Farm Tractor And Equipment Maintenance

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Title:
Farm Tractor And Equipment Maintenance
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Harrison, Dalton S.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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Published
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"Publication date: November 1992."
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"EES-47"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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FactSheetEES-47 November1992 FarmTractorandEquipmentMaintenance1 DaltonS.Harrison2INTRODUCTIONAmericanfarmershaveimprovedproductivity morethananyothergroupintheU.S.Yet,farm tractorandequipmentmaintenancelagsfarbehind theproductivityoffarmers.Thisformofneglect costsindividualfarmersthousandsofdollarseach year. Arecentstudyof50farmtractors,conductedby theUniversityofKansasAgriculturalExperiment Station,showsthattheaveragefarmtractoroperates atlessthan90%efficiencyanduses15%morefuel thannecessary.ThismeansthataDieseltractor(4060hp)thatuses3.2to4.9gallonsoffuel/hr (accordingtoNebraskatests)maybewastingasmuch as3/4gallonoffuel/hourifpropermaintenanceis neglected.Operatingat10hoursperdayandan averageof80days/year,theamountoffuelwastedis 10X80X0.75X$0.90/gallon=$540.00offuel wastedeachyear,or$2,700.00overa5-yearperiod. A$9,000.00turbochargedengine,amortizedover 5years,coststhefarmeranaverageof$1,800.00per yeartoown.Ifmaintenanceisneglectedanditlasts only3years,thenthecostgoesupto$3,000.00/year, plusthecostofoverhaulingtheenginewhichis anotherreasonforregularandroutinemaintenance. Areliableestimateisthattheaveragetractorfarmer getslessthan4,000hoursofoperationfromatractor Figure1.AmericanPetroleumInstituteService ClassificationSymbol. beforeanoverhauloftheengineisneeded,whenhe shouldget6,400hours,oralmosta52%increase. Thecostofpurchasinga100hptractorrequires aninvestmentofalmost$50,000.00incapital,whilea combinemaysellforalmost$100,000.00. Anexampleofpoormaintenanceiscitedbya majorcompanyserviceengineer:"Asageneralization, (thefarmer)isgettingaboutone-fourthtoone-half theenginelifethatsomemajorfleetoperatorsget 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-47,aseriesoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionService,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:November1992. 2.DaltonS.Harrison,FormerEnergyExtensionSpecialist,EnergyExtensionService,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodand AgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheFloridaEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairsandisoperated bytheUniversityofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformation containedhereinistheproductoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheFloridaEnergyOffice. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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FarmTractorandEquipmentMaintenance Page2fromengines.Themajordifferenceisthatthefarmer Table1. Stepsinservicingadry-typeairfilter. Alwayshaveengineturnedoffwhenservicingtheairfitter.Beforeremovingtopcover,wipeitoff. Caution:Donotchangeinunprotectedplaceasdustislikelytoblowin.Extremecareshouldbetakento preventdustfromfallingintothecleanairspaceoroutletofthefilterwhileremovingfastenersandholders. Manyairfitterproblemsareactuallycausedbydirtfallingintothefilterwhileservicing. Removecoverandinspectcovergasket.Replacethisgasketatleastonceayear,moreoftenifneeded. Caution:Warpedanddentedcoverswillnotsealproperlyandmustbereplaced. Liftoutelementcarefullytopreventdirtfromfallingintotheenginepipe. Caution:Donotpryold elementfromfilterhousing.Thiscouldcausedistortionandpermitunfilteredairtoentertheengine.Warm partstoeaseseparationincoldweather. Useaclean,moistclothtowipeupanydirtinthefilterhousing. Caution:Putoutercoveroveropeningto guardagainstdustentry.(Donotuseairhosetocleanfinerhousingasthiswillblowdirtintoengine.) Ifthepre-cleanerconsistsoftubes,cleanwithastiffbrush,compressedairorwater. Caution:Dry thoroughlybeforereturningtoservice. Inspectallgasketsandreplacethosewhicharewornordamaged.Herearetheusualgasketlocations: outercover,innercover,filterretentionwasher,filterbodyanddustcup. Caution:Re-installingwornor damagedgaskets,particularlyonbolt,isoneofthebiggestcausesofairfilterfailure.Theairfiltercan'twork ifthegasketletsairbypassthefilter. Re-assembleinreverseorderofdisassembly.Ifthelidhasbolts,tightenuniformlybycriss-cross tightening.Clampsandmountingbandsshouldbeuniformlytightenedalso. Caution:Makesuredustcup fitsairtight. Inspectandtightenallaircleanerinductionsystemconnections.(Replacecrackedrubberconnectors.) Caution:WatchforunusualamountofdirtgatheringataconnectorThiscouldmeanaleak. oftenneglectsanenginewhilethefleetoperatorhas arigidscheduleformaintenanceandcare."Atractor pullingahaywagonandidlingatlessthanhalfthe slowidlingspeedcausesscarredcylinderwalls. Unfortunatelythetractordriverassumedhewas savingmoneyonfuelwheninfactthetractorwasnot gettingproperlubrication.Readingtheoperator's manualandknowingthecorrectgear-speed-ratio couldhavepreventedthisneedlessrepair.MAINTENANCESUGGESTIONS Oil,LubricationSystemsOilreduceswear,cutsfriction,absorbsshocks, cushionsloads,sealsbetweencylinderwallandpiston rings,cools,preventsbearingcorrosion,providesrust protection,andneutralizesandcleansworking surfaces. Oilconsideredtobeofhighqualityonlyafew yearsagowillnotgivegoodserviceintoday'shigh performanceengineswhichrunhotter,athigher rpms,andhaveclosertolerance(Table2).Onefact iscertain:youdonotsavemoneybybuyingcheapoil andyoudonotsavemoneybytryingtosqueezeextra lifeoutofoil.ImportantConsiderations Selecttheproductbasedonyourequipment manufacturer'srecommendation. Asmajorfiltercompaniesrecommend,selectthe oilbasedontheAPI(AmericanPetroleum Institute)Serviceclassificationsymbol.Thereare 3itemsorpartstolookfor:(a)Performance quality-atthetopofthesymbol;(b)Viscosityatthecenterofthesymbol;and(c)IfFuel-Saving propertiesdemonstrated-atthebottomofthe symbol(Figure1andTable2). Otherfactorstolookforwhenpurchasingthe rightoilareadditives,oxidationinhibitors,foam inhibitors,rustcorrosionandantiwearadditives, pourpointdepressants,viscosityindeximprovers, anddetergentsanddispersants. Rememberthatgoodoildarkensquicklyafterit isputinusebecauseofitsdetergentand dispersantaction.

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FarmTractorandEquipmentMaintenance Page3 Consultafurther,welldefined,engine Table2. GuidetoSAE*Viscosity. TypicalRecommendation LowestAir SingleViscosity Multi-Viscosity 32F 20,2OW,30 1OW-30,1OW-40,1OW-50,15W-40,2OW-40, 3OW-50 OF 10W 1OW-30,1OW-40 Below0F 5W** 5W-20**,5W-30,5W-40 NOTE:Singlegradeoilgenerallynotrecommendedforcoldweather *SocietyofAutomotiveEngineers **5WandSW-20NOTsuitableforsustainedhigh-speeddriving.Seeyourowner'smanualforspecifics. FollowManufacturer'sRecommendationforSpecificModelWeightorabilitytoresistthinningis measuredinSAE'grade'numbers. serviceclassificationforengineoils(Table3).PlanAdequateLubricationfor IrrigationEngines Adequatelubricationatregularintervalsisa necessity.Runninganirrigationengineislike puffing1,000to1,200milesonyourcareachday, dayafterday. Properfiltrationcanpreventcostlyrepairsand helpavoidbreakdownsatcriticaltimeswhen irrigationisbadlyneeded. Thereisalsoagrowingtrendtowardtheaddition ofextended-lifeby-passfiltersattachedto lubricationsystemsthatformerlyhadonlyfullflowfilters.Thewaytomakesurethatthe additionofaby-passfilterdoesallthatyouwant ittodoistoinstallaB-7500housing.Thefilter isavailablewiththeextra-longlifeP-7500filter elementfordoubledirt-trappingabilityandextra protection.Thesefiltersareavailableinboth750 cu.in.and500cu.in. Donoteverextendtheoilandfilterchange periodbeyondoneyear. *Inafull-flowsystem,alltheoilpassesthrough thefilterbeforebeingsentontolubricatethe bearingsandmovingparts(Figure3).This meansthatthefull-flowfiltercannotpossibly removecontaminantsassmallasthoseremoved withaby-passfilter. Aby-passfiltersystem(Figure2)continuously Figure2.By-PassFilterSystem. filtersaportionoftheoilwhiletheengineis operating(Figure3).Thisfilteredoilisreturnedto thecrankcasewheretheby-passfilterprefiltersthe oiltotakemuchoftheloadoffthefull-flowfilter. Theoilthenflowsthroughtheby-passsystemmuch moreslowlywhiletrappingcontaminantsmuch smallerthanthosetrappedbyafullflowsystem (Figure3). Afull-flowfilterusuallyfiltersout25-micronsizedcontaminants.Ahumanhairisabout40 micronsindiameter.TheBaldwinP-7500filtersout 3-micron-sizedcontaminants,orabout3/39millionths ofaninch.Thebestfiltrationmaybeprovidedwhen bothfiltersareusedonthesameengine.

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FarmTractorandEquipmentMaintenance Page4 Table3. API*engineserviceclassificationforoil. "S"forGasolineEnginesCarsandLightTrucks "C"forDieselEngines CommercialandFarmEquipment(NOTECA,CB andCCalsousedonsomegasolineengines) SAandSB-Obsoleteclassificationsdenotingoil whichisinadequatefortoday'sengines.Donotuse unlessspecificallyrecommendedbytheequipment manufacturer.(SAcouldbeusedforoilingelectric motorbearingbecauseadditivesareNOTdesirable inthiscase.) CA-MildService.Usedinveryoldengines burninghighquality(low-sulfur)fuels.DoNotuse onmodernengines. SC-Controlshigh-andlow-temperaturedeposits. Haswear-,rustandcorrosion-resistancespecifiedby car(andsometruckengine)makers1964-67. CB-Mildtomoderateduty.Primarilyusedbefore 1965.Donotuseontoday'senginesunless specificallyrecommendedbytheequipment manufacturer. SD-CanbeusedtoreplaceSC.Provides additionalprotectionagainsthigh-andlowtemperatureenginedeposits,wear,rustand corrosion.Specifiedfor1968-70(some71andlater) carsandsometrucks. CC-Moderatetosevereduty.Introducedin1961. Protectsagainsthigh-temperaturedepositsand bearingcorrosionindieselengines.Alsoresists rusts,corrosionandsludgeinlow-temperature operationofcommercialgasengines. SE-Usedinemission-controlledengines1971-79. CanalsobeusedwhereSCorSDisspecified. CD-Severeduty.Introducedin1955toprovide protectionfrombearingcorrosionandhightemperaturedeposits.Usedonseveredutynaturally aspirated,turbochargedorsuperchargeddiesel enginesorwhenfuelswithhighsulfurcontentsare used.CanalsobeusedwhereCA,CBorCCis prescribed. SF-Providesincreasedoxidationstabilityandantiwearperformance.Usedin1980oncarsandsome trucks.CanalsobeusedwhereSC,SDorSEis specified. CE-Turbocharged/superchargedheavydutyservice. Introducedin1987forenginesmanufacturedsince 1983operatedunderhigh-loadconditionwhetherat low-orhigh-speeds.Canalsobeusedtoreplace anyoftheaboveclassifications. NOTE:Useoilwithserviceclassificationspecifiedinservicemanualorauniversaloil.Ifthedieselfuel youusehasahighsulfurcontent,itisnecessarytouseagradeoilcontainingmoredetergencyorgreater neutralizingability,suchasonemeetingAPIservicecategoryCD,CE,SF/CDorSF/CE. *API-AmericanPetroleumInstituteHydraulicandTransmissionSystemsManufacturerssuggestcheckingthehydraulic fluidlevelevery10,50to250hours.Itcanbe checkedeverytimetheregularoillevelischecked becausemostsystemshaveeitherasightglassora dipstick.Fillthesystemsasneededbutneveroverfillthem.FuelStorageandAvoidingMoistureBecausemostofFlorida'ssmallfarmershave changedtodieseltractorsandpowerunits,theproper careandmaintenanceoffuelstoragetanksalsois vitaltosavingenergy,dollars,andneedlessrepairs. Threephasestellthewholestory:(1)purchaseclean fuel,(2)keepitclean,and(3)keepitfreeofwater. Becauselessthanoneten-thousandthofaninch separatesmovingpartsofsomedieselfuelinjection engines,onecanimaginethatitdoesn'ttakemuch abrasivematerialorwatertobeharmfultopartswith thissmallamountofclearance. Muchofthecontaminationofdieselfuelcomes instorageafterdelivery.Someoftheitemsthat causecontaminationarerustandbitsofwornhose, evaporationcausinggumtoformwhichclogsfuel

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FarmTractorandEquipmentMaintenance Page5lines,andwaterrustinginsidethetank,whichcan damagethefuelinjectionsystemsondieselengines. Alwaysfillthefueltankattheendofthedayto avoidairandmoistureproblems.Whenairispresent inthetankovernight,itcoolsandpermitsmoisture fromtheairtorundownintothefuel.Inbelowgroundstoragetanks,thetankshouldbetiltedand thedrainatthelowerendtopermitpumpingoutthe excesswateranddebris,whiletheupperendofthe tankshouldbeprovidedwiththefillerpumpfor fillingthetractororotherequipment.Thesuction pipeshouldbeseveralincheshigherthanthebottom ofthetank.Addingafiltertothepumpinglineof thestoragetankcanalsobeanaddedbenefit.Also, ableedplugonthefilterhousingwillridthesystem ofentrappedair.SUMMARYRememberthattractorandequipment maintenancecanhelptoconserveenergyandprevent needlessrepairs,butitisimpossibletocoverallthe "tips',suchasservicingfilters,belts,hoses,or hydraulicsystems. Amanufacturer'soperatingandmaintenance manualshouldbereadandfollowedcarefullyfor eachtypeofequipmentthatisoperated. Figure3.AFull-FlowFilterSystem.REFERENCESBaldwinFilters.1988. FarmEquipmentMaintenance andFilterGuide. Cromwell,R.R1977. SelectingPowerEquipmentto SaveEnergy EC-19,FloridaCooperative ExtensionService,IFAS,UniversityofFlorida. Cromwell,R.P.1977. TractorOperationforFuel Savings.EC-21,FloridaCooperativeExtension Service,IFAS,UniversityofFlorida. Cromwell,R.R1980. NebraskaTractorTestResults AgriculturalEngineeringExtensionReport80-6, FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,IFAS, UniversityofFlorida. It'saTradersMarket .1988.Case-IH,J.1.Case, Racine,Wi.