Manufactured Housing: Consumers' Guide To Selection And An Energy Efficient Lifestyle

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Title:
Manufactured Housing: Consumers' Guide To Selection And An Energy Efficient Lifestyle
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Cook, Gary D.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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Published
General Note:
"Publication date: July 1991."
General Note:
"EES-55"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004810:00001


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FactSheetEES-55 July1991 ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionand anEnergyEfficientLifestyle1 GaryD.Cook2Thepurposeofthisfactsheetistoprovidethe energy-consciousmanufacturedhomeowneror potentialbuyerwithinformationon: whattolookforwhenbuyingamobilehome. howtoselectanenergy-efficientmanufactured homesite. howtoselectamanufacturedhomepark conducivetoanenergy-efficientlifestyle. whatcanbedonetoimprovetheenergy efficiencyofanexistingmanufacturedhome. Theterm"manufacturedhome"isusedsomewhat synonymouslywithamobilehomeorhousetrailer. Amobilehomeisadwellingbuiltinafactoryonan integralchassisthatcanbetransportedinoneor moresections.Eachsectionisbetween8and14feet wide,andcanbeupto76feetlong(Tables1and2). In1986,one-quarterofallnew,singlefamilyhomes soldinAmericaweremanufacturedhomes.Many manufacturedhomesareusedaspermanent residences;mostarenevermoved.Theirwheels, installedatthefactory,areusedasameansof transportationtothehomesite,atwhichpointthey areusuallyremoved. Somemodularhomesarealsobuiltinfactories. Themaindifferencebetweenmanufacturedand modularhomesisthebuildingcodethatappliesto them.Manufacturedhomesarebuilttofederal standardsandinspectedbyfederallycertified agencies.Modularhomesarebuilttostateandlocal codes.FEDERALSTANDARDSAllmanufacturedhomesbuiltsincethemiddleof 1976conformtotheNationalManufacturedHome ConstructionandSafetyStandardsestablishedby Congress.TheyareadministeredbytheU.S. DepartmentofHousingandDevelopment.Every manufacturedhomehasaredandsilverseal certifyingitwasbuiltincompliancewiththefederal code.Thiscoderegulatesminimumstandardswith respecttodesignandconstruction,strengthand durability,fireresistance,andenergyefficiency. Heating,airconditioning,plumbingandelectrical systemsarealsoregulatedunderthisstandard.It shouldbepointedoutthatthesestandardsgenerally arenotasrigorousasstateandlocalstandards appliedtosite-builthomes.However,somemobile homemanufacturersdoexceedthesefederal standardsorofferspecialupgradepackagesfor additionalcost. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-55,aseriesoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionService,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:July1991. 2.GaryD.Cook,EnergyExtensionSpecialistforBuildingConstruction,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgricultural Sciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheFloridaEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairsandisoperated bytheUniversityofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformation containedhereinistheproductoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheFloridaEnergyOffice. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page2WHATTOLOOKFORWHENBUYINGA Table1. Manufacturedhomepurchasetrends. ManufacturedHomes length width 1984 1985 1986 SingleSection 48'to76' 12'to14'* 71% 67% 63% Multisection 36'to70' 24'to28' 29% 33% 37% *Therearesome16-foot-wide,single-sectionhomesproducedinlimitedmarketareas. Table2. Manufacturedhomepurchaseprices. 1985 1986 TypeofHome Retail$ Average$ Retail$ Average$ SingleSection 8,400to37,000 17,800 8,400to37,000 17,800 Multisection 15,000to70,000 30,100 15,000to70,000 30,800MANUFACTUREDHOMEShoparoundforthemanufacturedhomeofyour choice.Comparecost,floorplandesign,energy efficiency,andinteriorandexteriordecor.Don't hesitatetofindoutthedetailsofitsconstruction methodsandmaterials.Areliabledealerwillbe happytoexplainthemtoyou.Besurethatall warrantyandapplianceinstructionbooklets,and homeownerandsetupmanualsareinthehome. Bewareofanewmanufacturedhomethatdoesnot displayalabelcertifyingcodecompliance.(Allsingle familymanufacturedhomesmustbearacertification labelwhichisdisplayedontherearofthehome.A labelisrequiredforeachsectionofthehome.) Othercommonstandardandoptionalfeatures availablefrommostmanufacturersarelisted.While noteveryfeatureisavailablefromeachmanufacturer, mostare.Checkwithyourdealertoseewhathis manufactureroffers.TypicalStandardFeaturesTheseinclude2"x4"exteriorstudwallsat16" O.C.;2"x3"interiorstudwallsat16"O.C.;solid2" x6"transversefloorsystem;structurallyengineered, full-lengthI-beams;plywoodfloordecking;certified trussrafters;shingleroof;pre-finishedsiding;20gallonwaterheater;100-ampelectricpanel;carpet withpadthroughout(exceptkitchenandutility); smokedetectors;vaporbarrieratroof;drapes, curtainsandrods;R7-7-14insulation(floor-wallsroof);silentlightwallswitches;gasfurnace;30"range withhood;refrigerator;egresswindowsinall bedroomsandbathrooms;90"sidewallheight; detachablehitch;copperwiringthroughout; overhangs;exteriorreceptacleswithGFI;exterior lightsatallexits.TypicalOptionsTheseincludeinsulationupgrades;insulated windows;infiltrationbarrier;applianceupgrades; overheadducts;heatpumpsystem;furniture packages;woodentrydoor;interiorfinishupgrades; exteriorfinishupgrades.EnergyEfficientOptionsEnergyoptionsshouldbeselectedonthebasisof effectiveness,comfort,andaesthetics.Tobecost effective,asimplepaybackshouldbeachievedin approximatelysixyears.Todeterminepayback,the estimatedannualenergysavingsshouldbedivided intothetotalcostofinstallation.Ifthisvalueissix orless,thenitisawiseinvestment.Theestimated savingsoftheenergyoptionmaybeobtainedfrom themanufacturer,salesstaff,orutilitycompany-usuallyasaserviceatnocost. Generallyspeaking,insulationupgrades,appliance upgrades,andmoreefficientheating,waterheating, andairconditioningsystemsarewiseinvestments.In Florida,installinginsulatedwindowsmaynotbecost effective;however,installationoftintedglass,solar screens,orawningsontheeastandwestwindowsmay beagoodinvestmentandalsoimprovecomfort. Insulatedskirtingisalsoconsideredareasonably goodinvestmentbecauseitcan:

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page3 improvetheenergyefficiencyofthehomeby diminishingheattransferthroughthefloor. assistinpreventingthewaterpipesfromfreezing inthewinter,particularlyinnorthFlorida. Priortoinstallingtheskirting,placeaplastic vaporbarrierthatissixmillimetersthickonthe groundunderthemobilehome,andtheninstallthe insulatedskirting.Thiswillpreventwatervaporfrom migratingupthroughthegroundandfloorofthe mobilehome. Ifpossible,theairconditioningsystemshould haveaSeasonalEnergyEfficiencyRatio(SEER-an indicatorofefficiency)equaltoorgreaterthan8.5. Theefficiencyofaheatpumpisbasedona CoefficientofPerformance(COP)--thehigherthe COP,themoreefficientthesystem.ACOPof2.5or greatershouldbeconsidered. Ifpossible,naturalgasheatingandwaterheating shouldbeselectedoverotheroptionsbecauseofthe lowenergycostandrapidheatavailableinthese systems.Naturalgascookingisalsoawiseenergy andconvenienceoption.Naturalgasisconsiderably lessexpensivethanliquidpetroleumgas(LPG)such aspropaneorbutane.AheatpumpwithaCOPof 2.5orgreaterismorecostefficientthanaLPG system.Waterheatersshouldhaveextrainsulation wrappedaroundthemtoimprovetheirthermal integrity.PRICES,FINANCING,INSURANCE, CONTRACTS,ANDFEES PricesTherearemanysourcesforfinancingyour manufacturedhomeinadditiontodealerfinancing. Shoparoundforthebestfinanceandinsuranceplan, ascostswillvary.Pricesofmanufacturedhousing varysignificantlydependinguponsize,qualityof construction,optionschosen,andmanufacturer. Pricescanrangeanywherefrom$12,000to$60,000. Table3providesacomparisonofcostsbetween manufacturedhousingandsite-builthomesfrom1982 through1986.FinancingBanks,creditunions,andsavingsandloan associationsarenowmakingloansformobilehomes. Mobilehomescanalsobepurchasedunderthe FederalHousingAuthority(FHA)orVeterans Administration(VA)loanguaranteeprograms. Downpaymentsrangefromnodownpaymentunder VAregulationsto20-30%underachattelmortgage plan.Mortgagelengthsvary,butaregenerally between10and15years,dependinguponthetypeof homeandfinancing. TheFederalTruthinLendingLawrequiresthe lendertodisclosetheannualpercentagerateyouare beingcharged.Getthisinwriting.InsuranceIfyoufinanceyourmobilehome,youmusthavefire andtheftinsurance.Thebuyermayalsowishto securepersonalbelongingsandlifeinsurance coverage.Again,itiswisetoshoparoundforthe bestinsuranceplansandtochooseareputable company.ContractsBesureyouunderstandwhichitemsonthecontract areyourresponsibility,whichitemsarethedealer's responsibility,andthatallitemsareclearlydefined. Donotleaveanyblankspacesonthecontract,andbe certainthatALLtheitemsthatyouandthedealer haveagreedtoarecoveredbythecontract.Donot relyonoralagreements.Readtheentirecontract beforesigningit,andbesuretosaveacompleted copyforyourrecords.Ifyouplaceadepositona homeanddonotcompletethesale,youmayforfeit partofyourdeposit,dependingonyourcontractual agreement.Ifthepurchaseiscontingentuponthe saleofyourpresenthome,thisconditionshouldbe notedonallcopiesofthecontract,andinitialedby bothparties.Ifthedealeristoretainthe"running gear"fromyourhome,thismustalsobestatedonthe contract.TagandTitleAnannualstatelicensefeeisassessedbythe DepartmentofHighwaySafetyandMotorVehicles, baseduponthesizeofyourmobilehome.Alicense plateplacedonthebackbracketofyourmobilehome showsthisfeeispaid.Sincethemanufacturedhome maybetreatedasamotorvehicle,itrequiresa certificateoftitleasproofofownership.Thereisa separatetitledocumentforeach"section"ofyour manufacturedhome.Ifyoumanufacturedhomehas beenpaidforinfull,youwillreceivethetitle(s)from Tallahassee.Ifthereisalienonyourhome,thelien holderwillreceivethetitle,andholdituntilthelien amounthasbeenpaid.Ifyouownthelandonwhich yourmanufacturedhomeislocated,youmaydeclare

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page4thehometobe"realproperty"(RP)andhaveit ManufacturedHomes 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 AverageSales $19,700 21,000 21,500 21,800 22,400 (alllengthsandwidths) CostperS.F. 19.70 20.29 20.48 20.57 20.18 AverageS.F. 1,000 1,035 1,060 1,060 1,110 SingleSection AverageSales $17,200 17,600 17,700 17,800 17,800 CostperS.F. 19.01 19.13 19.03 18.84 18.84 AverageS.F. 905 920 930 945 945 Multisection AverageSales $28,400 30,500 30,450 30,100 30,800 CostperS.F. 21.52 22.59 22.30 21.97 22.08 AverageS.F. 1,320 1,350 1,364 1,370 1,395 Site-BuiltHomes AverageSales $83,900 89,800 97,600 100,800 111,900 LandPrice* 16,780 17,960 19,520 20,160 22,380 PriceofStructure 67,120 71,840 78,080 80,640 89,520 CostperS.F. 39.25 41.65 43.87 45.18 49.05 AverageS.F. 1,710 1,725 1,780 1,785 1,825 Source:U.S.DepartmentofCommerceandJohnWhitneyAssoc. *NationalAssociationofHomeBuildersResearchFoundationplacedonthetaxrollsofyourcounty.Yourtaxes wouldthenbepaidinthesamewayasconventional hometaxesarepaid.Ifyourenttheland,ordonot wishtodeclareyourhomeasRP,youmustpurchase anddisplayadecaleachyearforeachsectionofyour manufacturedhome.SELECTINGADEALERIfyoupurchaseanewmanufacturedhome,the dealermustbelicensedwiththeDivisionofMotor Vehicles.Usedmanufacturedhomesmaybesoldby licenseddealers,realestatebrokers(ifthelandis includedinthesale),ortheowner,justaswithsitebuilthomes. Thechoiceofamanufacturedhomedealerisas importantastheselectionofyourhome,sinceyou willberelyingonhisjudgementandexpertise,not onlyintheselectionofahome,butinanyfuture servicethatmayberequired.Askyourdealerforthe namesofformercustomers,andtalktothemabout theirpurchases.AlsocheckwiththeDivisionof ConsumerServices(1-800-342-2176)andyourlocal DivisionofMotorVehiclesofficetoseeifcomplaints havebeenfiledagainstthebusinessandifso,how theywereresolved.ServiceFloridalawrequiresboththedealerandthe manufacturertowarrantanewmanufacturedhome foroneyearfromthedateofdelivery.Ifyourhome needsserviceduringthistime,contactyourdealer. Hewillarrangeforrepairs,eitherwithhisown employees,oriftheworkisthemanufacturer's responsibility,hecanassistyouinnotifyingthem.If

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page5youfeelthatthedealerand/ormanufacturerisnot responsive,youmayfileawrittencomplaintwiththe DivisionofMotorVehiclesinTallahassee.Theyhave theauthoritytorequirethatrepairsbemadetoyour homesothatitwillbeincompliancewithHUD standards.HOWTOCHOOSEAPARK PlacingorSitingtheMobileHome forEnergyEfficiencyPlacementofthemobilehomeonasitecanbe veryimportantintermsofsavingenergy.Themobile homeshouldbeplacedonasitesothatthelongaxis runseastandwestandthehomefacessouthornorth. Thistypeofplacementcanbeasmuchas20%more energyefficientthanotherplacement.Exposureof thehome'swallstotheharshsunisthusminimized. Ifpossible,thehomeshouldalsobesituatedsothat treesprovideshade.Manymobilehomeparksoffer attractive,shadedlots.Mobilehomesareparticularly susceptibletoradiantheatgainfromthesun, thereforeanykindofshadingisanattractiveoption. Otheroptionstoconsiderwouldbeplacementof anoverhangorapatioareaonthesouthandwest sidesofthehome.Also,awningsorsolarscreens placedontheeastandwestwindowsprovidecomfort andadditionalenergysavings.Beforeinvestingina manufacturedhome,besureyouhaveaplacetoput it. Ifyouareconsideringresidenceina manufacturedhomecommunity,visitvarious communitiesandcomparewhattheyhavetooffer. Amongthechoicesare: rentingthelot, purchasingthelot, livingincondominiumorcooperative communities. Priortoagreeingtoanything,besureyouread andunderstandthetermsoftheleaseandtherules andregulationsofthecommunity.Youwillhaveto abidebythem.Talkwithsomeofthecommunity residentsabouttheirexperienceswiththecommunity anditsmanagement.Ifleasingthelot,findoutthe amountofrent,whatitincludes,andhowoftenitis raised. UnderFloridalaw,theparkmustnotifythe tenantsinwritingofanychangesinfees,charges,or rulesorregulationsatleast30dayspriortothe implementationdate.TheFloridaMobileHome LandlordandTenantAct(FMHLTA)appliesto tenanciesinwhichamanufacturedhomeisplaced uponarentedlotinamanufacturedhomecommunity of10ormorelots.TheFMHLTAaddressesthe rightsandresponsibilitiesofbothhomeownersand communityownersandisavailableasapublicservice fromtheDivisionofConsumerServices,Department ofAgriculture,MayoBuilding,Tallahassee,FL 32399-0800,(1-800-342-2176).EnergyEfficientLifestyleManymobilehomeparksprovidetheirdwellers withamenitiesthatareconducivetoanenergyefficientlifestyle.Theseincludeconveniencestores locatedonthepremises,shoppingareas,malls, affordablerestaurants,andmedicalfacilitieslocated nearby.Themoresophisticatedparksoffernursing facilities;recreationalfacilitiessuchastenniscourts, golfcourses,swimmingpools,andspas;and clubhousesfordances,bridge,meetings,andother socialfunctions.Parkswiththesefacilitiesprovidean energy-efficientlifestylebecausemostofthemcanbe reachedbywalking.Minimizinguseofanautomobile savestimeandgas,andprovidesexercise.AddingEnergyEfficientFeatures toanExistingHomeThereareseveralthingsanenergy-conscious mobilehomeoccupantcandotoimproveenergy performance.Alow-costandreasonablyhighpaybackoptionthatwillimprovenotonlytheenergy performanceofthehomebutalsotheappearanceof thesiteistheuseofenergy-efficientlandscaping. Plantingfast-growingtreesonabaresitecanprovide savingsinjustafewyears.Evergreenslocatedonthe northandnorthwestofamobilehomeareabarrier againstcoldwinds.Shrubberycanbestrategically plantedtochannelprevailingsummerbreezesintothe home,oritcanbeplacedclosetothehomeonthe northsidetoreduceinfiltrationandtheeffectofthe northwind.Thesestrategiessaveenergythatwould otherwisebeneedforheating.Yourcounty cooperativeextensionagentwillbeabletoadviseyou astothetypeandlocationoftreesandshrubbery bestsuitedforyourneeds. Patiosandporchesareoptionsthatprovideshade andmayimprovethevalueofyourmobilehome. Placementoftheporchonthesouth,east,orwest sideofthemobilehomewillprovideshadefromthe

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page6sunandaplaceforrelaxationandcomfort.Shading theeastandwestwindowscanalsoprovide considerablesavingsandimproveyourcomfortinthe roomshavingthosewindows. Theuseofsolarscreenswithashadingcoefficient of0.5orlessisdesirableforsingle-anddouble-hung windows.Theshadingcoefficientindicateshowmuch radiantheatfromthesunisallowedtoenterthe home.Ashadingcoefficientof0.5willonlyallow 50%ofthesun'senergytoenterahome;ashading coefficientof0.3willallow30%oftheradiantenergy toenterthehome.Ifamobilehomehasawning windows,theuseofsolarscreensisnotaseffective becausetheycanbeplacedonlyontheinsideofthe glass.Ashadeshouldbeplacedontheoutside.Use ofsolarfilmmaybemoreappropriateonawning windows.Again,thisfilmshouldbeplacedonthe exterioroftheglassformaximumeffectiveness,and shouldhaveashadingcoefficientof0.5orlower. TheuseofBahamaorBermudashades,or awningscanalsobeeffectiveforwindowsontheeast andwestexposures.Inaddition,theseshadesand awningsprotectagainstwinddamagefromstorms. Inthewinter,plasticmaybecuttofitaroundthe windowscreens.Normallythesescreenscanbe removed.Bywrappingtheminplasticfilm,aneffect similartoaddingstormwindowswillbeachieved. Thisisalowcostoptionthatwillalsoassistin preventingcoldwindfromenteringthroughcracks aroundthewindow.Yourcountyextensionagenthas factsheetsthataddressimprovingthermal performanceofwindows,includingthisparticular option. Theadditionofinsulatedskirtingformobile homesormanufacturedhousingbuiltoff-gradeisan attractiveenergysavingoptionthatimprovesthe appearanceofthehomesite.Priortoinstallingthe skirting,avaporbarriershouldbeplaceddirectlyon theground.Thisbarrierwillpreventmoisturefrom migratingintothemobilehomethroughthefloor. Insulatedskirtingwillreduceheatlossduringthe winterandheatgainduringthesummerthatnormally comesthroughthefloor.Itwillalsoassistin preventingwaterpipesfromfreezinginthewinter. Employmentofoscillatingfansand,where clearancesallow,ceilingfansshouldbeconsidered. Ceilingoroscillatingfanscanprovidecomfort,even whenthetemperaturesarerelativelyhigh(inthe rangeof83-85F),thusdelayingtheuseofthemore energyconsumingairconditioningunits. Waterheatersshouldbewrappedwithextra insulation.Manyutilitycompaniesprovideinsulated blanketsforwaterheatersatnoadditionalcost.Even iftheyhavetobepurchased,thecostwillusuallypay foritselfthroughsavingswithinafewmonths.Ifa waterheaterisoldandneedstobereplaced,replace itwithamoreenergy-efficienttype.Ifnaturalgasis available,thisshouldbeconsideredoverelectric waterheaters. Iftheairconditioningunitneedstobereplaced, considerationshouldbegiventoupgradingthe efficiencyofthereplacementmodeltoanair conditionerratedwithanSEERof8.5orhigher. Properlysizinganairconditionersystemisvery importantalso.Iftheairconditioningisoversized,it tendstocooltheairtothedesiredtemperature quickly,withoutremovingthewatervapor.Thiscan createhighhumidityandmildewproblems.Properly sizedunitsprovidethelongerrunningtimesnecessary tolowerthehumidity. Ifyourmobilehomeormanufacturedhomehas aheatpump,considerareplacementmodelwitha COPof2.5orbetter. Naturalgasheatingprovidesthequickestand leastexpensiveformofheating.Ifyourmobilehome ormanufacturedhomeiscurrentlyequippedwith LPGheating,orwaterheatingsystems,consider modifyingtheseunitstoacceptnaturalgas,if available.Paybackforthisconversionisveryquick, usuallylessthenamonth.Unfortunatelymanyareas ofFlorida,particularlyruralareas,donothave naturalgasavailable. Usingelectricblanketsduringthewintercan providelocalizedcomfort,enablingthemobilehome ownertolowerthethermostatsettingatnight. Insteadofheatingthewholehome,onlythebedand occupantsareheatedbytheelectricblanket. Considerableenergycanbesavedbythisstrategy. Forconvenience,asetbackthermostatmaybe purchased.Thisthermostatcanbeautomaticallyset sothatthetemperaturesettingisloweredafterthe occupantsareinbedandthenisreturnedtonormal priortothemwaking,providinganicecozyhome. Portableheaterscanalsoprovidelocalized comfort.Beforepurchasingwoodstovesorportable gas,electric,oroilheaters,carefulconsideration

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ManufacturedHousing:Consumers'GuidetoSelectionandanEnergyEfficientLifestyle Page7shouldbegiventothesafetyandefficiencyofthis equipment.Mostofthenewerportableheatersand stoveshaveextensivesafetyfeaturesbuiltin,as requiredbyfederalregulations.Efficienciesvary frommodeltomodelsotheseshouldbeevaluatedon acostversusenergysavingsbasis.TIE-DOWNREQUIREMENTSAllmanufacturedhomesarerequiredtobetied downinaccordancewiththespecificationsprovided bythemanufacturer.Thehomepurchaseprice generallyincludestransportationandinstallationon thehomesite.Inthecaseofausedhome,andinthe absenceofthemanufacturer'stie-downinstructions, thehomemustbetieddowninaccordancewiththe specificationsdevelopedbytheDepartmentof HighwaySafetyandMotorVehicles,rule15C-1.10. Eachcountyisresponsibleforassuringcompliance withthetie-downregulations. Tohelpanswersomeofthequestionsprospective buyersmighthave,buyerscanpickupafreecopyof "HowToBuyAManufacturedHome"fromlocal retailers.Thebookletispublishedbythe ManufacturedHousingInstitute(MHI)in cooperationwiththeFederalTradeCommission's OfficeofConsumerandBusinessEducation. The"How-to"bookisacompleteguidetobuying amanufacturedhome--takingthehomebuyer throughtheprocessesofselectingthehome;choosing alocationforthehome;preparingthehomesite; transportingandinstallingthehome;andfinally, inspectingthehomeandunderstandingwarranties. This24-pageguidealsoincludesachecklistforthe homebuyertofollowstep-by-stepthroughthe purchaseandinstallationprocess. Inadditiontobeingavailablefromlocal manufacturedhomeretailers,copiesof"HowToBuy AManufacturedHome"arealsoavailableforasmall handlingfeefromtheConsumerInformationCenter, Department453P,Pueblo,CO81009.REFERENCESCook,GaryD. AGuidetoResidentialEnergy EfficiencyinFlorida .Gainesville,FL:Instituteof FoodandAgriculturalSciences(IFAS)in cooperationwiththeGovernor'sEnergyOffice, 1987. DepartmentofHighwaySafety&MotorVehicles. BeforeYouBuyaMobileHome .... 1986. ManufacturedHousingInstitute. 1987QuickFacts AbouttheManufacturedHousingIndustry ManufacturedHousingInstitute. HowtoBuya ManufacturedHome.1986. Muir,MarkA."MobileHomeEnergyIssuesRelated toAffordabilityandComfortintheStateof Florida."AMaster'sDegreereportpresentedto theGraduateSchoolattheUniversityofFlorida, April1988.