Energy Savings In Restaurants

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Title:
Energy Savings In Restaurants
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Johannesen, Roy
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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"EES-71"

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Florida Energy Extension Service TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanEnergySavingsinRestaurants1AdaptedbyRoyJohannesen2Althoughthe"energycrisis"isafadingmemory, Figure1.Energydistributionintableservice restaurants. Figure2. Energydistributioninfastfoodrestaurants.controllingutilitybillsisstillanimportantpartof goodrestaurantmanagement.Theincreasesin energycostsoverthelast10yearshaverenewedthe importanceofenergymanagementinthefoodservice industry. AccordingtotheNationalRestaurant Association,foodservicesalestotaled$186billionin 1986.Thehighestcostsassociatedwiththesesales wereforfoodandpayroll,at$62billionand$44 billionrespectively.Utilitycostswerealmost$6 billion. Likefoodandpayrollexpenses,utilitycostsare controllable.Thisfactsheetprovidestipsand strategiesforloweringyourenergycostswithout sacrificingthequalityoftheproductsandservicesyou provide. Twosignificantfactorsinreducingenergyusein yourrestaurantarecontinuedcommitmentof managementandcommunicationwiththepersonnel whowillcarryoutthesuggestionslistedbelow. Communicationcanbethemostcost-effectivetoolin managingincreasing,butcontrollable,energycosts.HEATING,VENTILATIONAND AIRCONDITIONING(HVAC)AsshowninFigure1,onlyfoodpreparationuses moreenergythanheating,ventilatingandair conditioning(HVAC)intableservicerestaurants. Infastfoodrestaurants(Figure2),HVAC actuallyaccountsformoreenergyusethanfood preparation.Lighting,refrigerationandsanitation alsocontributetoenergycosts,andenergysavingsare possibleinalloftheseareas. 1.ThisdocumentwaspublishedatFactSheetEES-71,FloridaEnergyExtensionService.ItwasadaptedforFlorida,withpermission,froma documentoriginallycreatedbytheTexasEnergyExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionService office. 2.RoyJohannesen,EnergyExtensionSpecialist,EnergyExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheFloridaEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairsandisoperatedbythe UniversityofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformationcontainedherein istheproductoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheFloridaEnergyOffice.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page2 BecauseHVACisamajorenergyuserinboth fastfoodandtableservicerestaurants,youcansave energydollarsbyknowinghowyourHVACsystem works.Inmostrestaurants,HVACequipmentis combinedintoasingleunitcalledapackagedsystem orelseconfiguredasasplitsystem.PackagedandSplitHVACSystemsSmallandmediumsizecommercialbuildings usuallycontainpackagedsystemswhichcombineair distributionsystemsandcoolingequipment. Packagedsystemsarecommonlyinstalledonroofsof restaurants. Splitsystemshaveoutdoorcondensingunitswith theevaporatorcoilsanddistributionsystemsinstalled insidebuildings.Centralairconditionersinhouses areexamplesofsplitsystems.Severalfactorswhich affecttheenergyefficiencyofpackagedandsplit systemsarelistedhere. Refrigerant. Mostairconditioningcompressors aredesignedtooperatewithrefrigerant22,orits equivalent.Asthesystemlosesitsrefrigerantcharge, efficiencydrops. Filters/Strainers. Thesedevicesarenecessaryto preventdamagingparticlesfromenteringthe compressor.Whencompressorsarecloggedwithdirt, refrigerantflowisrestrictedandefficiencyisreduced. Frostormoistureonthefilterisanindicatorofthis problem. CompressorEfficiency. Inhermetic(sealed) compressors,themotorandcompressorareenclosed andsealedasoneunit.Recentimprovementsinclude moreefficientmotorsandvariablespeedcompressors. CondensingCoilArea. Usually,thelargerthe condensingcoil,themoreefficientitis.Largercoils providegreaterheattransferarea,allowingformore heattobeexhaustedtotheatmosphere.Dirtyor bentcoilfinsreducetheeffectiveheattransferarea. ComputerizedEnergyManagementSystems. These areprimarilyusedforcontrollingHVACequipment. Systemscanbeprogrammedtoturnequipmenton andoffaccordingtoapre-establishedschedule.The restaurantcanthenreachitscorrectoperating temperatureattheappropriatetime.OperationsandMaintenanceGreatenergysavingsopportunitiesforrestaurants arepossiblethroughcontrollingtheoperatingtimeof HVACequipment.Nevertheless,manybuilding operatorscontinuetoleavecoolingandheating systemsonduringnighttime,weekendandholiday periodsinthebeliefthatturningthemoffwillnot saveenoughtojustifytheeffort.Turningsystemsoff (orsettingbackheatingsystemstoavoidfreeze damage)whenrestaurantsareunoccupiedcansavea thirdormoreoftotalbuildingenergyuse. Properoperatingandmaintenancetechniquescan reduceconsumptionwhiletheequipmentisrunning. HVACmaintenanceincludesthefollowingitems: *Cleaningorreplacingairfilters *Regularlycheckingrefrigerantlevels *Cleaningdirtfromcoilfins *Obtainingacondensercoilfincomband straighteningcoilfins *Periodicallycheckingrefrigerant filters/strainersand *Wherepossible,shadingtheoutsideunitand allowingplentyofairtocirculatearoundit.ExhaustFansExhaustfansinkitchensandbathroomsare importanttoairquality,buttheycanwasteenergyby pullingexcessiveamountsofconditionedairoutof thefacility.Exhaustfanscanremovesomuchair thattheyreduceroompressure,promptinginfiltration andevendrafts. Useexhaustfansonlywhennecessaryandat speedsnohigherthannecessarytoremovesmokeor steamfromtheair.Frequently,exhaustfansarekept runningwhennotneeded,orinunoccupied restrooms.Connectingfanstolightswitchescanhelp reduceexcessfanoperation.Allexhaustfansshould beturnedoffatnight.FOODPREPARATIONANDSANITATIONOneofthemostimportantfactorsinthesuccess orfailureofanenergyconservationprogramin restaurantsisthecooperationofkitchenemployees whoareresponsibleforfoodpreparationand sanitation.Thefollowinglistofgoodenergysaving practiceshasbeenadaptedfromtheNational RestaurantAssociation's"ChecklistforEnergy ControlandConservation"andits"Summaryof EnergyConservationRecommendations"fromthe ProjectonRestaurantEnergyPerformance(PREP).

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page3 Thelistcoversgeneraloperatingtechniques,specific cookingequipment,dishwashingoperationsand generalkitchenmaintenancerecommendations. Discussthislistindetailwithyouremployees;you willneedtheircooperationtomakeyourenergy managementprogramwork.GeneralOperatingTechniques1.Reduce"peakloading"byscheduling equipmentruntimes.Yourelectricitybillis determinedbytwofactors:(1)ademandcharge basedonthehighest(orpeak)kilowattuseforany shorttimeperiodduringthemonth(usually15or30 minuteperiods);and(2)anenergychargebasedon yourtotalconsumptioninkilowatthours.Somerules tofollowinreducingpeakuseanddemandcharges areasfollows. (a)Staggerturn-ontimesforheavy-dutyelectrical equipment.Mostutilitiesrecordthepeakdemand loadat30-minute(or15-minute)intervals.Avoid turningonallelectricalequipmentatoncewhenyou arriveinthemorning.Developascheduletostagger turn-ontimesandlowerthepeakdemandineach30minute(or15-minute)period. (b)Schedulefoodpreparationwisely.Cooksome itemsduringoffpeakperiods.Considerwhether someitemscanbecookedbytheovens,fryersor steamersratherthanbylessenergyefficientrange tops,griddlesorbroilers. 2.Donotpreheatsteamtables,grills,broilers, etc.Ifyoumustpreheat,10to30minutesis generallyadequate,dependingontheapplianceand desiredtemperature. 3.Usemicrowaveovenswhenpossible. Microwaveovensusesignificantlylessenergythan othercookingequipmentandcanbeusedfor thawing,partiallycookingandreheatingfood. 4.Keepequipmentclean.Carbonandgrease build-upmakeyourcookingequipmentworkharder andusemoreenergy. 5.Turnoffanyequipmentnotinuse.Thisisa generalprincipleofenergyconservationandapplies notonlytofoodpreparationandsanitation equipmentbuttolights,HVACandmiscellaneous equipment.RangetopOperation1.Wheneverpossible,donotusetherangetop. Instead,useotherequipment,suchassteamersand ovensthatuselessenergyandaddlessheattothe kitchen. 2.Usetherightsizepot.Neveruseapot smallerthantheburner.Electricburnersorheating elementsshouldbeatleast1inchlessindiameter thanthepot.Ontheotherhand,oversizedpots wasteenergybyexposingmoremetalsurfacetoheat loss. 3.Herdpotsclosetogether.Placingpotsasclose aspossibleontherangetopwillreduceheatlossand perhapsallowyoutoturnoffasectionofthe rangetop. 4.Coverallpots.Coveringpotsreducesheat lossandcausesthefoodtocookfaster. 5.Donotpreheatrangetops.Donot automaticallyturnontherangetopthefirstthingin themorning.Ifpreheatingisnecessary,10to15 minutesissufficient. 6.Turnheatoffearly.Turnheatoffafew minutesearly;residualheatintheburnerandpotwill continuetocookthefood.GriddleOperation1.Preheatgriddleapproximately6minutes.Six minutesissufficientpreheatingtimefora350degree temperature. 2.Heatonlyaportionofthegriddle.Ifthe griddlecanbeheatedinsections,heatonlythe sectionsneeded.Huddlefoodclosetogetheronthe griddletominimizeheatloss. 3.Covergriddledproductstoreducecooking timesandallowsomeitemstobecookedononeside only.Coversonstandbygriddleswillslowheatloss andconserveenergy. 4.Usegriddleweights.Placingweightonbacon andsausageorothergriddledproductswillshorten cookingtime,butmayalterthefoodappearance.OvenOperation1.Keepovendoorsclosed.Everysecondthe ovendoorisopen,thetemperaturedrops3to10 degrees.Loadandunloadproductsasquicklyas possible. 2.Donotusetwoovenswhenonewilldo.Bake productsrequiringthesametemperatureinoneoven. Avoidusingalargeovenforsmallamountsoffood. Schedulebakingandroastingtoutilizetheovenfully andshortendailyoperatingtime.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page4 3.Donotpreheatunlessnecessary.Preheating isusuallynecessaryonlyforbakingproducts;15to20 minutesissufficient. 4.Donotsetthermostathigherthanneeded. Theovenwillnotheatupanyfaster;itwillsimply overheat. 5.Donotusealuminumfoil.Wrappingpotatoes orotherproductsinaluminumfoilretardsbaking becausethefoilreflectstheoven'sheat.Iffoilis necessary,wrapthepotatoafteritisbaked.FryerOperation1.Fryfrom300degreesto350degreesF. Highertemperaturesareinefficient.(Forolder fryers,thetemperaturemayhavetobesetto375 degreesF.) 2.Idlefryersat200degreesF,toconserveupto 50percentofenergyuseeveryhour. 3.Meltfatandoilbeforefryingbybringingitto thepropertemperatureinasteam-jacketedkettle. Thisismoreenergyefficientthanusingthefryer's coilstomeltit. 4.Keepfatabovecoilsorelements.Besurethe fatleveliskeptabovethecoilsorelements.Ifthey areevenpartiallyexposed,25percentoftheheat enteringthefryercanbewasted. 5.Havefoodsasdryaspossiblewhenfrying.A largeamountofenergyisneededtochangewater dropletsoriceonfrozenproductstosteam. 6.Blanchorprecookfoodsinsteamer.Food suchaspotatoesandchicken,canbepartiallycooked bysteamandthenfinishedandbrownedinafryer. Thiswillsaveenergy,asasteamerismoreefficient anduseslessenergythanafryer.SteamCookingSteamisthemostefficientformofcooking becauseitcooksmoderately,transfersheatrapidly, requireslittlepre-heating,andshortenscookingtime. 1.Begincookinginasteamer.Partiallycook yourproductinthereandfinishitwithyourusual cookingmethod.Cookingwithsteamusually eliminatestheneedforpreheating. 2.Coversteam-jacketedkettles.Likepotsused ontherangetop,steam-jacketedkettlesshouldbe covered. 3.Avoidcloudsofsteam.Cloudsofsteam indicateunnecessarilyhightemperaturesandputa furtherloadonyourventilatingandairconditioning system. 4.Steamtablesareenergywasters.Eventhough steamisefficientforcooking,steamtablesusedfor servingconsumemoreenergythananyotherpieceof equipment.Donotpreheatthemlongerthan necessary,andturnthemoffwhennotinuse.DishwashingOperations1.Runthedishwasheronlywithfullloads. Duringslackperiods,usecoldwaterrinseandstack dishes,pots,etc.untilyouhaveenoughforafullload. 2.Keepdishwashertemperatureattheproper level.Standardtemperaturesare:140degreesF, wash;160degrees,powerrinse;180degreesF,final rinse.Usinghotterwaterwastesenergy. 3.Considersubstitutingchemicalrinsesforhot waterrinsesifcodesallow.Achemicalsolutionsuch asableach-typeproductcanpossiblybeusedinstead of180degreewaterforfinalrinse. 4.Turnoffboosterheaters.Turndishwasher waterheatersoffwhenmachineisnotinuseandat closing.Itcostsmoneytoheatthewater,whetherit isusedornot. 5.Checkpowerrinse.Makesurethatthepower rinseonthedishwasheristurningoffautomatically whenthetrayhasgonethroughthemachine. 6.Cleanthedishwasherregularly.Checkwash andrinsejetsaftereachuse.Emptyscraptrays frequently.Useadelimesolutionregularly.Lime build-upclogsthewashandrinsejets.Maintenance1.Checkallthermostats.Checkthermostatswith athermometerandadjustthemifnecessary. 2.Keepgasflamesadjusted.Properlyadjusted gasflamesshouldbeallbluewithafirmcentercone. Ayellow-orangetipmeansthatsomegasisnotbeing burned.Thereshouldbenovisiblesmoke. 3.Inspectpipesregularlyforleaks.Hotwater andsteamleaksaregreatenergywasters.Replaceall valvesorgasketsthatshowleakage.Replacewashers indrippingwaterfaucets. 4.Checkoverheatingovens.Ovensthatbecome excessivelyhotontheexteriorsurfacehave insufficientordeterioratedinsulation,whichshould bereplaced.Alsocheckovendoorgasketsforatight fit.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page5REFRIGERATIONTheenergyrequirementforfoodpreservation variesfrom2to6percentofthetotalenergyusein arestaurantoperation.Properplanningandawell set-upoperationandmaintenanceschedulecan reduceenergyconsumptionandwillalsoreducefood preparationcosts.OperationHints1.Separatefooditemsintoseveralcategories dependinguponthefrequencytheyareneeded;store infrequentlyuseditemsawayfromfrequentlyused items.Forexample,beefpattiesandfrenchfriescan bestoredtogetherinonerefrigerator;otheritems usedlessfrequentlycanbestoredinanother refrigerator.Thisismoreenergyefficientthan storingthemallinonelargerefrigerator.labelitems toavoidsearchingwiththedooropen. 2.Donotsetthethermostatbelowtheneeded temperature.Thoughdoingthisfractionallydecreases thefreezingorcoolingtime,itusessignificantlymore energy. 3.Lethotitemscoolbrieflyonacounterbefore placingthemintherefrigerator. 4.Conversely,thawfrozenfoodinthe refrigerator.Thefrozenfoodwillreducetheloadon yourrefrigeratorandinwinterfoodthawedatroom temperaturemayaddaheatingloadtotheHVAC system. 5.Donotstorefoodinawaythatitblocks circulationwithintherefrigerator.Useseveraltrays sothatcoldaircancirculatewelloverallthe products. 6.Locatetherefrigerationequipmentawayfrom sourcesofheatsuchasovensandgrills.Maintenance1.Cleanthecondenserfinsandcoilsregularly. Dustandgreasebuildupinhibitsheattransfer. 2.Keeptherefrigeratorlevel.Thishelpsthe doorstofitcorrectly. 3.Feeltheoutsideoftherefrigeratorforcold spots.Coldspotsindicatethattheinsulationhas eithershiftedoriswaterloggedandshouldbe adjustedorreplaced. 4.Checkthegasketsregularly.Ifapieceof paperinsertedbetweenthedoorandframecanbe pulledouteasily,thegasketisnotsealingproperly andshouldbereplaced. 5.Checktheevaporatorforfrost.Icebuildup robstheevaporatorofitseffectiveness.Mostunits haveautomaticdefrosters.Theycanberesetto defrostafteroperatinghours.Defrostwheneverice buildupexceeds1/4inch. 6.Keeprefrigeratorsatleast4inchesfromwalls sothataircancirculatefreelyaroundthecondenser coils. 7.Indryclimates,flip"energymiser"switchto "dry"(ifyourrefrigeratorhasaswitch).Thiswillturn offheatersusedtoevaporatecondensation.HOTWATERA125-seatrestaurantserving225mealsperday usesabout200,000gallonsofwaterperyear. Becausealargepercentageofthisusageishotwater, conservationwillreduceenergycostsaswellasyour waterbill. Savingsopportunitiesincludethefollowingitems: 1.Heatwaterforhandwashingto110degreesF insteadof140degreesF.Donotreducethe temperatureofwaterservingthedishwasher. 2.Installflowrestrictorsoraeratorsinpiping andonfaucets.Thesecanreduceflowbyabout50 percent. 3.Ifrenovating,considerinstallingself-closing faucetsonwatertaps.Thesecancutwater consumptionapproximately60percent. 4.Insulatenewpipingandinsulateand/orrepair existinghotwaterpipingandtanks.Inasystemwith about200feetofpiping,goodinsulationwillsave approximately$15to$25peryear. 5.Ifadomestichotwatercirculatingpumpis used,provideatimeswitchtoturnoffthepump whenthebuildingisunoccupied. 6.Drainandflushwaterheatersevery6months toremovemineralsthathavesettledonbottomof tank.Thiswillmaintainheaterefficiency. 7.Repairleakyfaucets.Ahotwaterfaucet drippingattherateof1gallonanhourconsumes 9,000gallonsperyear,and$30to$120inenergy. 8.Turnoffwaterheaterswhentherestaurantis closed.Installtimerstoturnwaterheatersoffwhen therestaurantisclosingandtoturnthemon2hours beforeopeningtoreachthedesiredtemperature. 9.Insulatethewaterheatertank.Exceptfor reducingtheamountofhotwaterused,tank insulationmaybethebestenergyconservation opportunityforwaterheating.Insulationkitscostas littleas$10to$20(dependingonsize)andwillpay forthemselvesinenergysavingsin12monthsorless.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page6 Ifyouwrapagaswaterheatermakesurenottocover airintakeorexhaustareas.Callyourgascompany fordetails.LIGHTINGTobuildingoccupants,lightingchangesarethe mostvisiblesignofenergyconservation.Removing unnecessarylightingandswitchingtoenergyefficient lampsandballastsarerelativelyinexpensiveenergy savingmeasures,andwillalsoreducetheloadonthe coolingsystembyreducingtheamountofheatgiven offbylighting. Alllampsexceptincandescentandself-ballasted mercuryvaporlampsmusthaveaballasttoprovide startingpowerandtoregulatecurrent.Theballast itselfconsumesenergyanditsconsumptionmustbe factoredintotheoverallefficacyofthelightsource. TheFloridaEnergyEfficiencyCodefor Constructionrequiresthatlightinglevelsnotexceed 2wattspersquarefootofrestaurantarea.InteriorLightingIncandescent.Theoldest--andtheleastefficient-electriclightsourceareincandescentbulbs.These lampsarepopularbecauseoflowfixturecost,low lampcostandgoodcolorappearance.Buttheirlow firstcostisoffsetbyhighoperatingcost. "Longlife"incandescentsarelessefficient,and shouldonlybeusedinlocationswherethebulbsare difficulttochange."Highefficiency"incandescents areabout25percentmoreefficientthanstandard incandescents. Reflector(R),parabolicaluminizedreflector (PAR),andellipticalreflector(ER)floodlampsall havereflectiveinteriorcoatingstoincreasethe amountoflightemittedfromthelamps(thus increasingefficiencyslightly). Fluorescent.Themostcommonlampsourceused incommercialbuildings,fluorescentlampscomein manyshapesandwattages.Themostcommonlyused lampsarethe4-and8-footstraighttubes,followedby 3-and2-footU-tubes,andcirculartubes.These typesoffluorescentlampsareaboutfourtofivetimes moreefficientthanincandescentsandlastabout20 timeslonger. Numeroussmallwattage(7to22watt)lampsare availableasdirectreplacementsforallincandescents, includingfloodlamps.Whereveryouhavelongburningincandescents(6hoursadayorlonger), replacethoselampswiththehigherefficiency fluorescents. Inadditiontoproviding3or4timesasmuch lightfortheenergydollar,theylastabout10to15 timeslongerthanincandescents,savinglaborcosts becauselesstimeisspentreplacingburnedoutbulbs. RecessedLighting.Codesgenerallyrequirethat noinsulationbewithin3inchesofrecessedlighting fixturesbecausethefixturesproducealargeamount ofheat.Asaresult,theycanbelargesourcesofair leakage.ExteriorLightingHighIntensityDischarge(HID)Lamps aremost commonlyusedinparkinglots.Thistermdesignates awholefamilyoflampsincludingmercuryvapor, metalhalide,highpressuresodium,andlowpressure sodium. MercuryVapor(MV)Lamps .Commonlyusedfor streetandhighwaylighting,thesebluish-whitelamps aregraduallybeingreplacedinmostapplicationsby moreefficienthighpressuresodiumandmetalhalide lamps. MetalHalide(MH)Lamps .Increasinglypopular insportsfacilities,malls,andnumerousinteriorand exteriorapplications,MHlampsareoneandahalfto twotimesmoreefficientthanMV,andhavebetter colorrendition.TheyaremoreexpensivethanMV, buttheirgreaterefficacyandsuperiorcolorrendition offsetthepricepremium. HighPressureSodium(HPS)Lamps .Themost efficientlightsourceforgeneralapplication,HPShas somelimitationforinteriorusebecauseofitspoor colorrendition(verystrongyellowemphasis).Itis thecommonlampofchoiceforstreetandhighway lighting,andiswidelyusedforsecuritylighting.DaylightingDaylightingistheuseofnaturallight(butusually notdirectsunlight)tosupplementorattimesreplace artificiallighting.Theuseofdaylightinghasatleast threesignificantbenefits. 1.Daylightingcanreducetheperimeterlighting requirementsasmuchas80percent. 2.Daylightingnormallycontributeslessheatto theairconditioningloadthanartificiallightsources.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page7 3.Daylightinghasexcellentcolorrendition,isthe leastvisuallytiringofalllightsources(whenproperly controlled),andgenerallyincreasesproductivityand producespositivepsychologicalreactionsinpeople.OperationsandMaintenanceThefollowingarerecommendedlighting operationsandmaintenanceproceduresthatgenerally costlittleornothingtoimplement.Ifmoreextensive changesareneeded,consultanequipmentspecialist. 1.Incandescentlampsmaybeusedinkitchens, diningareas,hallways,andbathrooms.Asingle incandescentlampcanprovidethesamelightoutput anduselessenergythanagroupoflowerwattage lamps.Forexample,a150-wattincandescentlamp producesmorelightperwattthantwo75-wattlamps. Donotuseextendedservicelampsexceptin specialcases,suchasrecesseddirectionallightswhere shortlamplifeisaproblem. Discontinueusingmulti-levellamps.The efficiencyofasinglewattagelampishigherperwatt thanthatofamulti-levellamp. 2.Disconnectballastsinfixtureswhere fluorescentlampshavebeenremoved.Ballaststhat arenotdisconnectedstillusesignificantamountsof energyeventhoughlampshavebeenremoved. 3.Replaceburnedoutfluorescentlampsand/or ballastswithmoreefficientlights.Whenrelamping, replacestandardfluorescentlampswithmoreefficient andlowerwattagetypes,suchas34-watttubesinstead of40-watttubes.Whereverpossible,replaceburned outballastswithmoreefficient,lowerwattage, energy-conservingballasts. Considerdisconnectingballastsinareaswhere delampingispossible.Forexample,infour-lamp fixtures,disconnecttwolampsandtheunused ballasts. 4.Keeplampsandfixturesclean.Establisha regularinspectionandcleaningscheduleforlamps andluminaires(fixtures).Dustbuildupreduces effectiveness. Replacelensshieldsthathaveturnedyellowor hazywithnewacryliclensesthatdonotdiscolor. 5.Useexteriorlightingefficiently.Replace exterior150-wattfloodlampswith50-wattcompact fluorescentlampsor75-wattfloodlampstoreduce consumptionwhilemaintainingadequateillumination. Eliminateoutdoorlightingwherepractical.Use timersorphotosensorstoturnexteriorlightingon andoff. 6.Turnofflightsinunoccupiedareas.Postsigns instructingpeopletoturnofflightswhenleavinga roomfor5minutesorlonger.Organizetaskareasto eliminateunnecessaryillumination. 7.Optimizenaturallighting.Utilizenatural lightingwheneverpossible.Cleanwallsorrepaint themwithlightreflectivenon-glossycolors.BUILDINGENVELOPEDoors,windows,walls,roofs,andfloors collectivelymakeupthe"buildingenvelope."Building envelopesleakenergythrougheverycomponent. Therearefivemajorareasofconcern. 1.Infiltrationandexfiltration 2.Heatgainandlossthroughwalls,roofs,etc. 3.Solarheatgainthroughwindows 4.Heatlossthroughwindows 5.InternalheattransferInfiltrationandExfiltrationInfiltrationandexfiltrationairleakingintoand outofabuildingaresignificantenergyproblemsin restaurants.Thereareseveralways,though,tokeep outsideairoutandconditionedairin. BuildingDesign. Designingandconstructingthe buildingproperlybyinstallinginfiltrationbarrier wraps,sealingbottomplates,sealingholesintop plates,andselectingtightfittingdoorsandwindows canreduceinfiltrationbetterthanretrofittinglater. Caulking. Everypenetrationintheenvelope shouldbeeffectivelysealed.Caulkingsealsthecracks betweendoorandwindowframes,betweenbrickand siding,andotherplaceswheredifferentbuilding materialsmeet.Usegoodqualitysiliconcaulkthat willlast. Weatherstripping. Usevinyl,metal,felt,orother fibrousmaterialtominimizeinfiltrationaround operablepenetrationsinthebuildingshell(doorsand windows).Forresidential-typecommercialbuildings (studwalls),infiltrationaroundelectricaloutletsis significant.Applyfoamrubbergasketstoallelectric walloutletsandswitches. Vestibules/RevolvingDoors. Thetrafficintoand outofbuildingsisamajorsourceofinfiltrationand exfiltration.Theproblemisaggravatedinthewintertimefornorth-facingentrydoors.Double-entry

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page8 swingingdoors,entryvestibules,orrevolvingdoors Figure3. Waystosaveenergyinrestaurants.canreducetheinfiltrationofcoldnorthwinds.ReductionofHeatGainandLossThebuildingenvelopeprotectsagainsttheheatof summerandthecoldofwinter.Iftheenvelopeis wellinsulated,thebuildingwillbemorecomfortable andlessexpensivetoheatandcool.Restaurantswith accessibleatticsthathaveinsufficientornoatticor roofinsulationaregoodcandidatesforadding insulation.Restaurantswithinsufficientlyinsulated built-uproofsshouldhaveinsulationaddedwhenever newweatherproofingisadded.Addinginsulationto wallsismoreexpensive,however,andisseldom justifiedbyenergysavings. Therecommendedinsulationvalues(called"Rvalues"orresistancevalues)dependuponclimate, heatingandcoolingsystems,andbuildingcodes.To meetthenew-constructionrequirementsofFlorida's CommercialBuildingEnergyEfficiencyCode,the minimuminsulationrecommendedforwallsisR5.26 andfortheroofandceiling,R10.However,theseare minimumvaluesandforframeconstructionR11is recommendedforwallsandR19andaboveforthe roofandceiling. Radiantheatbarriersarethinsheetsofaluminum foil-likematerial.Whenplacedintheattic,radiant barrierspreventsomeofthesun'sheatraysfrom enteringthebuilding. Somesellersofradiantbarriersclaimtheir productcanreduceutilitybillsbyasmuchas40 percent,butthisclaimisnotsupportedbystudies conductedattheUniversityof Florida'sSolarEnergyLabandother independenttestinglabsaroundthe country.SolarHeatGainThroughWindowsSingle-paneglasshasan insulatingvalueoflessthanR1, whichresultsinlargeamountsofheat conductedintooroutofthewindow. Muchworsethanconductedheat gaininthesummer,however,isthe radiantheatthatstreamsthrough windowsexposedtothesun.Drapes, blinds,shuttersorawningsonthe interiorhelpreduceradiantgain,but theyarenotnearlyaseffectiveas exteriorwindowtreatment. Ifyouhaveunshadedeast,westorsouthwindows, considersolarscreens,solarfilmorawnings.These materialscanpreventupto80percentofthesolar radiationfromstreaminginthroughwindows,thus loweringyourcoolingcosts.ReductionofHeatLossThroughWindowsWindowsarethebestandtheworstpartsofa wall.Theyincreasethesenseofinteriorspaceand canaffordlovelyviews.TheirlowR-values,however, allowexcessiveheatgaininsummerandheatlossin winter.Shading,screens,orfilmsprotectthe windowsinsummer,butofferlittleifanyhelpin winter.Double-pane(thermal)windowsorstorm windowscandoublewindowR-valuesandcut conductiveheatlossinhalf.InFloridaclimates, however,theenergysavingsfromsuchretrofitswill takemanyyearstopaybacktheinitialinvestment.ReductionofInternalHeatTransferHotwaterpipesandtanksandairconditioning ductsshouldbeinsulatedtopreventunnecessaryload ontheairconditioningsystem.CONCLUSIONRestaurantscontainmanyenergy-consuming appliancesandequipmentwhichcanmakecontrolling yourutilitybillsarealchallenge.

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ENERGYSAVINGSINRESTAURANTS Page9 Thisfactsheetpresentedmanytipsandstrategies forloweringyourenergycostswithoutsacrificingthe qualityoftheproductsandservicesyouprovide. Someofthesetipsandstrategiesarehighlightedin Figure3. 1.Useexhaustfansonlywhennecessary. 2.Developuseschedulesforallequipmentand appliances. 3.Routinelycheckandclean(orreplace)filters. 4.Replaceincandescentlampswithfluorescent lamps. 5.Usehighefficiencyexteriorlightingsuchashigh pressuresodium. 6.Awnings,solarscreensandblindsreducesolar heatgain. 7.Makesurealldoorsandwindowsareadequately weatherstripped.MOREINFORMATIONFormoreinformationonwaystosaveenergyin yourrestaurantreadtheFloridaEnergyExtension Servicefactsheets"ReducingOperatingCosts ThroughImprovedEnergyEfficiencyinYour Business--AChecklist,""LightinginSmallBusinesses" and"EnergyManagementforSmallBusiness."To receiveoneorallofthesefreefactsheetsorfor informationonotherwaystosaveenergy,callyour localCountyExtensionOfficeorwrite: FloridaEnergyExtensionService 112Frazier-RogersHall UniversityofFlorida Gainesville,FL32611 Foradditionalreading,lookforthefollowing publications,availablefromthepublisheroryour locallibraryorbookstore. "EnergyConservationprogram."National RestaurantAssociation,1200SeventeenthSt.,N.W., Washington,DC20036-3097,1986. "FoodServiceandEnergytotheYear2000." NationalRestaurantAssociation,1200Seventeenth Street,N.W.,Washington,DC20036-3097,1988.