Metabolic Diseases Of Dairy Cattle - Ketosis

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Title:
Metabolic Diseases Of Dairy Cattle - Ketosis
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Harris, Barney Jr.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"reviewed October, 1992,"
General Note:
"DS 73"

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004735:00001


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MetabolicDiseasesofDairyCattle-Ketosis1 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanB.Harris,Jr.,andJ.K.Shearer2Ketosisoracetonemiaisacommonmetabolic diseaseoflactatingcowsoccurringduringthefirst10 to60daysaftercalvinginhigh-producingcows.The three-weekperiodaftercalvingseemstobethemost criticaltime.Thediseaseresultsfromalowered bloodsugarinthecirculatingbloodwhichcausesthe formationandreleaseofketonebodies.Ketone bodies(specificallyacetone)arevolatilizedand accountforthe"sweetish"smelldetectableonthe breath,andinthemilkorurineofaffectedcows. Symptomsofketosisindairycattleinclude dullness,depression,astaringexpression,rapidlossof weight,adropinmilkproduction,constipation, mucuscoveredfeces,incoordinationandpartial paralysis.Afewcowsmaybecomehighlyexcitable. Breathingisshallowwithanacetonesmellinthe breath.Cowswillusuallyconsumehay,strawor otherroughagebutgenerallyrefusegrainor concentrates.Abouttwo-thirdsofthecasesare primaryoruncomplicatedketosis.Theotherthird aresecondarycases,complicatedbysuchthingsas retainedplacenta,metritis,displacedabomasum, nephritis,hardwareortheotherproblemscausing cowstogooff-feed.Anelevatedtemperaturemay indicatethatotherfactorsareinvolved.RUMENFATTYACIDSSinceketosisisonlyapracticalproblemin ruminants,changesintherumenhavebeen investigated.Fattyacids(acetic,propionicand butyric)arisingfrommicrobialrumenfermentation furnishfrom40to70percentofaruminantanimal's energyrequirements.Oftheseacids,propionicisby farmostvitaltothepreventionofketosis,andhigh energyrationsfavorpropionateproduction.An increaseinbutyricacidwouldbeundesirablesince thisacidisapotentialsourceofketonebodies. Othersuggestionsforthepreventionofketosis includetheadditionofsodiumpropionateand propyleneglycoltothedairyration.Generally,the responsetoeithersystemisslowandtreatmentmust beextendedoveraperiodoftime.Sodium propionatecreatesapalatabilityproblemwhereas propyleneglycoliscompletelypalatable.USDA researchersreportthattwicedailyfeedingof4ounces ofpropyleneglycol,beginning14dayspriortothe anticipatedcalvingdateandcontinuedfor7weeks postpartum,reducedtheincidenceofketosisby18 percent. RecentuniversitystudiesatKansasStateand NewHampshireshowedareductioninketosiswhen cowsreceivedrationssupplementedwith6gramsof niacindailybeforecalving.Bloodketoneand nonesterifiedfattyacidlevelswerelowerandblood glucoseconcentrationswerehigherinniacinsupplementedcows. Theketonetestisasimplediagnostictoolfor determiningthepresenceofketonebodiesandis usedbyveterinariansandisalsoavailableto dairymen.Thetestisusedfordeterminingthe presenceofacetoneinmilkandurine.Colostrum milkdoesnotgiveaccurateresults.Theurinetest showspositiveresultsbeforethemilktestdoes.Even so,donotbeconcerneduntilapositivetestis obtainedfrommilk.Thebloodlevelofketonebodies isthebesttestfordeterminingthedegreeofketosis. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetDS73oftheDairyProductionGuide,originallypublishedaspartofDS12,reviewedOctober,1992,Florida CooperativeExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. 2.Professor,DairyScienceDepartment;AssociateProfessor,CollegeofVeterinaryMedicine,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville.

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MetabolicDiseasesofDairyCattle-Ketosis Page2TREATMENTMostacceptedketosistreatmentsattemptto increasebloodsugarlevels.Usually,about500mlof a50percentglucosesolutionisused.Whenthisis thesoletreatment,relapsesarefrequent.Asaresult, mostveterinariansrecommendintravenousinjection ofglucosewiththeincorporationofinsulinasapart ofthetherapy.Also,someveterinarianssupplement corticosteroidsforafewdaysfollowingtreatmentto boostbloodglucoselevels. Despiteincreasingmilkproductioninrecent years,therehasbeenagradualdeclineincasesof ketosis,perhapsbecauseofimprovedfeeding practicesduringthedryperiodandagreater understandingofthedisease.Severalsuggestionsfor preventingketosisfollow.HIGHRISKGROUPSTheincidenceofketosisishigherinoldercows andhigh-producingcows.Ascowsproducemilk,they becomemoresusceptible.Ketosishasnotbeena probleminmostFloridaherdsbutdoesoccur frequentlyinsome. Preventivemeasuresincludetheuseofwell balancedrationsthreetofourweekspriortocalving, withtheenergycontentincreasedsubstantiallyafter thecowfreshens.Heavyspringersandfreshcows shouldhaveadequateamountsoflongroughage. Avoidabruptchangesintheoverallrationatornear thetimeofcalvinginordertokeepstressata minimum.Freechoicefeedssuchasmolassesshould notbefedtoheavyspringersbecauseofpossible changesinthemicrobialpopulation. Bodytissueisusedformilkproductionwith relativelyhighefficiency,andmoderateweightlossin earlylactationappearstohavenoharmfuleffects. Ontheotherhand,excessiveweightlossappearsto makeacowmoresusceptibletoketosis,andshould beavoided.Ahighqualitydietrelativelyearlyin lactationcanbeattainedbyagoodgroupfeeding programaftercalving.Thisisaneffectivemeansof holdingweightlosstoaminimumandalsofor attaininghighpeakproductionandgreaterlactation yield.Peakfeedintake,however,willnotbereached until10to12weeksaftercalving. Cowsthathaveadjustedtotheherdrationtwoto threeweekspriortofresheningmaybeplacedina moderatelyhighgroupforfreechoicefeeding followingparturition.Groupfeedingaccordingto productionorstageoflactationhasbeenshowntobe practical.Thispracticeoffersthedistinctadvantage ofplacingcowswithsimilarnutritionalrequirements ingroupsformoreefficientandeffectivefeeding. Thus,cowswithsimilarrequirementscanbefedand managedasaunit. 1.Overconditionedorfatcowsaremore susceptibletoketosis.Maintaincowsingood conditionduringthedryperiod.Condition scoringofcattlemaybeausefultoolin monitoringbodycondition. 2.Avoidabruptchangesinthefeedingprogram atcalvingtime. 3.Provideproperlybalancedrationsforheavy springerswithincreasingamountsofahigh energydietaftercalving. 4.Provideadequateamountsofgoodquality roughagewhenpractical. 5.Avoidfeedinglargeamountsofsilageto heavyspringers. 6.Provideanenvironmentforheavyspringers andfreshcowsthatiscomfortableand stimulatesappetite.