Mineral Nutrution of Dairy Cattle

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Mineral Nutrution of Dairy Cattle
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Fact sheet
Harris, Barney Jr.
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"Original publication date August 1992. Reviewed June 2003'
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DS41 Mineral Nutrution of Dairy Cattle1 Barney Harris, Jr.2 1. This document is DS41, one of a series of the Animal Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date August 1992. Reviewed June 2003. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Professor, Dairy Science Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry R. Arrington, Interim Dean Various mineral supplements are available and frequently used in formulating rations. A list of commonly used supplements is shown in Table 1. MAJOR MINERALS AND VITAMINS Considerable research has been done to establish the mineral needs of high producers and to define the role of minerals in nutritional biochemistry. Table 2 shows the current levels of the major or macro minerals recommended for dairy cattle rations. TRACE MINERALS AND VITAMINS The addition of trace minerals and certain vitamins to dairy cattle rations is usually considered to be good nutritional insurance. However, the question arises: which trace minerals to add and how much of each. The trace minerals deserving some consideration as possible additions to dairy rations are shown in Table 3. Trace minerals are needed by the dairy animal in very small quantities (parts per million). For this reason, salt is commonly used as a carrier for all the trace minerals. Trace minerals should not be added to dairy rations indiscriminately. Many rations will contain adequate levels with or without their addition. If a trace mineral problem is suspected, examine the situation carefully and make appropriate adjustments in the mineral mixture. Too much of a particular mineral could further antagonize the situation. Vitamins deserving consideration under Florida conditions are vitamins A, D and E. A 1400 lb cow consuming 40 lbs of dry matter daily needs about 65,000 USP units of vitamin A, 18,000 units of Vitamin D and 280 units of vitamin E. Dry cows should receive about 50 to 100,000 units or more of vitamin A per day when green forage is not available and 20,000 units or more per cow per day if green forage is available. Certain stress factors, such as hot climate, nitrate in feeds, disease, and lactation may increase the vitamin A requirements of the animal. In order to avoid a vitamin A deficiency in reproduction, the dairy ration should provide from 40,000 to 80,000 USP units of vitamin A. Some dairymen feed little vitamin A during the green forage feeding period and about 100,000 to 150,000 units per cow during hot weather.


Mineral Nutrution of Dairy Cattle 2 Table 1. Mineral supplements and their mineral composition. Supplement Ca (%) Phos (%)K (%) Mg (%) S (%) Na (%) Calcium carbonate 38.0 ----------Limestone, ground 33.0--------------Oyster shell flour 33.0 ----------Tricalcium phosphate 38.018.0-----------Monocalcium phosphate 20.0 21.0 --------Deflourinated phosphate 32.018.0-----------Dicalcium phosphate 26.0 18.0 --------Disodium phosphate ---21.6-----------Salt (NaCl) ----------39.3 Steamed bone meal 28.014.0-----------Sodium bicarbonate ----------27.4 Diammonium phosphate* ---20.0-----------Monoammonium phosphate** --24.0 --------Monosodium phosphate ---25.0-----------Sodium Tripoly phosphate --25.6 --------Biofos 18.021.0-----------Dyna-K ----50.5 ------Dynafos*** 22.018.5-----------Dynamate ----18.5 11.6 22.3 --Dufos (Diammonium phosphate) ---20.0-----------Dikal 21*** 19.0 21.0 --------Magnesium oxide ---------60.0-----Potassium chloride ----52.4 ------*Compound contains 18.0% nitrogen or 112.5 protein equivalent. **Monoammonium phosphate (monofos) contains 68.75% protein equivalent (11% nitrogen). ***Trade names of products available in abundance in Florida. Table 2. Major mineral and vitamin content recommended in ration for high producers (dry matter basis). Mineral Current Desirable in Rations (%) NRC 1988 (%) Calcium 0.65-0.80 .65 PHosphorus 0.42-0.50 .42 Magnesium 0.28-0.35 .25 Potassium* 1.00-1.50 1.00 Sulfur 0.20-0.25 .20 Sodium* 0.40-0.67 .18 Vitamin A 1400-2000 IU/lb 1450 IU/lb Vitamin D 450-500 IU/lb 450 IU/lb Vitamin E 7-10 IU/lb 7 IU/lb *Recent studies at Florida showed an increased need for potassium (K) and sodium (Na) during hot weather or stress periods. The highest level of milk production was obtained when the total ration dry matter contained about 1.5% K and 0.67% Na.


Mineral Nutrution of Dairy Cattle 3 Table 3. Suggested trace mineral content of rations (DM) for lactating dairy cattle (NRC-1988). Mineral Approx. Ration Concentration (Dry Basis) Iron 50.0 ppm Manganese 40.0 ppm Copper 10.0 ppm Zinc 40.0 ppm Cobalt 0.1 ppm Iodine 0.6 ppm Selenium 0.3 ppm