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Only about 20% of people who survive ICH achieve functional independence at 6 months post-ICH3 Â– 5. e fatality rate at 1 month post-ICH is about 40% and the incidence is increasing every year due to the increasing number of aging population1 5. ICH can lead to primary or secondary brain injury which is irrespective of the cause of the injury6Â–10. Primary injury is caused by the hemorrhage and hematoma expansion resulting in the increased intracranial pressure and mechanical injury to the tissue11. Secondary brain injury is the result of the physiological and pathological response to the hematoma7. us, therapeutic strategies have been developed to target primary and secondary brain injury following ICH6 11Â– 14. erapies against primary injury target limiting the intracranial bleeding, hematoma expansion, and intracranial pressure11; secondary injuries are countered by targeting excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinammation7, 11, 15, 16. An important feature of the pathophysiological response to ICH is the inammatory cascade triggered by the degeneration and rupture of the blood vessels and hematoma formation. is inammatory cascade involves the prostaglandin (PG), a family of lipid mediators, as well as other pathways16Â– 18. Prostaglandins execute their eects through their respective receptors. e role of the prostaglandins and their specic receptors in acute neurologic conditions is actively being investigated. Interestingly, data so far suggests a paradoxical role of these prostaglandins and their receptors based on the nature, type, and location of the injury18Â–25. PGD2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the brain and exerts most of its biological eects by binding to the DP1 receptor. is receptor couples with Gs protein and activates adenylyl cyclase, resulting in an increase in cAMP which is reported to be involved with increases blood ow and platelet aggregation inhibition26. We wDepartment of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. xCenter for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. yDepartments of Neurology, Psychiatry, Pharmaceutics, Psychology, and Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to A.S.A. (email: ÂƒÂƒÂŠÂÂƒÂ†;ÂƒÂÂ‡Â•Â–Â—Â‡Â†Â—) or S.D. (email: Â•Â†Â‘Â”Â‡;Â—Â‡Â†Â— ) Received: 17 May 2017 Accepted: 1 August 2017 Published: xx xx xxxxb
2 have previously shown that DP1 receptor activation augments cerebral blood ow, which formed the basis for our hypothesis that absence of the DP1 receptor or its blockade by laropiprant, a selective DP1 receptor antagonist, would minimize brain injury and neurologic decits following intracerebral hemorrhage. Interestingly, laropiprant, also known as MK-0524, has been used in pre-clinical and clinical settings alone or in combination with niacin27, 28 essentially to attenuate the PGD2-induced vasodilation that results in hot ashes on skin (a common undesirable side eect of niacin treatment). In humans, laropiprant has been found to be well tolerated, and has very decent bioavailability and a long half-life26, 29. In the current study, a single dose of collagenase was injected into the striatum of WT and DP1 / mice to induce ICH. Neurologic decits and lesion volumes were assessed at 72 t hours. To test whether the benecial eects of DP1 receptor inhibition could be the result of a reduction in hematoma expansion, non-ICH WT and DP1/ mice and laropiprant-treated WT mice were tested for tail bleeding time and ex vivo coagulation. Finally, the role of laropiprant treatment and DP1 receptor deletion was also assessed in gliosis through the analysis of Iba-1 and GFAP immunoreactivity, and iron content through PerlsÂ’ staining.ÂƒÂ–Â‡Â”Â‹ÂƒÂŽÂ•ÂƒÂÂ†Â‡Â–ÂŠÂ‘Â†Â•Â‹Â…Â‡ All procedures were performed in accordance with the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD) and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Florida. Adult male WT and DP1 / C57BL/6 mice of 11Â–13 weeks old (24Â–28 t g) were bred and maintained in our animal facility. e DP1 / mice grow normally and have no gross abnormalities in behavior and brain macroscopic vasculature anatomy indices when compared to WT mice30, 31. Mice were given food and water ad libitum and housed under controlled reversed light cycle conditions (23 t t 2 t C; 12-hour light/dark cycle).ÂƒÂÂ†Â‘ÂÂ‹ÂœÂƒÂ–Â‹Â‘ÂbÂšÂ…ÂŽÂ—Â•Â‹Â‘ÂÂƒÂÂ†ÂŽÂ‹ÂÂ†Â‹ÂÂ‰ Randomization was performed by a person who was not involved in the study and who had no knowledge of experimental groups. e preset exclusion criteria included any mouse with apparent abnormal conditions (e.g. dermatitis, red eye or discharge, abdominal or whisker abnor malities, signs of infection, etc.), ear puncture during placement in the stereotactic setup, bleeding upon drilling or on needle insertion, or an animal reaching a moribund condition requiring euthanasia. e number of mice used for the WT, Vehicle, DP1 / and laropiprant groups were 12, 10, 12, and 10 respectively. e number of animals used for tail bleeding assay were 10, 8, 10, 10, and 5 for the WT, Vehicle, DP1 / WT with laropiprant treatment, and DP1/ with laropiprant treatment groups respectively. For the ex vivo coagulation study 5 mice/ group were used. For in vivo thrombosis, ve mice per group were used. e surgeon and investigators performing neurobehavioral testing were blinded to the experimental groups. Additionally, all histologic outcomes were quantied in a blinded manner.Â‘ÂŽÂŽÂƒÂ‰Â‡ÂÂƒÂ•Â‡Â‹ÂÂ†Â—Â…Â‡Â†fÂ‘Â†Â‡ÂŽÂƒÂÂ†ÂƒÂ”Â‘Â’Â‹Â’Â”ÂƒÂÂ–Â”Â‡ÂƒÂ–ÂÂ‡ÂÂ– Mice were anesthetized with isourane (3% for induction, 1 to 1.5% for maintenance) and their heads were immobilized on a stereotaxic frame. A small incision was made at the overlying skin over the skull and a single unilateral, intrastriatal injection of collagenase VII-S (0.04 units in 0.2 t L saline, Sigma) was given at the following stereotactic coordinates relative to bregma: 0.5 t mm anterior, 2.4 t mm lateral, 3.2 t mm from dura19. Rectal temperature was monitored and maintained at 37.0 t C t t 0.5 t C throughout the surgery. Aer the surgery, mice were moved to a temperature and humidity regulated recovery chamber for 2 t hour then moved to their home cages and were allowed to survive up to 72 t hours aer ICH. In a separate cohort of similarly ICH-induced WT mice, a single dose of 0.4 t mg/kg laropiprant was given at 1 t hour aer the collagenase injection. Mice were allowed to survive up to 72 t hours aer ICH. e dose chosen is based on reports showing the eect of this compound in attenuating PGD2 or niacin-induced cutaneous vasodilation in mice29. Laropiprant is reported to have a half-life up to approximately 18 t hours as well as good bioavailability26.Â‡Â—Â”Â‘ÂŽÂ‘Â‰Â‹Â…ÂƒÂŽÂ‡Â¤Â…Â‹Â–Â…Â‘Â”Â‡Â•f e neurologic decits were assessed at 72 t hours post-ICH using the 24-point scale19, 32. e tests included body symmetry, gait, climbing, circling behavior, front limb symmetry, and compulsory circling. Each test was graded from 0 to 4, establishing a maximum decit score of 24.Â‹Â•Â–Â‘ÂŽÂ‘Â‰Â›ÂƒÂÂ†fÂÂÂ—ÂÂ‘ÂŠÂ‹Â•Â–Â‘Â…ÂŠÂ‡ÂÂ‹Â•Â–Â”Â› At 72 t hours aer ICH, mice were deeply anesthetized and transcardially perfused with phosphate-buered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) followed by xation with 4% paraformaldehyde. e brains were quickly harvested and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry using Leica CM 1850 cryostat. e mounted sections were stained with Cresyl violet to estimate the lesion volume following the detail protocol described by us recently19, 33, 34. To identify microgliosis and astrogliosis sections were processed for immunohistochemistry as described by us previously33 by using the following primary antibodies: ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein 1 (Iba1; 1:1,000; Wako, Richmond, VA) and glial brillary acidic protein (GFAP; 1:1,000; Dako, Carpinteria, CA) respectively. For the ferric iron content, PerlsÂ’ iron staining was performed by incubating the sections in a mixture containing equal ratio of 2% hydrochloric acid and 2% potassium ferrocyanide for 20 t min, followed by counterstaining with nuclear fast red as previously reported by us34. All stained sections were imaged by using ScanScope CS and analyzed with ImageScope soware (Aperio Technologies, Inc., Vista, CA).ÂƒÂ‹ÂŽÂŽÂ‡Â‡Â†Â‹ÂÂ‰Â‘ÂÂ‹Â–Â‘Â”Â‹ÂÂ‰ To determine whether DP1 inhibition plays a role on platelet adhesion at the site of injury, a tail bleeding test was performed following the protocol we described earlier35, 36. is techniques is widely used to determine the ability of platelets to form a hemostatic plug37, 38. Briey, the mice were either non-treated or given an i.p. injection of the vehicle (1% DMSO) or 0.4-mg/kg laropiprant. At 30 t minutes from
3 the injection, the mice were anesthetized and 2 t mm of the tail tip was excised. e tail was immediately placed in warm PBS (37.0 t t 0.5 t C) and the time until bleeding ceased was recorded.Ex Vivo ÂŠÂ”Â‘ÂÂ„Â—Â•tÂ‘Â”ÂÂƒÂ–Â‹Â‘Â A modied ex vivo clot formation model, as we35 as well as Prasad et al .39 have described in the past, was used to test whether laropiprant can prevent hematoma expansion. Whole blood from non-ICH WT mice was harvested by cardiac puncture and 200 t L of the blood was mixed and vortexed with 600 t L of the vehicle or 600 t L of 30.6 t M laropiprant. e mixture was kept at room temperature for 2 t minutes, followed by centrifugation for 30 t seconds at 4000 t g e tubes were gently removed and the amount of uncoagulated supernatant was quantied.Â–ÂƒÂ–Â‹Â•Â–Â‹Â…Â• Statistical analyses were performed using Prism 5 (GraphPad, San Diego, CA). Neurologic decit scores were analyzed by the non-parametric KruskalÂ–Wallis test followed by DunnÂ’s multiple comparison test and are presented as medians with interquartile ranges (25th and 75th percentiles). e remaining data sets were checked for dierences in variances between groups and normality, and a one-way ANOVA test was performed, followed by Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test or an unpaired two-tailed StudentÂ’s t test with WelchÂ’s cor rection. Data are expressed as Mean t t SD with P t t 0.05 considered statistically signicant.ÂƒÂ–ÂƒÂƒÂƒÂ‹ÂŽÂƒÂ„Â‹ÂŽÂ‹Â–Â› e datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.Â‡Â•Â—ÂŽÂ–Â•Â„Â•Â‡ÂÂ…Â‡Â‘Â”ÂŽÂ‘Â…ÂÂƒÂ†Â‡Â‘ÂˆnxwÂ‡Â…Â‡Â’Â–Â‘Â”Â‹ÂÂ‹Â–Â•Â‡ÂÂ‘Â”Â”ÂŠÂƒÂ‰Â‹Â…Â”ÂƒÂ‹ÂÂƒÂÂƒÂ‰Â‡ As expected, the collagenase injection in WT and DP1 / mice resulted in signicant brain damage. e lesion volume calculated in DP1 / was 32.74 t t 16.31% lower than the lesion volume in WT mice. Similarly, the NDS were also signicantly lower in DP1/ as compared to the WT mice (Fig. 1). en, to determine if pharmacological inhibition of the receptor will lead to similar outcomes, ICH-induced mice were given a single dose of 0.4 t mg/kg laropiprant 1 t hour aer ICH. Interestingly, laropiprant was able to attenuate the NDS by 40.32 t t 18.78% and lesion volume by 26.59 t t 16.80% as compared with the vehicle treated group (Fig. 1).ÂƒÂ”Â‘Â’Â‹Â’Â”ÂƒÂÂ–Â”Â‡ÂƒÂ–ÂÂ‡ÂÂ–Â‘Â”Â‡ÂŽÂ‡Â–Â‹Â‘ÂÂ‘ÂˆwÂ‡Â…Â‡Â’Â–Â‘Â”Â–Â–Â‡ÂÂ—ÂƒÂ–Â‡Â•ÂŽÂ‡Â‡Â†Â‹ÂÂ‰ To determine whether the benecial eects of laropiprant are due to its role in limiting the bleeding, we monitored tail bleeding time. We found that bleeding caused by tail clipping ceased signicantly faster in groups that were treated with laropiprant or lacked the DP1 receptor. e bleeding time was 36.45 t t 21.79% and 26.51 t t 13.31% lower in laropiprant treatment and DP1 / groups, respectively (Fig. 2A). To further evaluate whether the eects of laropiprant are mediated through the DP1 receptor, the tail bleeding assay was also performed in the DP1 / mice treated with laropiprant. Interestingly, there was no signicant dierence between the bleeding time in DP1 / and DP1 / treated with laropiprant (247.4 t t 43.2 t minute vs 224.6 t t 82.7 t minute; P t t 0.48). en, considering that laropiprant use could putatively lead to microhemorrhage or microthrombosis in vivo non-ICH mice were given intraperitoneal injection of 0.4 t mg/kg/day laropiprant for 7 days, and brains were then harvested and their hemoglobin content was quantied. Interestingly, there was no signicant dierence (P t t 0.68) in the hemoglobin content in vehicle or laropiprant-treated groups (Fig. 2D).ÂƒÂ”Â‘Â’Â‹Â’Â”ÂƒÂÂ–Â”Â‡ÂƒÂ–ÂÂ‡ÂÂ–tÂƒÂ…Â‹ÂŽÂ‹Â–ÂƒÂ–Â‡Â• Ex VivoÂ‘ÂƒÂ‰Â—ÂŽÂƒÂ–Â‹Â‘Â To determine whether the benecial eects of laropiprant are due to its inuence on coagulation, which would thus limit hematoma expansion, whole blood was incubated with laropiprant. Treatment of the whole blood with laropiprant led to larger clot formation ex vivo e uncoagulated content aer the clot formation was quantied and found to be 26.77 t t 11.02% lower in the laropiprant-treated group (Fig. 2B).wÂ‡Â…Â‡Â’Â–Â‘Â”Â‡ÂŽÂ‡Â–Â‹Â‘ÂÂ—Â‰ÂÂ‡ÂÂ–Â•Â‹Â…Â”Â‘Â‰ÂŽÂ‹Â‘Â•Â‹Â• Harvested brain sections were immunostained for Iba-1 and GFAP immunoreactivity. e Iba-1 immunopositive cells were signicantly higher in the ipsilateral side with predominant amoeboid or activated morphology in the preihematoma region. We found that DP1 / or WT treated with laropiprant has signicantly lower Iba-1 immunoreactivity as compared with the WT mice (Fig.3A and B). e immunoreactivity for Iba-1 decreased by 48.63 t t 24.40 and 47.94 t t 24.40 in DP1 / and laropiprant groups respectively (Fig. 3C). Two distinct morphological characteristics of Iba-1 immunopositive cells were detected representing classically activated microglial form and amoeboid shaped microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, there was strong GFAP immunoreactivity on the ipsilateral hemisphere along the perihematoma in both groups; however, there was no signicant dierence in immunoreactivity between the between the WT and DP1/ mice (Fig. 4AÂ–C).ÂƒÂ”Â‘Â’Â‹Â’Â”ÂƒÂÂ–Â”Â‡ÂƒÂ–ÂÂ‡ÂÂ–Â‘Â”Â‡ÂŽÂ‡Â–Â‹Â‘ÂÂ‘ÂˆwÂ‡Â…Â‡Â’Â–Â‘Â”Â–Â–Â‡ÂÂ—ÂƒÂ–Â‡Â•fÂ”Â‘ÂÂ‘ÂÂ–Â‡ÂÂ– One of the major causes of secondary injury following ICH is hemolysis, which results in iron accumulation and augments neuroinammation and oxidative stress. With PerlsÂ’ staining, the results suggest that DP1 receptor deletion or WT treatment with laropiprant resulted in a signicant decrease in iron content (Fig. 5A and B). Such staining in DP1 / and laropiprant treatment groups decreased by 80.13 t t 26.03% and 76.25 t t 16.27%, respectively (Fig. 5C).Â‹Â•Â…Â—Â•Â•Â‹Â‘ÂIntracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating acute neurological condition with high mortality and morbidity and limited treatment options. In this study, we used the selective PGD2 DP1 receptor antagonist laropiprant to test
4 the hypothesis whether DP1 inhibition or absence will prevent hemorrhagic brain damage. We found that deletion of the DP1 receptor signicantly attenuated the induced-ICH lesion volume, and similar eects were also observed with the laropiprant treatment. We also found that laropiprant augmented the ex vivo coagulation; whereas, deletion of the DP1 receptor or laropiprant treatment also attenuated the tail bleeding time, microgliosis, and iron content. ese data support the usefulness of laropiprant as a therapeutic tool to resolve primary as well as secondary brain damage following ICH. We believe that this is the rst study to show the benecial eects of clinically tested laropiprant in ICH treatment. Primary damage caused by ICH occurs within the rst few hours and is mainly caused by bleeding and hematoma expansion, resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Immediate interventions to remove the hemat oma or stop the bleeding are important therapeutic considerations. erefore, one focus of this study was to test the feasibility of laropiprant in limiting bleeding during the initial phase of ICH. Interestingly, laropiprant has been tested in clinics for its role in niacin-induced ushing and nasal airway obstruction in humans29, 40Â–42; how ever, it has not been tested in neurologic conditions. Laropiprant is reported to abolish the PGD2-induced platelet inhibition43, thereby suggesting its potential in minimizing hemorrhage. Similarly, our data shows that treatment of ICH one hour aer the onset can limit intracranial bleeding and lesion volume and improve neurologic decits. e rst attempt to minimize ICH is to reduce the intracranial bleeding by regulating hemostasis, which is maintained through a network of processes including the platelet system, coagulation, and anticoagulant and brinolytic pathways44Â– 46. e interaction of the downstream cascades of these pathways facilitates the adhesion of platelets with the sub-endothelial collagen in damaged vessels, forming a hemostatic vascular plug47. ese Figure 1. Laropiprant treatment or deletion of DP1 receptor attenuates ICH outcomes. WT and DP1/ mice were subjected to ICH by giving a single intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Another cohort of similarly ICHinduced WT mice were given vehicle or laropiprant at 1 t hour aer the ICH. Neurological decits were scored at 72 t hour post-ICH; thereaer, brains were harvested by perfusion and xation. Cryosections were stained with Cresyl violet for lesion volume quantication. (A) Representative macrographs of CV-stained sections obtained from WT (n t t 9), DP1/ (n t t 9), and laropiprant (n t t 8) groups. Black dotted line encompasses lesion area. (B) ICH-induced neurological decits were signicantly lower in DP1/ and laropiprant-treated WT groups. (C) DP1/ mice and the WT mice treated with laropiprant also resulted in a signicant decrease in the lesion volume as compared with the WT or vehicle (n t t 8) treatment groups. *P t t 0.05, ***P t t 0.001 compared with the WT group; Â†P t t 0.05 compared with the vehicle group. Scale bar t t 2 t mm.
5 plugs prevent further leakage of the blood into the brain parenchyma and limits hematoma expansion, consequently limiting secondary brain damage. Because PGD2 through DP1 receptor activation is reported to inhibit at least one of these processes43, we next tested whether DP1 receptor inhibition can limit bleeding and found that DP1 receptor inhibition or its deletion can indeed attenuate bleeding and limit ICH lesion volume. However, a few clinical trials indicate that attenuation of hematoma expansion or removal of a blood clot may not necessarily improve functional outcomes. For example, in clinical settings, the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STICH) did not provide convincing evidence supporting the ecacy of early surgical removal of hematomas48. Similarly, use of recombinant activated factor VII did not improve survival or functional outcomes in ICH patients, although it did successfully reduce hematoma enlargement49. Nevertheless, the observations in our cur rent study indicate that laropiprant treatment may have broader therapeutic eects. Such observation requires further investigation by testing the eect of laropiprant on long-term outcomes. Moreover, the observed PerlsÂ’ staining data also suggests that there is lower iron content in DP1 / mice and WT mice treated with laropiprant. It is yet to be conrmed whether the lower iron levels in DP1 / or laropiprant treatment groups are due to the restricted bleeding or if they are a result of the better microglial phagocytosis in DP1 / and laropiprant treatment groups than in WT mice, as the role of microglial phagocytosis in hematoma clearance has been reported. Figure 2. Laropiprant treatment aects hemostasis under hemorrhagic condition. (A) To determine blood coagulation in vivo the tail tip of anesthetized mice was excised, and bleeding time was recorded. To determine the eect of laropiprant on bleeding, vehicle or laropiprant was given intraperitoneal and a tail bleeding test was performed 30 t min aer the injection. DP1/ and laropiprant-treated WT groups exhibited a signicantly faster cessation of bleeding (n t t 8Â–10/group). Interestingly, the DP1/ mice treated with laropiprant (n t t 5) exhibited no dierence as compared with either the DP1/ mice or the laropiprant treated WT mice. (B) To determine blood coagulation in vivo blood was harvested by cardiac puncture from WT mice and mixed with vehicle or laropiprant. Aer incubation and centrifugation, the uncoagulated content was found to be signicantly lower in the laropiprant-treated group (n t t 5/group). (C) Chronic use of laropiprant in vivo did not induce microhemorrhage or microthrombus formation, suggesting that its eect on coagulation is only under hemorrhagic condition (n t t 4/group, P t t 0.68). **P t t 0.01 compared with the WT group; Â†Â†P t t 0.01, Â†Â†Â†P t t 0.001 when compared with the vehicle group; ns t t non-signicant.
6 Figure 3. Laropiprant attenuates microgliosis. e brain sections were immunostained for Iba-1 immunoreactivity to monitor microgliosis. (A) Representative macrographs at 1x showing Iba-1 immunoreactivity in WT, DP1/, and WT mice treated with laropiprant. Scale bar t t 2 t mm. (B) e regions in black boxes in panel A were magnied at 10x. e black dotted line demarcates the lesion core from the perihematoma area. Scale bar t t 200 t m. e perihematoma and the intact area in WT mice exhibit two distinct morphologies of microglia. e microglia closer to the perihematoma exhibited amoeboid morphology whereas, those in the intact area show activated morphology. (C) Quantication of the Iba-1 immunoreactivity shows signicant reduction in Iba-1 immunoreactivity in DP1/ and WT treated with laropiprant. **P t t 0.01 compared with the WT group. n t t 6Â–7/group. Figure 4. Astrogliosis remain unaected by DP1 receptor deletion. e brain sections were immunostained for GFAP immunoreactivity to determine astrogliosis. (A) Representative macrographs at 1x showing GFAP immunoreactivity in WT and DP1/, mice. Scale bar t t 2 t mm. (B) e region in black boxes in panel A were magnied at 10x. e black dotted line demarcates the lesion core from the perihematoma area. No immunoreactivity toward astrocytes was detected in lesion core, whereas the perihematoma and intact area shows the astrocytesÂ’ immunoreactivity. Scale bar t t 200 t m. (C) Quantication of the GFAP immunoreactivity show no dierence in WT and DP1/. ns t t non-signicant, P t t 0.11. n t t 8/group.
7 e current study supports a clear role of laropiprant in attenuating ICH-induced brain injury by limiting hematoma expansion; however, its ecacy for human use has been potentially challenged by a recent clinical trial. e HPS2-THRIVE trial was conducted to investigate the favorable eects of niacin/laropiprant combination to supplement the benecial eects of statin in minimizing cardiovascular events. However, the trial concluded that this combination did not have a useful benecial eect, but rather produced some side eects including hemorrhage in some cases28, 50. Careful review of the published data suggests that the side eects observed in the HPS2-THRIVE trial could be due to the fact that both niacin and statin are vasodilators and could have additive or synergistic eects leading to exacerbated hemorrhagic conditions40 51 Â– 53. Moreover, in an attempt to achieve the pharmacologic dose that can minimize the niacin-induced ushing, the trial may have used higher doses (20 or 40 t mg) of laropiprant rather than testing its lower eective dose26. It was reported that a dose of 6 t mg or higher eectively suppressed PGD2-induced platelets aggregation. It is noteworthy that at higher concentrations, laropiprant could potentially also act as a TxA2 TP receptor antagonist54, though no clinically signicant eect on bleeding times was observed with multiple doses of laropiprant alone adding up to 200 t mg26. However, it is likely that the combination of high dose of laropiprant with niacin may have had an additive eect with statin in the HPS2-THRIVE trial, leading to hemorrhagic conditions. Interestingly, in our models, we found that 0.4 t mg/kg, which is equivalent to 1.94 t mg for a 60-kg human based on the body surface area dose conversion method55, had a protective eect against ICH. Furthermore, we also tested whether sub-chronic treatment of laropiprant could lead to microthrombosis or microhemorrhage in non-ICH nave WT mice. Estimation of brain hemoglobin con tent on day 7 of the laropiprant treatment reveals no dierence in the optical density of the brain samples obtained from vehicle or laropiprant-treated groups suggesting that laropiprant has no detrimental eect on hemostasis under non-pathologic (i.e. non-hemorrhagic) conditions. e benecial eects of laropiprant observed here could also be through regulating secondary injuries such as neuroinammation. Microglial activation in response to injury could have benecial or detrimental eects. Data from various labs, including ours, suggest that microglial activation in ICH results in phagocytosis and hematoma clearance11, 19, 56. However, generally chronic microglial activation is associated with increased inammation and augmented brain damage25, 57, 58. Under neurologic conditions activated microglia produce proinammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and chemokines thereby augments brain damage16, 59, 60. Interestingly, our current data shows that DP1 receptor inhibition decreases microglial activation (Fig. 3). is decrease could be a result of lower lesion volume or lower iron content which then resulted in lower neuroinammation. Interestingly, there was strong GFAP immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral side; however there was no dierence between the WT and DP1/ mice groups. Figure 5. Laropiprant attenuates iron content in perihematoma. e brain sections were stained with PerlsÂ’ stain for iron content quantication. (A) Macrographs showing the sections obtained from WT, DP1/, and WT mice treated with laropiprant with PerlsÂ’ stain. Scale bar t t 2 t mm. (B) e regions in the black boxes in panel A were magnied at 10x. Blue dots represent iron staining, which was along the perihematoma region. Scale bar t t 200 t m. Black dotted line demarcates lesion core from perihematoma area. (C) Quantication of PerlsÂ’ staining shows a signicant decrease in iron content in DP1/ and laropiprant-treated groups. *P t t 0.05, **P t t 0.01 compared with the WT group. n t t 6Â–7/group.
8 Â‹ÂÂ‹Â–ÂƒÂ–Â‹Â‘ÂÂ• is study shows for the rst time proof-of-concept that DP1 antagonism, by clinically administered drug, could limit hematoma expansion and ICH brain damage. However, there are certain limitations that warrant further investigation. For example, (1) the clinical dose with and without niacin combination also needs to be investigated in ICH condition. (2) Because oen older populations or populations with comorbidities are at greater risk of ICH, similar studies in older animals and animals with comorbidities such as diabetes or hyper tension will provide more information regarding the therapeutic benets of laropiprant. (3) To test the proof of the concept and to avoid any confounding eects due to sex dierences, only male mice were used in this study. erefore, additional studies are needed to test the therapeutic ecacy of laropiprant in young and old females. (4) Although we found that laropiprant aects bleeding and regulates hematoma volume, a detailed study on hemostasis would provide mechanisms associated with laropiprant treatment. (5) We also reported attenuated microgliosis in laropiprant treatment groups; however, a detailed study on acute and chronic eects of laropiprant on macrophage and microglial polarization will provide additional associated mechanisms.Â‘ÂÂ…ÂŽÂ—Â•Â‹Â‘ÂÂ•Our data reveal for the rst time that DP1 receptor inhibition or deletion is benecial against ICH. Although in the recent trials, use of laropiprant with niacin along with statin therapy did not provide the desired benecial eects, the ecacy of laropiprant alone in minimizing intracranial bleeding can still be considered a vital ther apeutic strategy. 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10 Â—Â–ÂŠÂ‘Â”Â‘ÂÂ–Â”Â‹Â„Â—Â–Â‹Â‘ÂÂ•A.S.A. performed surgeries and experimental procedures. M.M. and D.H. performed functional assessments, tissue sectioning, staining and quantication, and bleeding and coagulation studies. A.S.A., M.M., and D.H. analyzed the data, prepare the figures, and wrote the paper. A.S.A. and S.D. designed research, planned all the experiments and wrote the paper. A.S.A. and S.D. conceived and led the project. All the authors read and approved the nal version of the paper.Â†Â†Â‹Â–Â‹Â‘ÂÂƒÂŽfÂÂˆÂ‘Â”ÂÂƒÂ–Â‹Â‘ÂCompeting Interests : e authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional aliations. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. e images or other third party material in this article are included in the articleÂ’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the articleÂ’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. e Author(s) 2017