Energy Savings In Hotels And Motels

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Title:
Energy Savings In Hotels And Motels
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Johannesen, Roy
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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Published
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"EES-70"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004817:00001


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FactSheetEES-69 LightinginSmallBusinesses1 AdaptedbyRoyJohannesen2Lightingisessentialtoretailing.Studieshave shownthatlightingaffectsthemarketabilityof productsrangingfromproducetojewelry.In addition,goodlightingimprovesemployeecomfort andproductivity. However,lightingisusuallythesecondlargest energyuserincommercialfacilities,andinsome retailstoresmayevenbethelargest.Inaddition, heatgeneratedbylightingconstitutesasignificant portionoftheheatloadthatmustberemovedbythe airconditioningsystem.Thus,itisimportanttouse lightingwiselyandefficiently.LIGHTINGCHARACTERISTICSGoodlightingisdeterminedbythelightsource's efficiency,colorrendition,colortemperatureand lamplife. Efficiencyisameasureofhowmuchvisiblelight isproduced(lumens)perunitofelectricalpower (watts).Themoreefficientlightingsourcesgiveoff morelightforthesameamountofpower. Inadditiontobeingefficient,alightingsource shouldalsorendercolorinanacceptablemanner. Colorrenditionreferstoanobject'sperceivedcolor underalightsourcecomparedtotheperceivedcolor ofthatobjectwhenilluminatedbynaturalsunlight. Colortemperatureisdifferentthancolor renditionanddescribesanaestheticqualityrather thancoloraccuracy.Colortemperatureistypically describedonthelabelinphraseslike"deluxecool white"or"warmwhite."Lowcolortemperatures producewarm(red)tones;highcolortemperatures producecool(blue)tones. Lamplifecanvarygreatlyandisanimportant factorinlife-cyclecostingofvariouslamptypes. Incandescentsaverageaslittleas750hourswhile fluorescentsandotherhighefficiencylampslast 20,000ormorehours.TYPESOFLIGHTINGSeverallightingsourcesareavailableforretailuse includingincandescent,fluorescentandhigh-intensity discharge(HID).Eachtypehascharacteristicsthat makeisespeciallysuitedtodifferentneedsinaretail establishment.IncandescentLightingIncandescentlampsusethemostenergyperunit oflightproduced.Ninetypercentoftheenergy consumedbyanincandescentlampisgivenoffas heatratherthanvisiblelight. Incandescentsarenottheleastexpensivelampto purchasebecausetheyhavearelativelyshortlifetime. Everyothervarietyoflampoutlastsstandard 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-69,FloridaEnergyExtensionService.ItwasadaptedforFlorida,withpermission,fromadocumentoriginally createdbytheTexasEnergyExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceOffice. 2.RoyJohannesen,EnergyExtensionSpecialist,EnergyExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida, GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page2incandescentsbyanaverageof10to20times.A Figure1.Incandescentsvs.fluorescents."cheaper"lampthatmustbereplacedtentimesas oftenasamore"expensive"lampisnotnecessarilya bargain! Despitetheirdrawbacks,incandescentsare sometimesusefulindisplaycasesorinproviding accentormoodlightinginrestaurants.Theyarealso appropriateinclosetsandotherlocationswherethey areturnedoninfrequentlyandforbriefperiodsof time.FluorescentLightingFluorescentlampsconvertelectricpowerto visiblelightbyusinganelectricchargeto"excite" gaseousatoms.Theseatomsemitultraviolet radiationthatisabsorbedbyaphosphorcoatingon thewallsofthefluorescenttube.Thephosphor coatingproducesthevisiblelight. Theselampsrequireaballast,asmalltransformer thatregulatesthevoltageandcurrentflownecessary toinitiateandsustainthecharge.Fluorescentlamps convertelectricitytovisiblelightuptothreetofour timesmoreefficientlythanincandescentlampsand lastupto25timeslonger.Figure1demonstratesthe advantagesoffluorescentscomparedtoincandescents. Recentimprovementsinfluorescentlampdesigns havemadethemacceptableforawiderrangeofuses. Thelightingindustryhasproducedseverallamp modelsthatcorrectthepoorcolorrendition characteristicsofsomeolderlamps.Oldermodel fluorescentscouldmakecolorslookflatandwashed out.Now,modelslikethe"warmwhite"andthe Figure2.APLfluorescentlight."deluxecoolwhite"havemuchbettercolorrendition. Thatmakesthemacceptableindisplaycases, showroomsandotherareaswheregoodcolor renditionisimportant. Otherinnovationsinfluorescentlampdesigns havemadethemeasiertouse.Somenewmodels havebuilt-inballasts,sotheycanfitintostandard incandescentsockets.Othershavebeenspecially designedtofitinplacestoosmallforstandard-sized fluorescentfixtures.Thesecompactfluorescents comeinseveralforms: "Circline"isthegenericnameforalamp producedbyseverallightingmanufacturers.The fluorescenttubeiscircularandcanfitintomany standardincandescentsockets.Itproducesasmuch lightasa100-wattincandescentbulbforonly44 watts. Compact"U-tubes"(namedfortheirshape),or "PL"lampsaredesignedtofitintomanyplacestoo smallforordinaryfluorescentlampsandfixtures. Manymodelshavebuilt-inballastsandcanbeusedin

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page3incandescentfixtures.Theyareexcellentinplaces likeexitlights,tracklightsandrecessedfixtures(see Figure2).Othercompactfluorescentshavethelook andphysicalsizeofincandescents.Everythingthey needisalreadybuilt-in:ballast,screwbase, fluorescentlampandtranslucentglobe.Theyfitinto virtuallyanystandardincandescentfixtureand producemorelightthana60-wattincandescentlamp foronly17to20watts. Theinitialcostofthesenewfluorescentsis relativelyhigh($8to$20),buttheylastabout10,000 hoursandusetwo-thirdslessenergythan incandescents.HighIntensityDischargeLightingHighintensitydischarge(HID)lampsareanother alternativetoincandescentsandfluorescents.There arefourtypesofHIDs:metalhalide,highandlow pressuresodium,andmercuryvapor.Lowpressure sodiumlampsarerarelyusedintheUnitedStates becausetheircolorrenditionisverypoor.Theyare, however,themostefficientoftheHIDsandwhile theircolorrenditionisverypoor,itisveryeffectivein areasrequiringsecurity,suchasparkinglots,garages, andhightheftareas.OtherHIDsarebetterinthis regardbutareoftenstillconsiderablydistortedfrom "natural"light. Also,HIDlampshaveadelayedinitialand restriketime--thatis,theydon'tcomeoninstantly. Thistimedelayrangesfrom3to15minutes, dependingonthetypeofHIDlamp.Thatcanmake HIDsunacceptableforareaswhenaninstantstartis necessary.Metalhalidehasexcellentcolorrendition, butitistheslowesttorestartafterapowershut-off. Table1comparesthelumensperwattandthelife expectanciesofvarioustypesoflamps.Aswithmiles pergallons(mpg)forcars,thelumensperwatt(lpw) ofaparticularmodellampshouldbeanimportant factorinyourpurchasingdecision.LIGHTINGLEVELSThetraditionalmeasurementunitforlightingis thefootcandle(FC),whichistheamountoflight emittedbyacandlefromadistanceofonefoot.The chiefsourceforrecommendedlightinglevelsisthe IlluminatingEngineeringSocietyofNorthAmerica's (IES)Handbook,ReferenceVolume,1981(seeTable 2). ThelightingsectioninASHRAE90,essentially authoredbyIES,isalsoagoodreference.Lamp manufacturersalsohaveinformationavailableon lighting.Finally,manyelectricutilitycompanieshave lightingconsultants,andsomeevenofferfinancial incentivesforyoutoreducethelightingloadinyour building. Manyfacilitiesweredesignedwithmorelightthan necessaryforthearea'stasks.Todetermineifa facilityisover-lighted,firstchecktheexistinglight levelswithalightmeter,whichcanbepurchasedat electricalsupplyhousesforabout$60andup.Place thelightmeterontheworksurfaceandrecordthe lightlevel(infootcandles)indicatedbytheneedle. Youmaywanttotakethreeorfourreadingsaround theareaandaveragethem.Compareyourreading withtherecommendedtasklightlevelshowninTable 2.Iftheareagetsmorelightthannecessary,remove unneededlamps.DELAMPINGIfanareaisoverlighted,removinglamps(and ballastsinthecaseoffluorescenttubesandHID lamps)isagoodsolution.Careshouldbetakenin delamping,however,toassurethattheremaininglight isadequateandevenlydistributed.Unevenlight patternsorinsufficientlightcancauseeyestrainand hamperproductivity. Forexample,ifyoudeterminethatanarealitby afour-lampfixturehastwicetheamountoflight necessary,youcanremovetwoofthelampspowered bythesameballastforthereductionyouneed.Make suretoalsodisconnecttheballast,whichwilldrawan averageof16wattsevenwithoutthelamps. Sometimesremovingseverallampscreates shadowyorunevenlighting.Andothertimesitwon't bepossibletoremovethenumberoffluorescent lampsfortheneededlightingreduction.For example,youcan'tlowerthelightlevelofafour-lamp fluorescentfixture25percentbyremovingonelamp. Ifyouremoveonlyonelamp,theremaininglamp poweredbythesameballastwon'tworkandyoumay damagetheballast. Afterdelamping,besuretore-checktheavailable lightattheworksurfacewithalightmeter. Sometimes,adesklamporothersupplemental"task lighting"maybeneeded.Thiscansignificantlylower totalenergycostwithoutsacrificinglightintensity (Figure3).

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page4 Table1.Lightoutputandratedlifeofselectedlamptypes. TypeofLamp1 CommonlyUsed WattageSizes InitialLumensPer Watt2 RatedLife3(hours) INCANDESCENT Standard 60 15 1,000 Standard 100 18 750 Standard 500 22 2,000 Quartz(Halogen) 500 22 2,000 Quartz(Halogen) 1,500 24 2,000 MERCURYVAPOR Self-Ballasted 160 13 12,000 Standard 175 43 24,000+ Standard 400 48 24,000+ FLUORESCENT Compact 9 56 10,000 CircleTube 22 33 12,000 EnergyEfficient(4'coolwhite) 34 69 20,000 Standard(4'coolwhite) 40 66 20,000+ METALHALIDE Standard 400 78 20,000 Hi-Output 400 86 20,000 Hi-Output 1,000 100 20,000 HIGHPRESSURESODIUM Standard 1,000 108 24,000+ LOWPRESSURESODIUM Standard4 1,000 140 20,000 1Lamps(exceptlowpressuresodium)areclearor"white"modelsselectedfromG.E.product cataloguesasrepresentativeofclasses.2Includesballastfactorsof0.15HIDand0.2fluorescent.3Ratedlifeisthepointatwhich1/2ofatestgroupoflampshasburnedout.4LowpressuresodiumlampsarenotmanufacturedintheUnitedStates.

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page5 Table2. Suggestedlightinglevels. Area Approximate LightLevel (footcandles) Offices 75 ConferenceRooms 20-50 Auditoriums 20-50 Kitchens 50(avg.) Cafeterias 10-20 Warehouses/Workshops 10-30 ReceptionAreas 25-30 DraftingRooms 100-200 AccountingOffices 100-200 Corridors/Restrooms 10-20 BankLobby WritingAreas 20-50 GeneralAreas 10-20 TellerStations 50-100 Doctor'sTreatmentAreas 200 StorageRooms 5-50 Stores(general) 30-100 Stores(salesdisplays) 50-150 (Source:1981IlluminatingEngineeringSociety (IES)Handbook)RELAMPINGThequestionofreplacinglampsastheyburnout versusgrouprelampingpersists.Relampinganentire arearequiresgreaterexpense,andmanypeopleare reluctanttodiscardlampsthatarestillfunctioning. Ontheotherhand,ifallthelampsintheareaare neartheendoftheirratedlifeexpectancy,group relampingmaybecosteffectivefortworeasons. First,aslampsgetolder,lightoutputdropsoff significantlywhiletheamountofenergyconsumed remainsthesame.Second,relampinganareaallat oncereduceslaborcosts.Industrystudiesindicate thathalfanhourisneededtochangeasinglelamp, whileacrewassembledtorelampanentireareacan finishthejobinanaverageofabout3minutesper lamp. Energy-efficientballastslastatleasttwiceaslong asstandard"coreandcoil"ballastsandusehalfthe energy(8wattsversus16).Usingenergyefficient lampswithstandardballastsmayreducetheuseful lifeoftheballastandlampslightly,buteconomics alonewillseldomjustifygroupreplacementof ballasts.Ageneralruleistouseonlyenergy-efficient models(about$17to$20)whenreplacingfailed ballasts. Innewinstallationsormajorrenovations,you shouldconsideroneofthenewthree-lampsystems. Oneballastcontrolsthreelampsinsteadoftwo, savingonboththecapitalcostandenergycost.LIGHTINGQUALITYHerearesomekeypointstoconsiderontheissue oflightquality.BrightnessBrightnessisdeterminedbytherelativeamount oflightavailableattheworksurfaceinrelationtothe levelofilluminationinthefieldofview. Theeyesfunctionmostcomfortablyand efficientlywhenthebrightnessrelationships(contrast) arenotexcessive.Thelightatthedesksurface shouldnotbemorethanthreetimestheleveloflight immediatelyaroundthedesk.GlareAvoidconditionsthatcreateglare.Theposition ofthelightsourceinrelationtoboththeviewed surfaceandtheeyeiscritical.Forexample,lightin frontofadeskthatstrikesthesurfaceatthesame angleasitisreflectedintotheeye(veilingreflection) cancreateconsiderableeyestrain.Thebestceiling lightingcomesfromeithersideoftheworksurface.

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page6ColorRendition Figure3.Appropriatetasklighting.Colorrendition,describedearlier,isanother measureoflightquality.Basically,colorrenditionis ameansofcomparingthequalityofcolorsas perceivedundervariousartificiallightstothatsame colorviewedundernaturalsunlight. Withtheadventoffluorescentandhigh-intensity dischargelamps,itbecameobviousthatnotalllamps providethesamerenditionofcolor.Thus,consumers shouldconsiderthetaskbeingperformedandthe importanceofnaturalcolorrenditionbeforeselecting alamptype. Incandescentlampsaregenerallytheclosestto naturalsunlightandlowpressuresodiumlampsgive thepoorestcolorrendition.Therearenew fluorescentsonthemarketthatarealmostascloseto sunlightastheconventionalincandescent.Metal halideeasilyprovidesthebestcolorrenditionamong HIDlamps.VisualComfortVisualcomfortandeaseofseeingaredependent notonlyonbrightness,glareandcolorrendition,but alsoonthefixtureplacementanddesign,andthe amountofcontrastwithinthevisualtask.OTHERCONSIDERATIONS TurningLightsOnandOffTheoldprincipleofleavinglightsoniftheroom isunoccupiedfornolongerthan15minutesno longerholdstrue.Manufacturersnowrecommend thatincandescentsbeturnedoffanytimeyouleave theroom,andfluorescentsbeturnedoffforany periodexceeding2to3minutes. HIDlamps,however,shouldnotbeturnedon andoffforperiodsoflessthanhourbecauseofthe3 to15minuterestarttimerequiredtogetlampsback uptofullintensity.

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page7Reminderstickersbythelightswitchoftenhelp. Somecompanieshaverunpostercontestsandother incentiveprogramstogetemployeestoturnlightsoff inunoccupiedareas.Low-VoltageLightingLow-voltageincandescentsuselessvoltagethan thenormal120voltsmostbusinessesuse.Abuilt-in, step-downtransformerpowersthelampwithaslittle as12volts. Low-voltageincandescentsaredesignedtofocus thelightbeamattheworksurface,soyougetthe lightwhereyouneedit.A25-wattlow-voltagelamp providesasmuchlightasastandard75-watt incandescentlamp.Savingscanbeevengreater becauselow-voltagelampshavealongerlife-span thanstandardincandescents. Theselow-voltagelampsoftenrequirenew fixtures,buttheirtotalcostisstilllowenoughto makethemcost-effectiveformostbusinesses.Long-LifeIncandescentsAlthoughtheselampslastlongerthanstandard incandescentstheyareevenlessefficientthanother incandescentsandshouldbeusedonlyinhard-toreachplaces.Consideracompactfluorescentinstead.EllipticalReflectorLampsIfyounowuse150-wattfloodlampsorstandard incandescentsinrecesseddownlightsorcanfixtures, you'renotgettingallthelightyou'repayingfor. That'sbecausestandardlampsdispersetheirlightin suchawidebeamthatmuchofitstaysinthefixture. Anellipticalreflector(ER)helpssolvethisproblem byfocusingthelightbeamoutsidethefixture,giving youmorelightattheworksurface.Infact,a75-watt ERoftengivesyoubetterlightthana150-wattflood lamp.However,acompactfluorescentwillbestill moreefficient,andmanyofthenewermodelsare designedforrecessedfixtures.Timeclocks,PhotocellsandSensorsAtimeclockturnslightingsystemsonandoffat preselectedtimes.Timeclocksaremosteffective whenusedtocontroloutdoorsignsanddecorative lighting.However,duskanddawnoccuratslightly differenttimeseachday,sotimeclocksmayneed frequentadjustment. Aphotocellwillmakesureyourlightsareononly whenthey'reneededbysensingthenaturallightlevel present.Whenitdeterminesthatthelightlevelistoo low,itturnsthelightson.Whenthesuncomesup, itturnsthelightsoff. Anastronomicaltimeclockwilldothejobofboth aphotocellandatimeclock.Itkeepstrackofthe timeofyearandautomaticallyadjustsforthecorrect sunriseandsunsettimeseachday.Youcanalsoset ittoturnlightsoffatanytimeduringthenightjustas youwouldastandardtimeclock. Occupancysensorsturnlightsonandoffwhen theareaisoccupied.Someareinfrared(heat sensing)technology.othersrelyonmotiondetection byradar-likesoundwaves.CALCULATINGLIGHTINGSAVINGSThefollowingisasimplifiedsavingsformulato helpyoumakelightingdecisions.Thisbasicformula determineslightingsavingsresultingfromchanges (delampingorinstallingmoreefficientlights). ________wattssavedbydelampingorinstalling efficientlamps x________hoursperdayused x________daysperyearused =________watt-hoursperyearsaved 1,000 =________kilowatt-hours(kwh)peryearsaved x$_______averagecostperkwh(indollars;e.g. $.07) =$_______ energydollarsavingsperyearMOREINFORMATIONFormoreinformationonwaystosaveenergyin yourbusinessreadtheFloridaEnergyExtension Servicefactsheets"ReducingOperatingCosts ThroughImprovedEnergyEfficiencyinYour Business--AChecklist"and"EnergyManagementfor SmallBusinesses."TheFloridaEESalsohas factsheetsonenergysavingsinrestaurants,andhotels andmotels.Toreceiveanyofthesefreefactsheetsor

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LightinginSmallBusinesses Page8forinformationonotherwaystosaveenergy,call yourlocalCountyExtensionOfficeorwrite: FloridaEnergyExtensionService 220RolfsHall UniversityofFlorida Gainesville,FL32609 Foradditionalreading,lookforthefollowing publications,availablefromthepublisheroryour locallibraryorbookstore. ASHRAE90-A.AmericanSocietyofHeating, RefrigerationandAirConditioningEngineers, LightingSection,1988. "CommercialEnergyManagementServiceBulletins," SanDiegoGas&ElectricCompany,1985. "ConsultingSpecifyingEngineer" Magazine September1988. IESHandbook, ReferenceVolume.Illuminating EngineeringSocietyofNorthAmerica,1981. Productcatalogues:GeneralElectric,Westinghouse, Sylvania,Widelite,HubbellSupply,1985-89.