Energy Efficiency For Condominiums: A Guide For Apartment Owners

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Energy Efficiency For Condominiums: A Guide For Apartment Owners
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Fact sheet
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Messenger, R.A.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"Publication date: November 1991."
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"EES-10"

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FactSheetEES-10 November1991 EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums: AGuideForApartmentOwners1 R.A.MessengerandRobertS.CurlandAssociates2INTRODUCTIONThisguidebookcontainssuggestionswhichwill helpyousaveenergyandmoneyintheoperationof yourFloridacondominium.Someofthe recommendationsaremaintenancetips,whileothers aresimplethingsyoucandotocututilitycosts withoutsacrificingcomfort. Theguidereviewstheeffectivenessofsuch energy-savingitemsasceilingfansortimersforair conditioningunits.Particularattentionisgivento howonesystemaffectsanotherforexample,the effectofabathroomexhaustfanonairconditioning. Manycondominiumownershavetriedoneor moreoftheserecommendationsandaresaving energyandmoneyasaresult.Wehopethis guidebookwillalsohelpyou.AIRCONDITIONINGInmostFloridaresidences,airconditioning equipmentusesmoreelectricitythandoesanything else.Thissectioncontainsideasonhowtogetmore coolingforyourenergydollar.Therearefourmain waystocutyourairconditioningcosts. 1.Reducetheamountofheatandmoisture enteringtheconditionedspacebycaulking andweatherstripping. 2.Raisethethermostattemperaturesetting. 3.Gowithoutairconditioningwhenever possible. 4.Increasetheoperatingefficiencyoftheair conditioner. Thefirstthreewaysaresimplebutvery important.Checkingtheoperatingefficiencyofthe airconditionerisequallyimportant,butalittlemore difficult.Thissectionprovidesyouwithastep-by-step guide.WindowUnits FILTERSCleaningorreplacingairfiltersisimportantand easy,butneedstobedonesooftenthatpayinga servicemanwouldnotbeeconomical. Thefilterofawindow/wallunitislocateddirectly behindthefrontcover.Inmostunits,thefrontcover snapsinplaceandisremovedbygraspingthetopor bottomcornersandpullingitout.Ifthecoveroffers 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-10,aseriesoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionService,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:November1991. 2.R.A.Messenger,Ph.D.,P.E.,andProjectDirector,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,Universityof Florida,GainesvilleFL32611;andRobertS.CurlandAssociates,ConsultingEngineers. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheFloridaEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairsandisoperatedbythe UniversityofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformationcontainedherein istheproductoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheFloridaEnergyOffice. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page2unusualresistance,checkforscrewsholdingitin place. Removethefilterandholdituptothelight.If atleast25percentofthelightisvisiblethroughthe filter,youcanreusethefilter.Ifthelightislessthan 25percent,thenthefiltershouldbecleanedor replaced.Noteespeciallyanycoatingoflintor materialotherthandirtwhichmayclogthefilterand reduceairflow. EstimatedSavings:Dirtyfiltersaddupto10percent toairconditioneroperatingcosts.COILSInspectthecoolingcoilsandthecondensercoils fordirt.Thecoolingcoilsremoveheatfromtheair andtransferittothecondensingcoils.Thecooling coilsarevisiblefromthefrontoftheunitwhenthe frontcoverisremoved. Thecondensercoilsarenearthebackoftheunit andareusuallyinaccessibleunlesstheunitis withdrawnfromitsoutercase. Dirtaccumulationonthecoilsandthefinsofthe fanassemblywillreducethecoolingcapacityofthe unit.Thecoilsandthefanassemblycanbebrushed outorcleanedwithavacuumcleanernozzle. EstimatedSavings:Dirtycoolingcoilscanadd10 percenttotheoperatingcostsofanairconditioning unit.Dirtycondensercoilscanaddasmuchas50 percenttooperatingcosts.COOLINGCAPACITYInspectthefanandmeasurethetemperatureof thecooledair.Mostfanmotorsareself-lubricated, buttheysometimesgetdirtyandslowdown.Airflow canalsobereducedbydirtyfanblades.Inaddition, theunitsometimeslosesfreon,whichdecreases efficiency.Thefollowingprocedureisusefulin detectinginefficientoperation,andislogically performedaftercleaningthecoolingcoils,the condensingcoils,andthefanassembly. Unplugtheunitandmanuallyspinthefan.It shouldrotatefreelyandsmoothly.Ifitturnswith somedifficulty,refertotheowner'smanualforoiling instructions. Withtheunitreassembledandrunning,measure thetemperatureofthecooledairandthenthe temperatureoftheroomair.Ifthecooledair temperatureismorethan20coolerthanthatofthe roomair,thefanisprobablyrunningtooslowly.If thecooledairtemperatureislessthan10coolerthan thatoftheroomair,theunitmightbelowonfreon. Thesetwoproblemsnormallyrequirerepairbya qualifiedserviceperson. EstimatedSavings:Slowfanspeedordirtyfanblades canincreasetheoperatingcostsofanairconditioner by15percent.CONDENSERAIRDISCHARGETesttheairdischargefromthecondenseronthe outsideoftheunitwithathermometertoseeifthe hotairiscirculatingbackintotheintake.Thisis calledshortcircuiting,andcanresultiftheunitis locatedagainstafenceorissurroundedwithshrubs nearawall.Ifshortcircuitingisoccurring,theair temperatureattheintakewillbehigherthanthe outsidetemperature. EstimatedSavings:Shortcircuitingofthecondenser aircanincreaseoperatingcostsbyasmuchas100 percent.Built-inUnitsTherearebasicallytwotypesofbuilt-inair conditioningsystems.Theseareair-to-airsystems andair-to-watersystems.AIR-TO-AIRSPLITSYSTEMSAir-to-airsplitairconditioningsystemshavetwo boxestheairhandler/evaporatorunit(AHU) locatedinsidethedwellingandthe compressor/condenserunitlocatedoutside,oftenon theroof.Theyaresubjecttothesamemalfunctions aswindowunits,butaccessfortestingpurposesis slightlydifferent.FiltersReplaceorcleanfilterswhentheyaredirty.The airhandlerunit(AHU)isusuallylocatedabovea droppedceilinginanatticoracloset.Thefilterwill belocatedsomewhereinthereturn-airline.

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page3IftheAHUisoverhead,areturn-airgrillewillbe locatedintheceilingandthefilterwillbelocated immediatelybehindthereturn-airgrille. IftheAHUisinaninsidecloset,theairreturn willmostlikelybethelouvereddoortothecloset.In thiscase,thefilterwillbelocatedeitheratthe bottomoronthesideoftheunit. IftheAHUislocatedinaclosetwhichopens intoahallway,thereturnairgrillewillopenintothe interiorofthecondominium,butthefilterwill probablybelocatedatthebottomoftheAHU, dependingonwhetherornotthereturnairpasses throughaducttotheAHU. Onceyouhavelocatedthefilter,takeitoutand holdituptothelight.Ifatleast25percentofthe lightisvisiblethroughthefilter,youcanreusethe filter.Ifthelightislessthan25percent,thefilter shouldbecleanedorreplaced.Trywashingthefilter withahose,orundertheshower.Ifitcomesout cleanandretainsitsshapeafteritdries,itcanbe reused.Besuretonotethedimensionsofthefilter ifitneedstobereplaced.NEVERoperateanAHU withoutafilter. EstimatedSavings:Dirtyfiltersaddupto10percent toairconditioningoperatingcosts.CoilsInspectthecoolingcoilsandcondensercoilsfor dirt.Gainingaccesstothecoolingcoilsissometimes difficult.Thecoilsarelocatedinsidetheairhandler unit(AHU)andresembleanautomobileradiator. Gettingaccesstothecoolingcoilsinvolvesremoving oneormoresidepanelsoftheAHU. Ifyoudecidetoinspectorcleanyourcooling coils,twoveryimportantrulesmustbefollowed: 1)NEVERREMOVESCREWSORPANELS UNLESSALLPOWERTOTHEUNITIS SHUTOFF 2)NEVERREMOVEANYPARTSUNLESS YOUARECONFIDENTYOUCANPUT THEMBACKAGAIN. Ifthecoilsareaccessible,vacuumthemclean,being carefulnottobendanyofthefins. Thecondensercoilsarelocatedinthe compressor/condenserunitoutdoors.Thecoils frequentlygetcloggedwithdirt,grass,leaves,pebbles, andotherdebris.Thecondensercoilsalsolooklike anautomobileradiatorandcanbecleanedwitha vacuumcleaner,waterhose,orbrush.Again,take carenottobendorpuncturethefinsortubing. EstimatedSavings:Dirtycoolingcoilscanadd10 percenttooperatingcosts;dirtycondensercoilscan addupto50percent.CoolingCapacityMaketemperaturechecks.Improper temperaturesindicateproblems.Trythetemperature measurementsthatarelistedbelow. Inside: Measureandrecordthetemperaturenearthe return-airgrille(roomair). Measureandrecordthetemperatureofthe airleavingeachsupplygrille(coldair)by insertingthethermometerintothegrille. Thecoolairtemperatureshouldbe15to20F coolerthanthereturnair.Thetemperatureateach supplygrilleshouldbewithin2Fofthetemperature atallothersupplygrilles.Ifthedifferencebetween supplyandreturnairexceeds20Forislessthan 10F,youmightwanttohaveaservicepersoncheck outyoursystem. Outside: Measuretheoutsideairtemperaturewiththe thermometershaded. Measurethecondensingunitintakeair temperature. Measurethecondensingunitexhaustair temperature. Theintakeairtemperatureshouldbethesameas theoutsideairtemperature.Ifitishigher,someof theexhaustairisgettingdrawnbackintotheintake. Thiscanhappenifshrubs,trees,overhangs,fences,or wallsarechannelingtheexhaustbackaroundtothe intake.Theobstructingobjectshouldbemovedif thisishappening. Exhaustairshouldbe10to20Fwarmerthan intakeair.Ifthisisnotthecase,thecondensingunit maynotbeoperatingproperly. EstimatedSavings:Interferenceswithcooling capacitycanadd5to50percenttooperatingcosts, dependingupontheproblem.

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page4AIR-TO-WATERSYSTEMSInanair-to-watersystem,heatisremovedfrom insideairandtransferredtowaterratherthanto outsideair.Thecondensingcoilisreplacedbyaheat exchangerinwhichwaterremovesheatfromthe refrigerantwhich,inturn,hasremovedheatfromthe dwelling. Air-to-waterunitsareoftenself-contained,and lookliketheinsideairhandlerunitsofair-to-air systems.Self-containedunitsareespeciallypopular innewermid-riseandhigh-risecondominiums,where itisundesirabletohavecompressorunitsonthe groundorontheroof.Theseunitshavewaterlines, ratherthanrefrigerantlines.Thelinesareusually rubberhosesequippedwithshut-offvalves. Someair-to-watersystemsaresplitsystemsin whichthecompressorandheatexchangerarelocated outsidethebuilding.Thisismorecommoninlowriseunits.FiltersReplaceorcleanfilterswhentheyaredirty.The airhandlerunit(AHU)isusuallylocatedabovea droppedceiling,inanatticorcloset.Thefilterwill belocatedsomewhereinthereturn-airline. IftheAHUisinaninsidecloset,theairreturn willprobablybethelouvereddoortothecloset.In thiscase,thefilterwillusuallybelocatedontheside nearthetopoftheunit. IftheAHUisoverhead,areturn-airgrillewillbe locatedintheceilingandthefilterwillbelocated immediatelybehindthereturn-airgrille. IftheAHUislocatedinaclosetwhichopens intoahallway,thereturn-airgrillewillopenintothe interiorofthecondominium,butthefilterwill probablybelocatedatthesideoftheAHU, dependingonwhetherornotthereturnairpasses throughaducttotheAHU. Removethefilterandholdituptothelight.If atleast25percentofthelightisvisiblethroughthe filter,youcanreusethefilter.Ifthelightislessthan 25percent,thefiltershouldbecleanedorreplaced. Youmaybeabletowashthefilterwithahose,or undertheshower.Ifitcomesoutcleanandretains itsshapeafteritdries,itcanbereused.Besureto notethedimensionsofthefilterbeforeyoubuya replacement.NEVERoperateanAHUwithouta filter. EstimatedSavings:Dirtyfilterscanaddupto10 percenttotheairconditioningoperatingcost.CoilsInspectthecoolingcoilsfordirt.Thecooling coilsareinsidetheunit.Ifthefilterisontheside, TURNOFFTHEPOWER,andremovethetop panel.Thecoolingcoilslooklikeanautomobile radiator. Ifthecoilsareaccessible,vacuumthemclean, beingcarefulnotto bendanyofthefins. NEVERREMOVEANYSCREWSUNLESS ALLPOWERTOTHEUNITHASBEENSHUT OFFALSO,NEVERREMOVEANYSCREWS UNLESSYOUARECONFIDENTTHATYOU CANPUTTHEMBACKAGAIN. EstimatedSavings:Dirtycoolingcoilscanadd10 percenttooperatingcosts.CoolingCapacityImpropertemperaturesindicateproblems.Try thetemperaturemeasurementslistedbelow. AirTemperatureChecks: Measureandrecordthetemperaturenearthe returngrille(roomair).Measureandrecordthe temperatureoftheairleavingeachsupplygrille(cold air)byinsertingthethermometerintothegrille. Thecoolairtemperatureshouldbe15to20F coolerthanthereturnairtemperature.Ateach supplygrillethetemperatureshouldbewithin2Fof thetemperatureatallothersupplygrilles.Ifthe differencebetweenthesupplyairandthereturnair exceeds20Forislessthan10F,youmightwantto haveaservicepersoncheckoutyoursystem. WaterTemperatureChecks: Measureandrecordtheinletwater temperature.Placeathermometerincontact withthemetalpipeneartheunitandwrapa pieceofinsulationorapotholderaroundthe thermometerandpipe.Theinsulationwrap insuresthatthetemperatureofthewaterin

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page5thepipeisbeingmeasuredratherthanthe temperatureofthesurroundings. Measureandrecordtheoutletwater temperatureinasimilarfashion. Bothoftheabovemeasurementsshouldbemade whiletheunitisrunning.Thecoolerpipeisthe watersupplyandthewarmeroneisthewaterreturn. Thesupplywatertemperatureshouldnotbeabove 85F,andthereturnwatershouldnotexceedthe supplytemperaturebymorethan10F. Ifthereturnwatertemperatureismorethan10F warmerthanthesupply,thecirculationrateis probablytoolow.Thiscanbecausedbyclogging withintheheatexchangerorbylowpressureinthe waterline.Amaintenancepersonshouldbecalledto checkit. Ifthereturnwatertemperatureismuchlessthan 10Fwarmerthanthesupply,itmaynotberemoving enoughheat.Again,thesystemshouldbechecked. EstimatedSavings:Interferenceswithcooling capacitycanadd5to50percenttooperatingcosts, dependingontheproblem.CentralSystemsWindowunits,air-to-airunits,andair-to-water unitscomprisethemajorityofcondominiumair conditioners,butothertypesofsystemsareused occasionally.Ingeneral,thesesystemsprovidechilled watertoeachdwellingfromasingle,centralchiller system.Individualapartmentsystemsconsistoffan coilunitsinwhichdwellingairiscooledbyblowingit acrossachilledwatercoil. Othersystemsinvolveacentralairconditioning unitwhichsuppliescoolairtoallunitsinthe building.Ineithercase,maintenanceshouldbe handledbycondominiummaintenancepersonnel.SunControlThemajorsourceofheatgainisdirectsunlight shiningthroughwindows.Beforepurchasinganyof thefollowingitems,checkwithyourcondominium associationtobesurethattherulesoftheassociation donotprohibittheiruse.WINDOWDRAPERIESDrapesreducetheheatingeffectfromthesunby asmuchas40percent,dependingontheexposure. Blackoutdrapes,whichhaveasemi-reflectingsurface, aremoreeffectivethansemitransparentdrapes.If theyareheavyenough,theyarealsousefulforwinter insulation. Fordrapestobeeffective,aclosedvalanceshould beused,andthedrapesshouldextendtothefloor andbereasonablytaut.Thisisbecausethesunheats theairbetweentheglassandthedrape.Sincethis warmairislighterthanthecolderairintheroom,it risesbetweenthewindowandthedrape,andflows intotheceilingspace.Ifthiswarmairnearthe ceilingisdisturbedbytheairsupplyfromtheair conditioner,itwillmixwiththeairintheroom.This willraisethecostofcoolingtheroom. EstimatedSavings:Fulldrapesoneastorwest windowsreducecoolingneedsapproximately15 kilowatthours(KWH)peryearforeachsquarefoot ofglasscovered;onthesouththeyreducecooling needsbyapproximately8KWHperyearforeach squarefootofglasscovered.WINDOWSHADESShadesorvenetianblindsprovideprotection similartothatofdrapes.Iftheyarealightcolorthey reflectalargepercentageofthesun'sheat. EstimatedSavings:Windowshadesprovideaboutthe samesavingsasdrapes.Whenshadesareusedwith drapesthecombinedsavingsisabout20KWHper yearforeachsquarefootofeastorwestglasscovered andabout10KWHperyearforeachsquarefootof south-facingglasscovered.SHADEDWINDOWSOverhangs,shutters,andawningscanreducethe amountofheatfromthesunbyalmost90percenton windowsthatwouldotherwisebeindirectsunlight. Bycomparison,drapesandshadesgiveonlyabout60 percentreductionindirectsunlight.Ifawindowhas drapes,shades,andanawning,upto95percentof theheatfromdirectsunlightcanbeeliminated. EstimatedSavings:Overhangalone:eastandwest windowsabout20KWHpersquarefootofglass peryear;southwindowsabout10KWHper squarefootofglassperyear.Overhangwithshades

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page6and/ordrapes:eastandwestwindowsabout21 KWHpersquarefootofglassperyear;SOLARFILMSolarfilmisveryeffectiveinreducingtheeffect ofsolarheatonairconditioningsystems.However, ithastwodisadvantages:(1)lightissomewhat reducedondayswhenthesunisnotbright,and(2) solarfilmissubjecttoblisteringifnotproperly applied,andwillpeelorbecomescratchedifnot carefullyplacedonacleanwindow. Theheat-reducingeffectofsolarfilmdependson itscolorandtheparticularmanufacturer.The relativesavingscanbedeterminedfromthe manufacturer'scertifiedtestdata. EstimatedSavings:Savingsvaryfrom30to60 percentofthesavingspossiblewithoverhangs.The savingsduetooverhangsandsolarfilmareaboutthe sameasthesavingsresultingfromthecombinationof overhangsanddrapes.VENTILATIONVentilationisimportantbecauseitaffectsair conditioningandheatingrequirements.Ventilation fansareoftenlocatedinbathrooms,kitchens,and laundries. Remember,anyairremovedfromthebuilding mustbereplaced,andtheenergyrequiredforcooling orheatingthereplacementairisnearlytwicethatof recirculatedair.IndividualSwitchesforBathroomFansCheckthearrangementsofbathroomexhaust fans.Theusualcapacityofabathexhaustfanis75 cubicfeetofairperminute.Thisairmustbe replacedwithoutsideairenteringtheadjoiningspace. Tofindoutifitisfeasibletoswitchontheexhaust fanseparately,counthowmanytimesthebathroom lightisturnedonwhenthecommode,bathtub,or showerisnotinuse.Ifthisamountstomorethan halfofthetimethattheexhaustfanoperates,itis probablyeconomicaltoputthefanonaseparate switch.Switcheswithatimedelay,whichpermitthe fantorunalittlelongeraftertheswitchisturnedoff, workverynicelyforclearingoutanyodors. EstimatedSavings:Bathexhaustfansuse0.5KWH perhour.Youwillsaveanamountproportionalto thereducedtimethefanoperates.CommonExhaustSystemsInsomemid-andhigh-riseunits,bathroom ventilationisprovidedbyafanontheroofwhich ventsseveralbathrooms.Thisarrangementmayallow yourcooledairtoescapeevenwhenyourbathroom switchesareoff.Tocheckthis,seeifasinglesheet oftoiletpaperstickstotheventgrille.Ifitdoes,you maybeusingupto360KWHextraeachmonththat yourairconditionerison.At6ctsperKWH,thisis goodreasonforacondominiumassociationto investigateuser-controlledventsystems. EstimatedSavings:Ventilationlossesofconditioned airmaycost300to400KWHpermonth.RangeHoodsCheckthekitchenexhaustfanfortypeandair quality.Iftherangehoodisarecirculatingtypewith afilter,thereisnooutsideairdrawnandthereisvery littleenergyloss. Iftheexhausthoodisconnectedwithaductto theoutdoorssothatairisremovedfromthekitchen, thetimecycleofthishoodanditsoperationare important.Thesefansremoveapproximately200 cubicfeetofairperminutewhichmustbereplaced withoutdoorair. Whenairventedbytherangehoodiswarmer thantheoutsideair,itiseasierfortheairconditioner tocooltheoutsidereplacementairthantocoolthe ventedairifitwererecirculated.Sothesimplerule isthatifairdrawnintotherangehoodiscoolerthan outsideair,itisbettertorecirculateit.Ifitis warmerthanoutsideair,itisbettertoventittothe outside. EstimatedSavings:Usingthehoodonlywhenneeded willsave1.5KWHforeachhourthehoodis unnecessarilyleftonwhenairconditioningisinuse.RefrigerationIfthegrilleforthewasteheatdischargeisdirty, operatingcostsfortherefrigeratorrise.

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page7Removethegrilleatthebottomwherethewarm aircomesout.Cleanthegrilleandthecoilsbehind itiftheyaredirty. Sometimesthethermostatfortheapartmentor thehouseislocatedonthewalljustoutsidethe kitchennottoofarfromtherefrigerator.Takea thermometerandchecktheairtemperaturearound thethermostatcomparedtotheairtemperaturein thelivingroom.Thehotairfromtherefrigerator maybegoingpastthethermostat,causingthe thermostattocallformorecoolingthanisnecessary. Ifso,thethermostatmustbesethigherinorderto keeptheroomfromgettingtoocold. EstimatedSavings:Keepingtherefrigeratorgrille andcoilscleancansaveupto50KWHpermonth moresavingsarepossibleifcorrectionsaremadefor hotairfromtherefrigeratoraffectingthethermostat.PaddleFansPaddlefanscanprovidecomfortattemperatures ashighas82Fandcansometimeseliminatetheneed forairconditioning.Theyshouldbeinstalledso bladesarebetween7and9feetabovethefloor. Whenceilingheightsexceed8feet,ablanketofwarm airtendstorisetotheceiling.Ifaceilingfanis mountedtooclosetoahighceiling,itwillblowwarm airtowardthefloorandincreasetheloadontheair conditioner. Ceilingfansshouldbeplacedsotheirbladesare notunderlightfixtures,sincerotatingbladeschopthe light,creatingaflickereffect.Alwaysbesurethat fansaremountedsecurely. EstimatedSavings:Upto5percentofyourair conditioningcostforeachdegreethethermostatcan beraised.SPACEHEATINGSpaceheatingcanaccountforupto20percentof yourannualutilitybill.Thiswillvary,ofcourse, dependingonwhetheryouliveinnorthernor southernFlorida.Howwarmyouchoosetomaintain yourdwellinginthewinterwillalsoaffectheating costssignificantly.HeaterLocationDetermineifyourheaterislocatedinthemost efficientplace.Becausewarmairrises,heating devicesshouldbearrangedsothattheyforcewarm airtowardsthefloorortakecoldairoffthefloorand putitbacktowardstheceiling.Coldairiseventually replacedbywarmairduringtherecirculationprocess. Ifelectricunitheatersareusedtheyshouldbeplaced closertothefloor,sincemostequipmentofthistype doesnothaveverymuchairvelocity.Ifyoublow smokeintotheairstreamyoucanseewheretheair isgoing. EstimatedSavings:Redirectingyourheatenablesyou toloweryourheatingcostsupto5percentforeach degreeyouloweryourroomtemperature.AirSupplyPatternsIfwarmairissuppliedneartheceiling,itmustbe forcedtothefloor.Mostsidewallgrilleshave adjustablebladessothattheaircanbedirected whereneeded.Ifceilingoutletsareused,adjustable devicesareavailablewhichwillforcethewarmerair towardsthefloorbeforeitrisestotheceiling. Agoodmethodfordeterminingtheeffectofthe airpatternistomeasurethetemperatureatthe ceilingandat5feetfromthefloor.Ameasurement shouldalsobetakenwithin1footofthefloorfor comparison.Warmairsuppliedfromhighsidewall grillesandceilingoutletswillstratify,andyoumay finddifferencesasgreatas10to15FPaddlefans andrecirculatingfanductsthatpullwarmairdown fromtheceilingareveryeffectiveinthisapplication, providedthatthetemperatureoftheceilingair exceeds90F. EstimatedSavings:Betterairdistributioncansaveup to5percentofheatingcostsperdegreeof temperaturesetback.TimeCyclingIfyourelectricbillsarehighduringtheheating season,oryoufindituncomfortabletoawakentoa coldhouse,youmightwanttoconsideranightsetbackthermostat. Thesethermostatsautomaticallysetbacktoa predeterminedtemperatureatagivenhourandthen resettoawarmertemperatureataspecifiedtime. Thisallowsthehousetocooldownovernightand

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page8thenwarmbackupinthemorning.Theycanbe adjustedtosetbackthetemperatureanhourortwo beforebedtime,sincemanydwellingsremainwarm severalhoursaftertheheatisturnedoff. EstimatedSavings:Dependingonsettings,upto15 percentofheatingcostscanbesaved.WATERHEATINGHeatingwaterprobablyaccountsfor20to30 percentofyourenergyexpenditures.Threebasic optionsareavailableforreducingwaterheatingcosts: 1.Uselesshotwater. 2.Reducehotwatertemperature. 3.Reducesystemheatlosses.FlowControlsandTimersThenormalwaterflowinashoweris approximately5gallonsperminute.Twomethods canbeusedtoreducetheflowrateto3gallonsper minute.Thesimplestmethodistoremovethe showerheadandinsertaninexpensiveflowrestrictor washer. Ifthismethodisunsatisfactory,specialshower headswhichregulatewaterflowcanbepurchasedfor $10to$20. Hotwaterflowinbathroomandkitchensinkscan bereducedeitherwithaflowrestrictororbyclosing theshut-offvalveunderthesinkuntilflowisreduced to1gallonperminutewhenthefaucetisalltheway on.Tomeasuretheflowrate,puta1gallon containerunderthefaucetandtimehowlongittakes tofill. Ifyouhaveadishwasher,however,itisnot advisabletoadjustthehotwatershut-offvalveunder yourkitchensink,sinceitmightrestrictflowtothe dishwasheraswell. Timerscansaveyoumoneyiftheylimitthe amountofwaterthatisheatedoriftheyreduce systemheatlosses.Systemheatlossesarereduced onlyifthetimerissetsothattheelementshutsoff rightafterthehotwaterisusedandbeforethecold waterenteringthetankcanbeheated.Ifan insulatingjacketisinstalledandthewater temperatureisreduced,theeffectofthetimerisnot asgreat. EstimatedSavings:Flowcontrolscansaveupto40 KWHpermonthforafamilyoftwo.Timerscan saveupto20KWHpermonthiftheylimitheatloss fromthewaterheater.WaterHeaterEfficiency JACKETSAfulltankofhotwaterradiatesaboutthesame amountofheatasa75wattlightbulb.Ifthewater heaterisinanairconditionedarea,thisheatloss addstothecostofcoolingairinadditiontoaddingto thecostofheatingwater. Ifthewaterheaterisreasonablyaccessible, installingasimpleinsulationjacketcancutlossesby morethanhalf.Youcanbuyawaterheater insulationkitforabout$20,ormakeoneyourselfout ofinsulationblankets.Wheninsulatingthewater heater,donotcoverupthewiringaccessplateorthe drainspigot.Takespecialcarewithgaswater heaters;insulatingthemmaybedangerous.WATERTEMPERATUREWaterheaterthermostatsarefrequentlyset between140and160Fwhen110to120Fisoften adequate.Thesettingshouldbeabove120Fonlyif thedishwasherdoesnotsatisfactorilycleanthedishes. BeforeresettingthethermostatTURNOFFTHE POWERTOYOURWATERHEATER,remove oneortwoscrewsholdingtheaccesspanel,andpeel theinsulationasidetoexposethethermostat.Usea smallscrewdrivertoresetthethermostattothe desiredsetting.Therewillbetwothermostatsifyour waterheaterhastwoelements.Thesettingofthe lowerthermostatshouldbe10Flessthanthesetting oftheupperthermostat.Replacetheinsulationand thecoverbeforeyouturnthepowerbackon.PIPINGINSULATIONThehotwaterpipeis,inmostcases,thesmallest diameterpipeconnectedtotheheater.Onmost waterheatersthehotwateroutletislabeled.Ifthis piperisesupfromtheheaterandgoesacrossthe ceilinginanopenspace,itisaworthwhileinvestment toinsulatethepipe.Yourlocalhardwareor plumbingsuppliercanprovideyouwithpipe insulation.

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page9GASWATERHEATERSIfyouhaveagaswaterheater,combustionairis critical,andtheburnershouldbeadjustedannually. Thefluesinthewaterheatershouldalsobe thoroughlycleanedandinspectedannually. EstimatedSavings:Atemperaturereductionof20F cansaveupto25KWHpermonthperoccupant.A jacketcansaveupto30KWHpermonth.WHILEYOUAREAWAYTherecommendationsinthissectioncanbe usefulwhetheryourcondominiumisunoccupiedfor afewhoursperdayorfor11monthsoftheyear.ReducingAirConditioningCostsRunninganairconditionerfor2hoursperdayin aclosed,unoccupieddwellingwillpreventmildew problems.Timersorhumidistatsprovidereliable controlofoperatingtime,whereassettingthe thermostattoahightemperatureproduces unpredictableresults.TIMERSTimerscanbesettoturntheairconditioneron andoffatdesiredtimes.Atimersettoallowtheair conditionertorunfrom5a.m.to7a.m.whenthe condominiumisunoccupiedcansaveseveralhours perdayofunnecessaryoperation. Moneycanbesavedwheneveranairconditioner isturnedoffevenforperiodsasshortas1hour. Itisagoodpracticetoturnoffyourairconditioner whenyouleaveandturnitbackonwhenyoureturn. Ittakesasurprisinglyshorttimetolowerthe temperaturebacktoacomfortablelevel.HUMIDISTATSHumidistatsturnontheairconditionerifthe humidityexceedsapredeterminedlevel.Theyare somewhateasiertoinstallthantimers,butarealso easiertooperateimproperly.Ifahumidistatisset toolowornotproperlycalibrated,itwillcausetheair conditionertoruntoolong,andtheelectricbillwill behigh.DEHUMIDIFIERSAdehumidifierismerelyanairconditionerthat coolstheairpassingoveritscoilinordertoremove moisture,andthenreheatstheair.Theairleavingis warmerthantheairentering,buthaslessmoisture content. Sincedehumidifierscanlowerthehumidityin warm,moistFloridacondominiums,theyareuseful formildewcontrol.However,ifyoualreadyhavean airconditioner,itwillusuallygivebetterhumidity control.Ifitisonatimer,itwillcostlesstorunthan adehumidifier.Usinganairconditionerforhumidity controleliminatesboththeneedforprovidingadrain forthedehumidifierandtheneedforaplacetostore thedehumidifierwhenitisnotinuse. EstimatedSavings:A11/2-tonairconditioner running2hoursperdayusesabout180KWHper month.Ifeverythingelseisturnedoff,thisamounts to$10.80permonth(at6ctsperKWH).Underthe sameconditions,a2-tonunitwouldcost$14.40per monthtooperate.Inmanycases,atimeror humidistatwillpayforitselfinlessthanamonth. Whileyouaregone,standingwaterindrainsand commodeswillevaporateandaddhumiditytotheair. Also,whenthereisnowaterinthedraintrap,sewer gasmayseepthroughthepipesandaddodortothe air."Sealing"thewaterwillhelppreventthese problems. Sealingcanbeperformedbypouringaverysmall amountofoilonthesurfaceofthewatersoitdoes notevaporate.Theuseofnonwatersolublemineral oil,lubricatingoil,orevensuntanlotionmay accomplishthispurpose.Todeterminehowmuchto use,putacoupleofdropsinthecommodeandseeif thecoatingcoverstheentiresurface.Putinenough sothatthereisanoilfilmoverthewholesurface ratherthanjustafewspots.Thentakeabouthalfof theamountyouusedinthecommodeandputitin eachofthedrain-traps.ReducingWaterHeatingCostsYourwaterheaterusesabout50KWHper month,evenwhenhotwaterisnotbeingused.Turn itoffwheneveryouareawayformorethanafew days.

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EnergyEfficiencyForCondominiums:AGuideForApartmentOwners Page10ReducingRefrigerationCostsYourrefrigeratorprobablyusesbetween100and 200KWHpermonth.Whenpossible,emptythe refrigerator,turnitoff,andleavethedoor(s)open. Itismuchmoreeconomicaltogiveawaysomefood tofriendsthantopay$12permonthtokeepitcool.