Vaccination Program Guidelines For Dairy Cattle

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Material Information

Title:
Vaccination Program Guidelines For Dairy Cattle
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Shearer, J.K.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

Acquisition:
Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"September, 1992,"
General Note:
"DS 67"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004742:00001


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VaccinationProgramGuidelinesforDairyCattle1 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanJ.K.Shearer2Everydairyoperationisdifferent.Feeding practices,managementstyles,healthcareprograms, andfacilitiesvarygreatly.Becauseofthis,thedegree ofstress,patternsofdiseaseresistanceandpathogen exposurearevariableanduniquetoeachoperation. Consequently,thereisno"onesizefitsall"with vaccinationprograms,butallmustbe"tailor-made"to fittheindividualneedsofeachdairy. Further,notallvaccinesonthemarketare completelyorconsistentlyeffective(Table1).In somecasesdurationofimmunityisshort,thus requiringfrequentboosteringtomaximizeprotection. Whilethisshouldnotprecludetheuseofthese vaccineswhenandwhereindicated,itshouldcaution thosewithunrealisticexpectationsaboutdisease controlthroughvaccinationalone.Acaseinpoint, pinkeye,causedby Moraxellabovis .Attemptingto preventpinkeyeincattlethroughvaccinationalone, whileignoringflycontrol,isdoomedtofailure. TableTable1.1.Cattlevaccinesgenerallyregardedasbeingineffectiveoronlymarginallyeffective.* Pasteurellahemolytica bacterins Pasteurellamultocida bacterins Pasteurellahemolytica vaccine(modifiedlive,intradermallyadministered) Salmonella bacterins Moraxellabovis bacterins Rotavirus-coronavirus(modifiedlivevirus)vaccine Staphylococcusaureus bacterin-toxoids *AdaptedfromDr.C.A.Hjerpe,VeterinaryClinicsofNorthAmerica:FoodAnimalPractice,1990. 1.ThisdocumentwasisFactSheetDS67oftheDairyProductionGuide,publishedSeptember,1992,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService. Formoreinformation,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. 2.AssociateProfessor,CollegeofVeterinaryMedicine,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville.

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VaccinationProgramGuidelinesforDairyCattle Page2 TableTable2.2.Cattlevaccinesthatareseldomneededorcosteffectiveonthevastmajorityofranches/farmsintheUnited States.* AnthraxVaccine Clostridiumsepticum bacterins Leptospiragrippotyphosa bacterins Leptospiraicterohemorrhagiae bacterins Leptospiracanicola bacterins Clostridiumbotulinum bacterins Clostridiumnovyi bacterins RabiesVaccine TetanusToxoids Erysipelas Bacterins Clostridiumperfringens,typeD,toxoids Clostridiumsordellii bacterins *AdaptedfromDr.C.A.Hjerpe,VeterinaryClinicsofNorthAmerica:FoodAnimalPractice,1990.Stillothervaccinesarepreparedagainstdiseases whichoccursoinfrequentlythatroutineusewould notlikelybecosteffective(Table2).Thus,designof avaccinationprogrammusttakeintoconsiderationa varietyoffactors,manyofwhichwillrequirethe adviceofsomeonefamiliarwithinfectiousdisease problemsonthedairyandthoseintheimmediate area(neighboringdairies)orregion.Undermost circumstances,thisplacestheherd'sveterinarianina uniquelyqualifiedpositionasthebestsourceofsuch information. Factorstoconsiderindesigningaherd vaccinationprogramshouldincludethefollowing: 1.ageofsexoftheanimals 2.locationoffarm(s)onwhichcattlewere previouslylocated 3.locationoffarm(s)onwhichtheowner intendstokeepthecattle 4.diseasehistoriesofthefarm(s)fromwhich cattlehaveoriginatedandsameforthe farm(s)towhichtheyarebeingrelocated 5.vaccinationhistoryofthecattle 6.diseasehistoryofthecattle 7.intendeduseofthecattle 8.lengthoftimetheownerintendstokeepthe cattle 9.istheherdopenorclosed?(isthere movementofanimalsintoandoutofthe herd;forexampledoestheherdpurchase replacements?) 10.thedegreetowhichtheherdisisolatedfrom othercattle,suchasneighboringdairiesor ranches Insummary,thebestvaccinationprogramfora dairyisnottheonethatincorporatesthemost vaccinesintoitshealthcarescheme.Instead,thebest vaccinationprogramforaherdistheonewhich employsvaccinesforprotectionagainstthemost probableinfectiouspathogensbasedoncurrentas wellaspreviousdiseaseproblems,management factorsuniquetotheherd,andeffectivenessofthe vaccinesselectedforuse.

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VaccinationProgramGuidelinesforDairyCattle Page3 TableTable3.3.Guidelinesforthevaccinationofdairycattle.* FrequencyofAdministration AgeinMonths Infectious agent Disease syndrome Typeof vaccine**<1<3<612 Annual booster Brucellosis abortion ML X No IBR/PI3*** abortionMLV,CA,I(X)(X)(X)X Optional respiratorydisease conjunctivitis vaginitis BVD**** abortion MLV,I (X) (X) (X) Optional diarrhea NETCHAT immunesuppression BRSV***** Respiratory disease MLV,I (X) (X) (X) (X) Optional Leptospirosis canicola abortionB(X)(X)X Yes grippotyphosa abortionB(X)(X)X Yes hardjo abortion weakcalves B (X)(X)X Yes abortion icterohaemorrhagiae anemia B (X) (X) X Yes pomona abortion weakcalves B (X)(X)X Yes Vibriosis (Campylobacter) fetus abortion B (X) X Yes Vaccinationstronglyrecommendedforherdsrelyingonnaturalservice(bulls). *Diseaseagentsandassociatedclinicalsyndrome(s),type(s)ofvaccine(s)available,andsuggestionswith respecttoageandfrequencyofadministrationarelistedformajorpathogensofdairycattle.Thespecific needsofcertainoperationsmayrequireuseofvaccinesotherthanthoselistedherein.Readersare encouragedtoconsulttheirveterinarianforspecificadvice. **MLV=ModifiedLiveVirus,ML=ModifiedLive,CA=ChemicallyAltered,I=Inactivated,B=Bacterins,T =Toxoids ***InfectiousBovineRhinotracheitis/Parainfluenzavirus. ****BovineVirusDiarrhea. *****BovineRespiratorySyncitialVirus. ()designationthatthevaccinemaybeusedsafelyatthisageifdesiredtomeetthespecificneedsof individualoperations.

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VaccinationProgramGuidelinesforDairyCattle Page4 TableTable4.4.Guidelinescontinued. Frequencyof Administration FrequencyofAdministration AgeinMonths Infectious Agent Disease Syndrome Typeof Vaccine**<1<3<612 Annual Booster Clostridium chauvoei blackleg B (X) (X) X Yes septicum malig.edema gangrene B (X) (X) X Yes novyi hepatitis B (X) (X) X Yes sordellii hepatitis B (X) (X) X Yes hemolyticum anemia B (X) (X) X Yes tetani tetanus lockjaw T (X) (X) X Yes perfringens C&D suddendeath gangrene T(X)(X)(X)X Yes Haemophilus somnus encephalitis B (X) (X) (X) Optional respiratorydisease Pasteurella Respiratorydisease/ Shippingfever hemolytica pneumoniaML,B(X)(X)(X)Opt. Optional multocida pneumoniaB(X)(X)(X)Opt. Optional Moraxella Pinkeye bovis keratoconjunctivitis I (X) (X) (X) (X) Optional Anaplasma Anaplasmosis marginale anemiaML,I(X)(X)(X)(X) Optional Wartvirus Warts I (X) (X) (X) (X) Optional **MLV=ModifiedLiveVirus,ML=ModifiedLive,CA=ChemicallyAltered,I=Inactivated,B=Bacterins,T =Toxoids