Metabolic Diseases Of Dairy Cattle - Milk Fever

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Title:
Metabolic Diseases Of Dairy Cattle - Milk Fever
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Harris, Barney Jr.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"reviewed October, 1992"
General Note:
"DS 74"

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004737:00001


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MetabolicDiseasesofDairyCattle-MilkFever1 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanB.Harris,Jr.,andJ.K.Shearer2Milkfever,alsoknownasparturientparesis,isa metabolicdisorderthatoccursmorefrequentlyin high-producingcows.Itisassociatedwiththesudden onsetoflactationandusuallyoccurswithin72hours aftercalving,andseldomuptoamonthortwo afterwards. Themostconsistentlyfoundsymptominmilk fevercasesisalowbloodcalciumlevel,whichdrops inthebloodserumfromanormalofabout10mg/100 mlto3to7mg/100ml.Treatmentinallcases attemptstobringtheserumcalciumleveltonormal. Attheonset,thecowmayexhibitsome unsteadinessasshewalks.Morefrequently,thecow isfoundlyingdownwithherheaddisplacedtoone sideorturnedintotheflank.Othersymptoms commonlyobservedaredepression,eyesdulland staring,pupilsdilated,subnormaltonormal temperature,coldears,slightmusclespasms,sleepy attitude,inabilitytorise,andincreasedpulserate--50 to85perminute. Inadvancedcasesofmilkfever,thereisa completeparalysisandcomafollowedbydeath. Whencomaapproaches,thecowwilllieonherside. Bloatusuallyoccursifthecowremainsinthis positionverylong. Theincidenceofmilkfeverincreasesascows becomeolder.Also,theincidenceofmilkfeveris slightlygreaterinJerseycattlethaninotherdairy breeds.Thisdoesnotimply,however,thatdairymen owningotherbreedsneednotbeconcerned.PREVENTIVEMEASURESPreventionisnot100percenteffective.Research inrecentyearshasdemonstratedthatthedrycow feedingprogramiscritical.Studieshaveshownthat theincidenceofmilkfevercanbeincreasedby feedingdrycowrationshighincalciumandlowin phosphorus. Likewise,anumberofstudieshaveshownthat adequatelevelsofcalcium,phosphorusand magnesiumfedduringthedryperiodwillreducethe incidenceofmilkfever.Also,maintainingtheration ofcalciumtophosphorusintherationfrom1:1to 1.5:1.0duringthedryperiodhasbeenshowntobe beneficial. Treatmentintheearlystagesisalwaysmore successfulandfewerrelapsesoccur.Anincreasing numberofrelapsesmayindicateaninadequate amountofmagnesiuminthedrycowration, especiallyinherdswherelevelsofcalciumand phosphorusappearadequate.Thedrycowration shouldcontainabout0.2%magnesiumonadry matterbasis. Therequirementsforcalciumandphosphorusas outlinedbytheNationalResearchCouncilareshown inTable1.Whiletheserequirementsaregenerally adequate,therationsshowninTable2provide amountsofcalciumandphosphorusabovethe requirementsfordrycows.Noteintakeversustotal requirements.Asanexample,cowseatingration1 receive2.19lbofcrudeprotein(CP)versusa requirementof2.13lbofCP.Othercomparisonsare totaldigestiblenutrients(TDN),calcium(Ca)and 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetDS74oftheDairyProductionGuide,originallypublishedaspartofDS12,reviewedOctober,1992,Florida CooperativeExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. 2.Professor,DairyScienceDepartment;AssociateProfessor,CollegeofVeterinaryMedicine;CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville.

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MetabolicDiseasesofDairyCattle-MilkFever Page2 TableTable1.1.Acomparisonoftotalcalciumandphosphorusrequirementsfordryandlactatingcows. Bodywt. Pounds Ca P Grams Ca P Drycows 1000 0.07 0.05 30 21 1400 0.09 0.06 39 27 3.5%milk/day 30lb 1000 0.12 0.08 54 33 1400 0.13 0.10 59 42 50lb 1000 0.17 0.12 78 54 1400 0.19 0.13 83 59 70lb 1000 0.23 0.16 103 71 1400 0.24 0.17 108 75 1lb=454grams(dry=heavyspringers) TableTable2.2.Formulatingdrycowrationsaccordingtorequirements. Feed DM CP Pounds TDN Ca P Mg Drycowration1 Bermudahay 7.006.160.402.800.010.01 0.01 CornSilage 28.008.490.625.600.020.01 0.01 Concentrate 6.005.401.084.440.040.04 0.02 Mineral 0.200.190.000.000.030.01 0.01 Total 41.2020.152.1912.840.110.07 0.05 Requirements (1400lbbodywt.)2.1312.780.09 0.06 Mineralcontains16%Ca,7%P,and2.5%Mg. Drycowration2 Bermudahay 8.007.040.563.200.010.01 0.01 Cornsilage 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.00 Completefeed 15.0013.501.659.900.110.07 0.02 Mineral 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.00 Total 23.0020.542.2113.100.120.08 0.04 Requirements(1400lbbody wt.) 2.13 12.78 0.09 0.06

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MetabolicDiseasesofDairyCattle-MilkFever Page3 phosphorus(P).Drymatter(DM)intakeisalso shownforcalculatingmagnesiumwhentheneed arises.DIETARYMANAGEMENTDietsadequateincalcium,phosphorusand magnesiumduringthedryperiodhavebeenthebest insuranceinFlorida.Whilehigh-phosphorus,lowcalciumdietsduringlatepregnancyhelptoprevent milkfever,suchrationsaredifficulttodeviseina practicalformandiffedforverylong,maydeplete bodystoresofcalcium.Incompletemilkingafter calvingmaybehelpfulinreducingmilkfever. MassiveamountsofvitaminD(10to30millionunits daily)addedtothefeedfor5to7dayspriorto calvingishelpfulbutifstoppedmorethan4days beforecalving,thecowismoresusceptible.Toxicity mayoccurifdosingcontinuesmorethan7days. Otherpreventivemeasuresincludeinjectionof vitaminDcompoundsabout8daysbeforecalving and/ordosesofcalciumingelformatthetimeof calving. Theusualtreatmentofmilkfeverisan intravenousinjectionof250to500mlofasolutionof calciumgluconatewithaddedmagnesium.Treated cowswillcommonlyrisewithinsecondsafter treatment.Animalsthatfailtogetuporrelapseafter 8to12hoursshouldbere-treated.Cowsdownfor longerperiodsmaypossiblyhaveanillnesstermed DownerCowSyndrome.Theconditionissimilarto milkfeverandmaybeassociatedwithinjury.It usuallyoccurstwotothreedaysaftercalvingandis morecommoninhigh-producingcows.