Energy In Florida Agriculture

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Title:
Energy In Florida Agriculture
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Fluck, Richard C.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Publication date: October 1992."
General Note:
"EES-79"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004822:00001


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FactSheetEES-79 October1992 EnergyinFloridaAgriculture1 RichardC.Fluck2INTRODUCTIONThedatapresentedinthisfactsheetweredevelopedusingtheFloridaAgriculturalEnergyConsumptionModel(FAECM),acomputermodel.FAECM usesacresofproductionorlivestocknumbersandthe energyusedtomaketheproductioninputsrequired peracreorperheadtoquantifytheprimaryenergy usedinFloridaforagriculturalproduction.Thisprimaryenergyconsumptionincludedfuels,lubricants andelectricity,calleddirectenergyinputs,aswellas theenergyusedinprovidingallproductioninputs(indirectenergyinputs). Ittakesenergytodrillanoilwell,pumpthecrude oilout,refineitandtransportthedieselfueltothe grower.Ittakestheenergyinthenaturalgasfeedstockplustheenergyusedtoconstructtheproduction plant,powertheproductionplantanddrivethetruck togetthenitrogenfertilizertothegrower.FAECM quantifiestheeightdirectenergysources(dieselfuel, LPgas,etc.),theindirectenergyusedtomakethose eightenergysourcesavailableandtheindirectenergy usedtoprovidethirteenmajoragriculturalinputs (nitrogenfertilizer,pesticides,etc.)todeterminethe energyrequiredtoproduceagriculturalcommodities inFlorida. Intotal,FAECMpredictsalltheenergyrequired Figure1.Floridaagricultureproductionenergy.toprovideallinputsnecessary,uptothefarmgate, forallofFlorida'sagriculturalproducitionusingcurrentmanagementpractices.FAECMdoesnotaddress energyrequirementsforanytransportation,packing, processing,distributionorotherfunctionprovidedfor agriculturalcommoditiesaftertheyleavethefarm gate. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-79,aseriesoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionService,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:October1992. 2.RichardC.Fluck,Professor,AgriculturalEngineeringDept.,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences, UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheFloridaEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairsandisoperated bytheUniversityofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformationcontained hereinistheproductoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheFloridaEnergyOffice. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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EnergyinFloridaAgriculture Page2ENERGYINVESTMENTS Figure2.DirectandTotalPrimaryEnergyforAgricultural ProductionThedirectenergyusedbyFloridaagricultural productionhasremainedrelativelyconstantsince1974 (Figure1).Thetotalamountofdirectenergyusedin agriculturalproductioninFloridain1990was38.70 trillionBtu,7.7percentoftheenergyconsumedin Florida'sindustrialsector.Directenergyusedinagriculturalproductionincreasedfrom39.09trillionBtu in1974to41.55trillionBtuin1982beforedecreasing to1990levels.Variationsindirectenergyconsump tionhavebeencausedmainlybychangesinproductionlevelsandachangingmixofcommoditiesproduced. Thedifferencebetweenthedirectenergyusedand theprimaryenergyusedistheindirectenergyrequirementwhichwas2.31timesthedirectenergyusedfor Floridaagriculturalproductionin1990.Thenatural inclination,whenthinkingofenergy,istofocuson directenergyinputs,buttheunseenindirectenergyis justasessentialasandmuchlargerthanthemorevisibledirectenergyrequirement. TheprimaryenergyusedinagriculturalproductioninFloridawas128.25trillionBtuin1990,equal to25percentoftheenergyconsumedinFlorida's industrialsector(Figure1).Thereductionintotal primaryenergyusewasdueprimarilytotheincreased energyefficiencyoftheindustrialproductionofagriculturalproductioninputs. Floridaconsumed66percentmoreenergyin1990 thanin1974,dueinlargemeasuretoitsincreasing population.Floridaagriculturalproductionenergy, expressedasapercentageoftherapidlyincreasing totalenergyconsumption,hasdecreased(Figure2). Figure3.DirectenergyrequirementsforFloridaagriculturalproduction. Figure4.TotalprimaryenergyrequirementsforFlorida agriculturalproduction.In1974theprimaryenergyusedinagriculturalproductioninFloridauptothefarmgatewasalmost8 percentofalltheenergyconsumedinFloridaforall purposesincludingindustrial,commercial,residential andtransportation.Theprimaryenergyusedinagriculturalproductionwas3.9percentofalltheenergy consumedinFloridaforallpurposesin1990. Floridaagriculturerunsonliquidfuels;dieselfuel andgasolineaccountfor81.5percentofthedirect energyrequirementsforproductionagriculture(Figure 3).Directenergyrequirementsforirrigationaccount for16.8percentofalldirectenergyinputs. OtherCosts(capitalimprovements,machinery,repairs,purchasedfeed,containers,etc.)makeup28.9 percentofthetotalprimaryenergyinFloridaagriculturalproduction(Figure4).OtherCosts,diesel fuel,labor,nitrogen,gasolineandelectricitynotused

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EnergyinFloridaAgriculture Page3forirrigationaccountfor84.8percentofthetotal primaryenergyrequiredforFloridaagriculturalproFigure5.Directenergyrequirements,1990. Table1.DirectEnergyProductionRequirements DirectEnergy (trillionBtu) Percent (%) Oranges 11.7 30.3 Foliage 3.65 9.4 Grapefruit 3.34 8.6 Beef 2.60 6.7 Broilers 2.17 5.6 Tomatoes 1.67 4.3 Layers 1.65 4.3 Beddingplants 1.03 2.7 Sugarcane 0.98 2.5 Containernursery 0.93 2.4duction.Laboristhethirdlargestenergyinput,revealingtheheavyrelianceofFloridaagricultureon labor.Nitrogen,thefertilizerelementrequiringthe mostenergy,makestheproductionofhigh-valuecrops onsandysoilspossible.ENERGYINVESTEDSTATEWIDETheenergyinvestedinacommoditystatewidedependsontheenergyusedtoproduceanacreorother unitofthecommodityandthenumberofacresinvestedorunitsproducedinthestate.Onastatewide basis,orangesused30.3percentofthedirectenergy consumedinproductionagriculture.Foliageproduc Figure6.Totalprimaryenergyrequirements,1990.tioninthestaterankedsecondindirectenergyuse Table2.PrimaryEnergyProductionRequirements PrimaryEnergy (trillionBtu) Percent (%) Oranges 22.3 18.1 Foliage 11.8 9.6 Beef 10.7 8.7 Dairy 7.54 6.1 Grapefruit 6.75 5.5 Sugarcane 6.68 5.4 Tomatoes 5.61 4.6 Broilers 5.12 4.2 Horses 4.86 3.9 Layers 4.39 3.6(Table1,Figures5and6). Onastate-widebasis,orangeproductionused18.1 percentofthetotalprimaryenergyusedinproduction agricultureinFlorida.Beefproductionrankedthird intotalprimaryenergyuse(Table2).ENERGYINVESTEDPERUNITPRODUCEDAnacreoftheaveragecropproducedinFlorida in1990required13.3millionBtuofdirectenergyand 38.0millionBtuoftotalprimaryenergy.Production ofbeddingplants,CentralFloridafoliageandgreenhousevegetablesrequiredabout1.25billionBtuof

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EnergyinFloridaAgriculture Page4directenergyinputsperacre(Figure7).Bedding Figure7.Top10commodities,directenergyperacre. Figure8.Top10commodities,primaryenergyperacre.plants,CentralFloridafoliageandgreenhousevegetableswerealsothemostprimaryenergyintensivecrops producedinFlorida;productionofallthreeusedover 4billionBtuofprimaryenergyperacre.Foliage growninCentralFloridausedfivetimestheamount ofprimaryenergyusedbyfoliagegrowninSouth Florida.Woodyornamentalsgrowninacontainer nurseryuseseventimestheprimaryenergyusedby woodyornamentalsgrowninafieldnursery(Figure 8).ENERGYEFFICIENCYOnepossibleapproachtoevaluatetheenergy efficiencyofagriculturalproductionsystemsmaybe tocomparethedollarvalueofthecommoditytothe energyrequiredtoproduceit.TheaverageagriculturalcommoditygrowninFloridahadavalueof$136 permillionBtuofdirectenergyusedtoproduceitin 1990.Theeconomicreturntotheprimaryenergy Figure9.Economicreturnbycommoditytype. Figure10.Dollarvalueperprimaryenergyinvestment, top10commodities.investmentwas$44permillionBtu. Asagroup,vegetablesproducedthehighesteconomicreturnforbothdirectandprimaryenergyinvestments(Figure9).Onanindividualbasis,the dollarvalueofdairyproductsperdirectenergyinvestmentwasthehighest,and,fortotalprimaryenergy, pottedflowersgavethehighestreturn(Figure10).