOGLE p. 3 and cover http://books.google.co m/books?id=nGs2AAA AMAAJ&pg=PP7&dq= %22new+england+lege nds%22+Harriet+presc ott&hl=en&ei=RdJTTu mCA4jZ0QGauNyRBg& sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=6&v ed=0CEUQ6AEwBQ#v= one page&q&f=false Animation: Kidd striking crewman
Journal of Libra ry Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2015 21 Kidd met his end on the shores of the Thames River in 1701. Hanged in chains Mournful pipe tune 165 http://books.google.co m/books?id=DXEZAAA A YAAJ&printsec=frontc over&dq=%22Pirates+ own+book%22&hl=en &ei=vs9TToG7HOXa0Q Gv7L2LCw&sa=X&oi=b ook_result&ct=result& resnum=5&ved=0CD4 Q6AEwBA#v=onepage &q&f=false Bk of Buried Treasure, p. 128 Google bbks Animation: corpse swinging in the wind Shelley Arlen is Associate University Librarian, U.S. and British History Librarian at the Humanities & Social Sciences Library West, University of Florida. Melissa J. Clapp is Associate University L ibrarian, Instructional & Outreach Librarian at the George A. Sm athers Libraries University of Florida. Cindy L. Craig is Associate University Librarian; Psychology, Sociology, Criminology Librarian at the George A. Smathers Libraries University of Florida. 2015, S. Arlen, M. Clapp, & C. Craig Journal of Library Innovation is an open access journal. Authors retain the copyright to their work under the terms of the following Creative Commons license: Attribution Noncommercial No Derivative Works 3.0 (United States) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by nc nd/3.0/us/