Commercial Vegetable Crop Nutrient Requirements In Florida (Replaces CIR806)

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Commercial Vegetable Crop Nutrient Requirements In Florida (Replaces CIR806)
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Hochmuth, George
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SP177 May1995CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsin Florida1 GeorgeJ.HocmuthandEdwardA.Hanlon2Thepurposeofthiscircularistopresent crop nutrientrequirements forcommercialvegetablesin Florida.ItisintendedtobeasupplementtoExtension Circular225-C(1988), CommercialVegetable FertilizationGuide andsupersedesthe1989editionof Circular806.CertaininformationincludedinCircular 225-Cisrepeatedheretoincreaseclarityofthis presentation.Researchdocumentationtosupport fertilizationrecommendationsisprovidedwhere available.Fertilizationrecommendationsareupdatedas newresearchindicatesneededchanges.CROPNUTRIENTREQUIREMENTSPlantsrequire16elements(C,H,0,P,K,N,S,Ca, Mg,Fe,B,Mn,Cu,Zn,Mo,Cl)fornormalgrowthand reproduction.Thecropnutrientrequirement(CNR)for aparticularelementisdefinedasthetotalamountin lb/Aofthatelementneededbythecropduringthe productionseasontoproduceoptimumeconomicyield. Thisnutrientrequirementcanbesatisfiedfrommany sourcesincludingsoil,water,air,organicmatter,or fertilizer.Forexample,theCNRofpotassium(K)canbe suppliedfromK-containingmineralsinthesoil,fromK retainedbysoilorganicmatter,orfromKfertilizers. TheCNRforacropisdeterminedfromfield experimentsthattesttheyieldresponsetolevelsof addedfertilizer(Plate1).ForexampleaKstudyof watermelonmightbeconductedonasoilthattestsvery lowinextractableK.Inthissituation,thesoilis expectedtocontributenegligibleamountsofKto watermelongrowthoryieldandalloftheCNRwould beexpectedtobesuppliedfromfertilizer.Theresearcher thenplotstherelationshipofcropyieldtoKfertilizer rate.InthisexampletheCNRisequivalenttothe fertilizerrateabovewhichnosignificantincreasesin yieldresulted.TheCNRvaluesderivedfromsuch experimentstakeintoaccountfactorssuchasfertilizer efficienciesinvarioussoils.Ifdataareavailablefrom severalexperiments,thenreliableestimatesofCNR valuescanbemade. Vegetablefertilizationrecommendationsmusttake intoaccountbothyieldandquality.Forexample, enoughfertilizermustberecommendedforcrisphead lettucetoachievehighbiomassyields and large,firm, marketableheads. InFlorida,CNRvaluesvaryaccordingtosoiltype andvegetablecrop.CNRvalueshavebeendetermined formanyvegetablecropsonseveralsoilsinFlorida. Forothersituations,CNRvalueshavebeenestimated becausenoresearchdataareavailable.Table1,Table 2,andTable3presentCNRvaluesforvegetablecrops inFlorida.Recommendationsformarlandrockland soilshavebeencombinedintoonetable,sincefew researchresultshavebeenpublishedforthesesoils,and cropnutrientrequirementsareprobablysimilarforcrops grownonbothsoils.Productionguidescontaining informationonnutrientmanagementforspecificcrops arelistedinTable4.UsingtheCNRconceptwhen 1.ThisdocumentisSP177,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate: May1995. 2.GeorgeJ.Hochmuth,professor,HorticulturalSciencesDepartment;andEdwardA.Hanlon,professor,SoilandWaterScienceDepartmentCooperative ExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page2developingafertilizerprogramwillensureoptimum, economicyieldswhileminimizingbothpollutionfrom overfertilizationandlossofpotentialyielddueto inadequatefertilization.SOILTESTINGTheCNRvalueslistedinTable1,Table2,and Table3arethosemaximumamountsofnutrientsshown byresearchtobeneededtoproduceoptimumeconomic yields.Itisimportanttorememberthattheseamounts ofnutrientsaresuppliedtothecropfromboth thesoil andthefertilizer .Theamountslistedinthetablesare appliedasfertilizers only whenaproperlycalibratedsoil testindicatesverylowextractableamountsofthese nutrientstobepresentinthesoil.Therefore,calibrated soiltestsmustbeusedtodeterminethecontributionof nativesoil-derivednutrientstotheoverallCNR.Based onsuchtests,theamountoffertilizerneededto supplementthenative-soil-nutritioncomponentcanbe calculated.ThecurrentcalibrationfortheMehlich-1 (double-acid)soiltestformineralsoilsispresentedby HochmuthandHanlon(l995).Researchonsoiltest calibrationforsomevegetableshasbeensummarizedby Hochmuthetal.(1993). Itisimportantthatsoilsamplesrepresentthefieldor managementunittobefertilized.Acompetentsoil testinglaboratorythatusescalibratedmethodologies shouldanalyzethesamples.Notalllaboratoriescan provideaccuratefertilizerrecommendationsforFlorida soils.Detailsonsoiltestingandhowtomakeitwork effectivelycanbefoundinExtensionCircular817, Soil, ContainerMedia,andWaterTesting-Interpretations andIFASStandardizedFertilizationRecommendations (Hanlonetal.1990).IRRIGATIONFertilizer-andwater-managementprogramsare linked.Optimummanagementofoneprogramrequires propermanagementoftheotheraswell. Overheadirrigationgenerallycausesthedownward movementofnutrientssuchasnitrogen(N)andK. Smallamountsofirrigationwaterappliedonaregular basiswillresultinlessleachingthanwilllargeamounts appliedinfrequently.Excessiveirrigationcaneven removefertilizerfromplastic-mulchedbeds,especially fromthesoilneartheplantholeorwherethewatertable rises,leachingnutrientsfromthebed. Thewatertableinasubsurface(seep)irrigation systemshouldbemaintainedatanappropriatelevelfor agivensoilsituation,usually18to24inchesbelowthe topofthebed.Thewatertableshouldnotbeallowed tofluctuateappreciablybecausenutrientscanbelost fromthebedduringmoisturefluctuations.Watertables duringheavyrainsshouldbecontrolledtoavoid leachingofnutrientsfromfloodedbeds. Dripirrigationprovidesanefficientmethodfor applyingwaterandnutrients,especiallyifusedin conjunctionwithmulch.Savingsofwaterofmorethan 50%comparedtoeitherseepageoroverheadirrigation methodshavebeenreported.However,nutrientleaching canbeseverewithanimproperlymanageddripsystem. Thecalculationofirrigationwaterquantitiesbypan evaporation,andtheuseoftensiometersandwatertable observationwellsasirrigationschedulingaidscanhelp growersimprovewatermanagement(Clarketal.,1988; Clarketal.,1990).SUPPLEMENTALFERTILIZERIfthefertilizercomponentoftheCNRisproperly managedtominimizefertilizerlosses,itisunlikelythat supplementalfertilizerwillbeneeded.Supplemental fertilizermightbeneededafteraleachingrainfall.As ageneralrule,about50%oftheNand25%oftheKis leachedoutoftherootzonebya2-to3-inchrainfall underunmulchedculture.The"leachingrainrule" shouldbeusedtoaidindecisionsconcerning supplementalfertilizations.Ifrainfallexceeds3inches in3daysor4inchesin7days,apply30lbN/Aand20 lbK2O/A.Thenumberofsupplementalapplicationswill varyaccordingtothenumberofleachingrainfallsand thelengthofthecropgrowingseason. Supplementalfertilizershouldbeappliedinbandsto eachsideoftherowforunmulchedcrops.Thefertilizer shouldbeplacedinthesoiljustaheadoftheadvancing roottips.Forcropsgrowingincloserowsorin "broadcast"fashion,thesupplementalfertilizercanbe broadcastoverthetopbyair,groundspreader,or overheadsprinkler-irrigationsystem.Whereplastic mulchisused,supplementalapplicationscanbemade throughthemulchbyaliquid-injectionwheelorbydrip irrigationsystems. Equipmentusedtoapplysupplementalfertilizer shouldbecarefullycalibrated.Fertilizershouldbe correctlyplacedtoavoiddamagetoeitherplantsorroots fromtheapplicationequipmentandirrigationmanagers shouldbesurethatexcesswaterisnotappliedwhich mightcauseleaching.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page3MULCHEDCROPSMulchingisastandardpracticeformanyvegetable cropsinFlorida(Plate2).Polyethylenemulchimproves fumiganteffectiveness,providesweedcontrol,increases soiltemperature,andreducesfruitrot(Hochmuth,1988). Inaddition,mulchcanreducefertilizerleaching.Even thoughcropgrowthandproductionareoftengreaterwith mulch,theincreasedfertilizerefficiencyforthemulch systemmeansthatCNRrequirementsaresimilartothose ofunmulchedcrops. Whenusingmulch,allfertilizercanbeappliedin thebedpriortomulching.Extraor"insurance"fertilizer isnotrecommended,becauseitcancausesoluble-salt injurytoplantsandcanalsocontributetogroundwater pollutionifitisleachedfromunderthemulchby floodingorbyahighwatertable.Ifsupplemental fertilizerisrequired,itcanbeappliedbyaliquidfertilizerinjectionwheelorbydripirrigationsystems.SOILpHCurrentIFASstandardizedrecommendationscallfor maintainingsoilpHintherangeof6.0to6.5.However, somevegetables,suchaswatermelon,willperform normallyatlowerpHvalues.Acommonproblemin Floridahasbeenoverliming,resultinginhighsoilpH levels.OverlimingandresultinghighsoilpHcancause the"tie-up"ofmicronutrientsandrestricttheir availabilitytothecrop.Overlimingalsocanreducethe accuracywithwhichasoiltestcanpredictfertilizer requirements. Itisimportant,however,nottoallowsoilpHto dropbelowapproximately5.5formostvegetable production,especiallywheremicronutrientlevelsinthe soilmaybehighduetoahistoryofmicronutrient fertilizerandmicronutrient-containingpesticide applications.WhensoilpHdecreasesinsuchsoils,the solubilityofcertainmicronutrientscanincreasetolevels thatmaybecometoxictoplants. Irrigationwaterfromlimestoneaquifersisan additionalsourceoflimingmaterialnotusually consideredinmanylimingprograms.Thecombination ofroutineadditionsoflimeandtheuseofalkaline irrigationwaterhasresultedinsoilpHvaluesnear8.0 forsomesandysoils.Toestimatethislimingeffect,a watersampleshouldbeanalyzedfortotalbicarbonates andcarbonates.Theresultsarethenconvertedto poundsofcalciumcarbonateperacreannually dependingonthequantityofwaterapplied.This informationshouldbeusedindecisionsconcerninglime requirement. Itshouldbeevidentthatlime,fertilization,and irrigationprogramsarecloselyrelatedtooneanother.An adjustmentinoneprogramwillofteninfluenceanother. Tomaximizeoverallproductionefficiency,calibrated soiltestingandwateranalysismustbemadeapartof theseprograms.NUTRIENTFORMSNitrogencanbesuppliedinboththenitrateand ammoniacalforms.Nitrate-Nisgenerallythepreferred formforplantuptakeinmostsituations,butammoniacal Ncanbeusedbysomeplantsdirectlyorafter conversiontonitrate-Nbysoilmicrobes.Conversion occursrapidly(essentiallycompletewithin2to4weeks) inwarmsoils.Therateofconversionisreducedincold, fumigated,orstronglyacidicsoils,whereitis recommendedthat25to50%oftheNbesuppliedfrom nitratesources.Thispercentageisnotascriticalfor unfumigatedorwarmsoilswherethebulkoftheNcan besuppliedfromammoniacalsources.Formore informationonnutrientsources,consultExtension Circular225-C. Phosphorus(P)canbesuppliedfromseveralsources includingnormal(ordinary)andtriplesuperphosphates, diammoniumphosphate,monoammoniumphosphate, polyphosphates,andphosphoricacid.Allsourcescanbe effectiveforplantnutritiononsandysoil.However, diammoniumphosphatehasbeenshowntoreduceyields ofcertaincropswhenbandedinlargeamountsin mixturescontainingmicronutrients,onsoilsthattested verylowinnativemicronutrientslevel.Inaddition,P availabilityfromdiammoniumphosphatecanbereduced wherediammoniumphosphateisappliedtounlimed soilswhichareacidicandcontainlargeamountsof aluminumoriron.Potentialnegativeeffectsof diammoniumphosphatecanbeminimizedbycorrecting pHwithlimebeforeapplyingdiammoniumphosphateor bysupplyingpartofthePfromanotherPsource (Rhoadsetal.,1993). Potassiumcanalsobesuppliedfromseveralsources includingpotassiumchloride,potassiumsulfate, potassiumnitrate,andpotassium-magnesiumsulfate.If soil-test-predictedamountsofKfertilizerareadheredto, thereshouldbenoconcernabouttheKsource,its chloridecontent,oritsrelativesaltindex.Severalrecent vegetablestudiesonKsourceshaveshownthat comparableyieldsresultedfromfertilizationwithvarious Ksources.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page4CALCIUM,MAGNESIUM,SULFURCalcium(Ca),magnesium(Mg),andsulfur(S) deficienciesareseldomaprobleminFlorida.Calcium usuallyoccursinadequatesupplyfromthesoilformost vegetables,especiallyinirrigatedorrecentlylimedsoils. Cawillbeinabundantsupplyfromsoilswitha Mehlich-1Caindexof300ppmorabove.Calciumis notmobileintheplant;therefore,foliarspraysofCaare notlikelytocorrectseriousCadeficiencies,especiallyin fruit.Cadoesnotmobilizeinlargeenoughquantities fromtheleaftothefruit.Cadeficienciessuchasleaf tipburnandblossom-endrotscanbeincreasedby inadequateirrigationmanagementandbyexcessive fertilizationfromNorK.Highestqualitypepperfruits (Plate3)resultfromattentiontobothfertilizationand irrigation. Sulfur(S)deficiencyisrarelyaproblemforFlorida vegetables.Sulfurdeficiencywouldmostlikelyoccur ondeep,sandysoilslowinorganicmatter,afterleaching rainsorwhereS-containingfertilizershavenotbeen appliedforseveralseasons.IfSdeficiencyhasbeen diagnosed,itcanbecorrectedbyusingS-containing fertilizers,suchasmagnesiumsulfate,ammonium sulfate,potassiumsulfate,normal(ordinary) superphosphate,orpotassium-magnesiumsulfate.Using oneofthesematerialsinthefertilizerblendatlevels sufficienttosupply30to40lbS/Ashouldminimizethe potentialforSdeficiencies.InmanyareasofFlorida, ampleSwillbesuppliedthroughtheirrigationwater fromwells. Magnesiumdeficiencymaybeaproblemfor vegetableproductionondeep,sandysoils.Whenthe Mehlich-1soil-testindexforMgisbelow30ppm, researchhasshownthat30lbMg/AwillsatisfytheMg CNR.Iflimeisneeded,Mgcanbeaddedbyusing dolomiteasthelimingmaterial.Ifnolimeisneeded, thentheMgrequirementcanbesatisfiedthroughuseof magnesiumsulfateorpotassium-magnesiumsulfate. InclusionoftheMgsourceinthefertilizer(s)tobe appliedtothesoilorusingahomogenizedfertilizerthat containsthecorrectamountofMgareexcellentwaysof insuringuniformapplicationofMg.MICRONUTRIENTSIthasbeenacommonpracticeinFloridavegetable productiontoapplyamicronutrient"package"ina blendedfertilizer.Thispracticewasjustifiedinthepast onthebasisthatthesenutrientswereinexpensiveand theirapplicationwasviewedasinsuranceforhighyields evenwhenuniformblendingandapplicationwere difficulttoachieve.Inaddition,therehasbeenlittle researchdataandlackofsoil-testcalibrationstoguide judiciousapplicationofmicronutrientfertilizers. Prophylacticmicronutrientfertilizeradditionsanduseof micronutrient-containingpesticides,suchasmaneb, zineb,mancozeb,andassortedcoppercompoundsfor diseasecontrolhaveledtoaccumulationofsome micronutrientsinthesoilofsomefarms. Elevatedmicronutrientlevelshaveforcedsome vegetableproducerstooverlimeinanefforttoavoid micronutrienttoxicities.Datahavenowbeen accumulatedwhichpermitamoreaccurateassessmentof micronutrientrequirements.Growersareencouragedto haveacalibratedmicronutrientsoiltest(Mehlich-1) conductedandtorefrainfromprophylactic("shot-gun") micronutrientfertilizerapplications.Itisunlikelythat somemicronutrientswillbeneededon"old"vegetable land,especiallywheremicronutrientsarebeingapplied regularlyviarecommendedpesticides.Amicronutrient soiltestevery2to3seasonsshouldhelpdetermine adequatemicronutrientfertilizationlevelsforcrop production.PLACEMENTANDTIMINGBecausePisimmobileinthesoil,itshouldbe placedinthebed(rootzone)andnotonthesurfaceof thebed.EfficiencyinP-fertilizerusemaybeenhanced byreducingtheamountofsoilwithwhichthefertilizer ismixed.Thisstatementisespeciallytrueforthe carbonaceousmarlandRockdalesoilsofsouthern Floridaandforthemucksoils.Banding,or incorporatingPinthebedarea(asopposedtouniform broadcasting),areexcellentmethodsofincreasingP efficiency.ResearchhasshownthatbandingPfor lettuceonmucksoilsreducesPneedsbyatleastonehalf(Guzmanetal.,1987;Sanchezetal.,1990a). Inmostsituations,allPshouldbeappliedbeforeor atplanting.Side-dressingofPinbandsmightbeneeded onthemarlorRockdalesoilsduringwintertoincrease Pavailabilitytotheslow-growingroots,butsidedressing Pforafast-growingcropsuchaslettucewasnotproven beneficialonmucksoil. NitrogenandKcanleachinsandysoils.Therefore, thesenutrientsshouldbeappliedtounmulchedcropsin split-applicationstoreduceleachinglossesandtoreduce soluble-saltinjury.Formucksoilsandclayeysoils, potassiumcanbebroadcastatplantingtime.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page5Mostmicronutrientsareessentiallyimmobileinsoil andshouldbemanagedlikeP.Foliarapplicationsof manganese(Mn),iron(Fe),copper(Cu),andzinc(Zn) canbeusedtocorrectspecificdeficiencieswhichmight occuronhigh-pH(basic)soilsduringcoolperiods.LIQUIDVS.DRYFERTILIZERSOURCESResearchinFloridahasshownthatthereisno differenceincropresponsetosimilaramountsof nutrientswhenappliedineitherliquidordryform. Sidedressapplicationsoffertilizercanbeeffectively madewithdryorliquidformsofnutrients.Certain situations(useofdripirrigationorsomeinjection wheels)requireclearsolutions. Thedecisiontouseliquidordryfertilizersources shoulddependlargelyoneconomicsandonthetypeof applicationequipmentavailable.Thecostperunitof nutrient(e.g.,dollarspertonofactualN)shouldbeused inanydecision-makingprocess.FOLIARFERTILIZATIONFoliarfertilizationshouldbethoughtofasa"last resort"methodforsupplyingmicronutrients.Theplant leafresistseasyinfiltrationbyfertilizersalts.Foliar fertilizationmostappropriatelyappliestomicronutrients andnottomacronutrientssuchasN,P,andK.Research hasshownthatfoliarapplicationsofN,P,and/orKare notneededwherepropersoil-directedfertilizerprograms arebeingfollowed.Leavescannotabsorbenoughof thesenutrients(andleafburnmightresult)tocorrectany significantnutrientdeficiency.Anybenefitfrom macronutrientfoliarspraysprobablyresultswhen nutrientsarewashedbyrainorirrigationwateroffofthe leafsurfaceintothesoil.Thenutrientthenentersthe plantviatheplantroots.Amountsrecommendedonthe productlabelofmostcommercialmacronutrientfoliar spraymaterialsareminusculecomparedtonutrition derivedfromthesoilsothatbenefittotheplantis highlyunlikely.Fertilizershouldonlybeaddedif additionalyieldresults,andresearchwith"shot-gun" foliar-nutrientapplicationshasnotclearlydocumenteda yieldincreaseforvegetables. Incertainsituations,temporarydeficienciesofMn, Fe,Cu,orZncanbecorrectedbyfoliarapplication. Examplesincludevegetableproductioninwintermonths whensoilsarecoolandrootscannotextractadequate amountsofmicronutrientsandincaseswherehighsoil pH"fixes"broadcastmicronutrientsinunavailableforms. Micronutrientsaresotermedbecausesmall,or"micro", amountsarerequiredtosatisfytheCNR.Suchmicroamountsmaybesuppliedadequatelythroughfoliar applications. Boron(B)ishighlyimmobileintheplant.To correctborondeficiencies,verysmallamountsofboron mustbeappliedfrequentlytotheyoungtissueorbuds. FruitdeficienciesofBareunlikelytobecorrectedby foliarspraysforthesamereasonsdiscussedearlierfor Ca.BdeficienciesshouldbealleviatedbyBapplication tothesoilorthroughadripirrigationsystem. Anymicronutrientshouldbeapplied only whena specificdeficiencyhasclearlybeendiagnosed.Thereis afinelinebetween adequate and toxic amountsofthese nutrients."Shotgun"applicationofmicronutrientscan actuallyreduceplantgrowthandyieldsbecauseof toxicity(fromunneedednutrientsinthemixture). Compoundingthisproblemisthepotentialaccumulation ofsomenutrientsinthesoiltolevelswhichmay threatencropproductiononthatsoil.Animportantpart ofanymicronutrientprograminvolvescareful calculationsofamountsofallmicronutrientsbeing applied,fromallsources.DRIPIRRIGATIONSomenutrientscanbeefficientlyappliedthrough dripirrigationsystems,achievinghighfertilizer efficiency.Mostoften,NandKareinjected.Although Pandmicronutrientscanbeinjectedifproper precautionsaretakentopreventprecipitationandemitter clogging,thegeneralrecommendationisnottoinject thesenutrients.Nutrientsshouldbeinjectedaccording tocropgrowthanddemandwithattentiongivento properwatermanagementsothatNandKarenot leached.Dripirrigationsystemstobeusedfornutrient injectionmustbeproperlydesignedforthepurposeof injectingfertilizer.Detailsonsystemdesign, management,andspecificinjectionschedulesforvarious cropsarepresentedinSpecialSeriesSSVEC-45,by HochmuthandClark(1991).DOUBLE-CROPPINGSuccessivecroppingofexistingmulchedbedsisa goodpracticetomakeeffectiveuseofthepolyethylene mulchandfumigant(Hochmuth,1992).Doublecroppingalsocanmakeuseofresidualfertilizerinthe beds.IfNapplicationsandamountswereproperly managedforthefirstcrop,thereshouldbenegligible amountsoffertilizerNremaininginthebeds.Itisnot agoodpracticetoaddextrafertilizerNtothesoilwhen plantingthefirstcrop,thinkingthatthisfertilizerwillaid growthofthesecondcrop.Theextrafertilizercould

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page6contributetosoluble-saltdamagetothefirstcrop,and mightbeleachedfromtherootzonebeforethesecond cropisestablished. Ifdouble-croppingisplanned,thenadripirrigation systemcouldbeusedtosupplyadequatenutritionto eachcrop.Soiltestingofasampletakenfromthebed awayfromanyfertilizerbandswillhelpdeterminePor micronutrientneeds,assumingthatthesenutrientswere broadcastinthebedpriortoplantingthefirstcrop. Phosphorusandmicronutrientfertilization(ifany)forthe firstcropwilllikelyremainadequateforthesecond crop.IfNforthefirstcropwasnotappliedinexcessof theCNR,thenthesecondcropshouldreceiveanamount ofNequaltoitsownCNR. Potassiumrequirementsofthesecondcropcanbe determinedbysoiltestingwheretheKforthefirst cropwasincorporatedinthebed.Potassium requirementsforthesecondcroparemoredifficultto determinewhereKforthefirstcropwasbanded. Soluble-saltmeasurementsofthebandareaaredifficult tointerpretbecausethesaltreadingmeasureseverything atthesametimeincludingnutrientsandothersalts. Moreaccurately,Kfertilizationshouldbemanagedlike N.Ifsoil-test-predictedamountsofKwereusedforthe firstcrop,thereshouldbelittleresidualK.Atmost,the secondcropshouldreceiveanamountofKequaltothat crop'sCNRforK. Oncethecropfertilizerrequirementshavebeen determined,theneedednutritionmaybeappliedthrough thedripsystem.Wheredripirrigationisnotbeingused, aliquid-injectionwheelcanbeusedtoplacefertilizerin thebedforthesecondcrop.PLANTTISSUETESTINGNutrientanalysisofplantleavesorpetiolesapcan provideameansfordiagnosingdeficienciesorfor refiningfertilizationprograms.Ifdeficienciesare detectedearlyenough,thencorrectionscanbemadeso thatyieldandqualityarenotsacrificed.Fortissue testing,mostlaboratoriesusethemost-recentlymatured leaves.Forquickin-fieldtesting,leafpetiolesapcanbe analyzedbythegrowerusinghand-heldtestingkits. Growersshouldbecarefulthatlabsandtestingkitsalso providecalibratednutrientguidelinesthatwere developedfromfieldresearch(Plate4).Nutrient sufficiencyrangesforFloridavegetableshavebeen publishedin"SpecialSeriesSSVEC-42, Planttissue analysisandinterpretationforvegetablecropsin Florida,byHochmuthetal.(1991).

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page7Table1. CropnutrientrequirementsforN,P,andKforvegetablesgrownonirrigatedmineral(sandy)soils. Cropnutrientrequirements1,2 Cropnutrientrequirement1,2 Crop N-P2O5-K2O lb/A Applicable footnotes Crop N-P2O5-K2Olb/A Applicable footnotes Bean,snap 90-120-1203 Muskmelon 150-150-150 3,4,5,10 Bean,pole 90-120-120 3 Mustardgreens,kale 120-150-150 3 Bean,lima 90-120-1203 Okra 120-150-150 3 Beet 120-120-120 3 Onion,bulb 150-150-150 3 Broccoli 175-150-1503,4,5,10 Onion,bunch,leeks120-120-120 3 Brusselssprouts 175-150-150 3,4,5,10 Parsley 120-150-150 3 Cabbage 150-150-1503,4,5,10 Pea,English snow,snap,southern60-80-80 3 Carrot 150-150-150 3 Pepper,bell,specialty 175-160-160 3,4,5,7,10,11 Cauliflower 175-150-1503,4,5,10 Potato,Irish 175-120-140 3,12 Celery 200-200-250 3,10 Potato,sweet 60-120-120 3 Chinesecabbage 150-150-1503,10 Pumpkin 120-120-120 3,4,5 Collards 150-150-150 3 Radish 90-120-120 3,6,9 Corn,sweet 150-120-1203 Spinach 90-120-120 3 Cucumber 150-120-120 3,4,5 Squash,summer 120-120-120 3,4,5 Eggplant 160-160-1603,4,5,10,11 Squash,winter 120-120-120 3,4,5 Endive,escarole 150-150-150 3,10 Strawberry 150-150-150 5,7,8 Lettuce,crisphead150-150-1503,10 Tomato,slicing,cherry175-150-225 3,4,5,7,10,11 Lettuce,leaf 120-150-150 3,10 Turnip 120-150-150 3 Lettuce,romaine 150-150-150 3,10 Watermelon 150-150-150 3,4,5,10 1Thesefertilizeramountsshouldbeappliedonly tosoilstesting"verylow"inPandK.Useacalibratedsoiltesttodetermineprecisely howmuchPandKfertilizer(ifany)isneeded. 2Additionalsupplementalsidedressapplicationsof30lbNand20lbK20peracreshouldbeappliedonlyafterrainfall/irrigationamounts thatexceed3incheswithina3-dayperiodor4incheswithina7-dayperiod.Avoidmechanicaldamagetoplantswhenapplying sidedressfertilizers. 3Fertilizershouldbeappliedinsplitapplicationstoreduceleachinglossesandtolessendangeroffertilizerburn.Broadcastinthebed orbandallP2O5andmicronutrients,ifany,and25to50percentoftheNandK2Oatplanting.ApplyremainingNandK2Oin sidedressbandsduringtheearlypartofthegrowingseason. 4Formulched,subsurface-irrigatedcrops,incorporate10to20percentoftheNandK2OplusalloftheP2O5andmicronutrients,ifany, inthebed.ApplytheremainderoftheNandK2Otwotothreeinchesdeepinbandsabout6to10inchesfromtheplantrow.For mulched,overhead-irrigatedcrops,incorporatealloftheN,P2O5,K2O,andmicronutrients,ifany,inthebedpriortoinstallationofthe mulch. 5Fordripirrigation,incorporate20to40percentoftheNandK2OandalloftheP2O5andmicronutrients,ifany,inthebed.For managementsystemswherebothsubsurfaceanddripirrigationareused,applynomorethan20percentoftheNandK2Ointhebed beforemulching.ApplytheremainderoftheNandK2Operiodicallythroughdriptubesaccordingtotherateofcropgrowthand development.Forinjectionschedules,consultSpecialSeriesSSVEC-45,"Fertilizerapplicationandmanagementformicro(drip) irrigatedvegetablesinFlorida." 6Applyallfertilizerpriorto,orat,planting. 7From25to30percentoftheNmaybesuppliedfromslow-releaseNsources,suchassulfur-coatedureaorisobutylidene-diurea (IBDU).DuetohigherNefficiencywithslow-releaseNsources,itmightbepossibletoreducetheoverallN-fertilizeramountbyabout 15to20percent. 8Foroverhead-irrigatedstrawberry,applyallP2O5andmicronutrients,ifany,and25percentoftheNandK2O,inthebed.Placethe remainingNandK2Oinaband2to3inchesdeepinthecenterofthebed. 9Usuallyadequatefor2to3cropsinsuccession. 10Transplantsmightbenefitfromapplicationofstarter-fertilizersolutioncontainingNandP,especiallyundercool-soiltemperature conditions. 11ThisisadequateNandK2Oforthreeharvests.Wheremorethanthreeharvestsareanticipated,30to40lbNperacreand20to40 lbK2Ocanbeapplied(byliquidfertilizerwheel)twotothreeweekspriortoeachanticipatedadditionalharvest.Wheredripirrigationis used,acropmaintenanceapplicationof1.0to1.5lbNandK2Operacreperdaycanbeused. 12ForIrishpotato,Pissuppliedaccordingtosoiltestresults.Allpotatoesreceive175lbNand140lbK2Operacreinsplitapplication of50%to66%oftheNand50%oftheK2OatplantingoratemergenceandtheremainingNandKatabout35to40daysafterthe planting.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page8Table2. CropnutrientrequirementsforN,P,andKforvegetablesgrownonirrigatedorganicsoils. Cropnutrientrequirements1,2 Cropnutrientrequirements1,2 Crop N-P2O5-K2O lb/A Applicable footnotes Crop N-P2O5-K2O lb/A Applicable footnotes Bean,snap 0-120-120 3,5 Muskmelon -4 Bean,pole 0-120-180 3,5 Mustardgreens,kale 0-120-180 3,5 Bean,lima 0-120-1803,5 Okra 0-200-200 3,5 Beet 0-120-180 3,5 Onion,bulb,bunch,leeks 0-200-180 3,5 Broccoli 0-200-2003,5 Parsley 0-200-200 3,5 Brusselssprouts 0-200-200 3,5 Pea,English,snow,snap 0-120-180 3,5 Cabbage 0-200-2003,5 Pea,southern 0-100-150 3,5 Carrot 0-260-200 3,5 Pepper,bell,specialty 0-200-200 3,5 Cauliflower 0-200-2003,5 Potato,Irish 0-200-200 3,5 Celery 0-260-300 3,5 Potato,sweet -4 Chinesecabbage0-280-2003,5 Radish 0-100-100 3,5,8 Collards 0-120-120 3,5 Spinach 0-100-120 3,5 Corn,sweet 0-160-1203,5,7 Squash,summer 0-100-120 3,5 Cucumber -4 Squash,winter 0-100-120 3,5 Eggplant 0-200-2003,5 Strawberry -4 Endive,escarole 0-200-200 3,5,6,7 Tomato -4 Lettuce,crispheadleaf0-200-2003,5,7 Turnip 0-120-180 3,5 Lettuce,romaine 0-200-200 5,7 Watermelon -4 1Thesefertilizeramountsshouldbeappliedonlytosoilstesting"verylow"inPandK.Useacalibratedsoiltestto determinehowmuchfertilizerisneeded. 2TheseCNRvaluesaresufficientfornormalconditions.Mostcropswillrespondtosupplementalapplicationsof30to 40lbofnitrate-nitrogenperacreduringperiodsofcoolweatherorafteraleachingrain. 3Onnewpeatsoils,makeabroadcastapplicationof11lbofcopper,7lbofmanganese,and1lbofboronperacre beforethecropisplanted.Useacalibratedsoiltesttodetermineneedsforfurthermicronutrientapplications. 4Thesecropsarenotrecommendedforproductiononorganicsoils. 5ApplyallKandmicronutrientfertilizerbroadcast,justpriortoplanting. 6Includeschicory 7BandPfertilizer. 8Usuallysufficientfor2or3consecutivecrops.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page9Table3. CropnutrientrequirementsforN,P,andKforvegetablesgrownonirrigatedmarlandrocklandsoils. Cropnutrientrequirements1,2 Cropnutrientrequirements1,2 Crop N-P2O5-K2O lb/A Applicable footnotes Crop N-P2O5-K2O lb/A Applicable footnotes Bean,snap 50-100-100 3 Mustardgreens,kale 100-100-100 3 Bean,pole 70-100-100 3 Okra 120-120-120 3 Bean,lima 60-100-1003 Onion 120-120-120 3 Beet 100-100-100 3,8 Parsley 100-100-100 3 Broccoli 100-100-1003,10 Pea,English,snow,snap50-100-100 3 Cabbage 100-100-100 3,10 Pea,southern 50-100-100 3 Carrot 100-100-1003,8 Pepper,bell,specialty150-150-150 3,4,5,9,10 Cauliflower 100-100-100 3,4,10 Potato,Irish 120-120-120 3,8 Celery 120-120-1203,10 Potato,sweet 40-80-80 3 Chinesecabbage 100-100-100 3 Radish 80-80-80 6,8 Collards,Brussels -sprouts 100-100-1003 Spinach 80-80-80 3 Corn,sweet 100-100-100 3 Squash,summer, -pumpkin 100-100-100 3 Cucumber 100-100-1003,4 Squash,winter 100-100-100 3 Eggplant 120-120-120 3,4,5,10 Strawberry 120-120-120 4,5,9 Endive,escarole100-100-1003,7 Tomato,slicing,cherry150-200-200 3,4,5,9,10 Lettuce,crisphead, -leaf,romaine 100-100-100 3 Turnip 100-100-100 3 Muskmelon 120-120-1204,5,10 Watermelon 120-120-120 3,4,5,10 1Thesefertilizeramountsshouldbeappliedonly tosoilstesting"verylow"inPandK.Useacalibratedsoiltestto determinepreciselyhowmuchfertilizerisneeded. 2Makeasupplementalsidedressapplicationtounmulchedcropsof30-0-20lbN-P2O5-K2O/Aafteranyrainfalleventthat exceeds3inchesofwaterin3daysor4inchesina7-dayperiod.Usealiquid-injectionwheelordripirrigationtoapply supplementalfertilizertomulchedcrops.Supplementalapplicationswillprobablynotbeneededonmulchedcrops unlessfloodingoccurs.Cropsmightrespondtoasidedress-bandapplicationof30to40lbP2O5peracreduringcool periods. 3Forunmulchedcrops,applyallPandmicronutrientsbefore,orat,planting.Increasedefficiencyofplantuseofthese nutrientsmightberealizedbybandingthesenutrientsinthesoiltothesideoftherow.Apply25to50%oftheNandK atplanting,orsidedressatcropemergence.ApplytheremainderoftheNandKin2to3split-applicationsduringthe growingseason. 4Formulchedcrops,apply25to50%ofthefertilizerbroadcastinthebed,andtheremainderinbandspriortoinstalling themulch. 5Fordrip-irrigatedcrops,applyallPandmicronutrients,and20to40%oftheNandK,inthebed.Applytheremaining NandKthroughthedripsystem. 6Applyallfertilizerpriorto,orat,planting. 7Includesescaroleandchicory. 8Thesecropsarenotrecommendedforcommercialproductiononrocklandsoils. 9Controlledorslow-releaseNsources,suchassulfur-coatedureaorisobutylidenediureacanbeusedtosupply25to 50%oftheN.Useofaslow-releaseNproductmightmakeitpossibletoreducetheoverallNfertilizerrequirement. 10CropswillprobablybenefitfromaNandPstartersolutionusedwiththetransplant.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page10Table4. SelectedUniversityofFloridaExtensionpublicationspertainingtocropproductionandfertilization. Topic Publicationnumber Titleofpublication Fertilization Circ.225-C CommercialVegetableFertilizationGuide Bull.183-C FertilizersandFertilization Circ.817 Soil,ContainerMediaandWaterTesting Beans Circ.100 BeanProductionGuide Broccoli Circ.555 BroccoliandCauliflowerProductionin Florida Cabbage Circ.117 CabbageProductionGuideforFlorida Cauliflower Circ.555 BroccoliandCauliflowerProductionin Florida Chineseleafyvegetables Circ.SP100 ProductionGuideforFloridaChinese LeafyVegetables Corn,sweet Circ.99 SweetCornProductioninFlorida Cucumber Circ.101 CucumberProductionGuideforFlorida Eggplant Circ.109 EggplantProductionGuide Lettuce Circ.123 LettuceandEndiveProductionGuide Muskmelon Circ.122 MuskmelonProductionGuideforFlorida Okra Circ.492 OkrainFlorida Onions Circ.176 OnionProductionGuide Peas,southern Circ.478 TheSouthernPeainFlorida Pepper Circ.102 PepperProductionGuideforFlorida Potato,Irish Circ.118 PotatoProductionGuide Potato,sweet Circ.551 SweetPotatoesinFlorida Squash Circ.103 SquashProductioninFlorida Strawberry Circ.142 StrawberryProductionGuideforFlorida Tomato Circ.98 TomatoProductionGuideforFlorida Watermelon Circ.SP113 WatermelonProductionGuideforFloridaREFERENCES(CITEDINTEXT) Clark,G.A.,C.D.Stanley,D.N.Maynard,D.Z. Haman,G.J.Hochmuth,andE.A.Hanlon. 1988.Tensiometersasamanagementtoolfor micro-irrigatedtomatoesinsouthwestFlorida. ProceedingsoftheFloridaTomatoInstitute SpecialSeries (FloridaCooperativeExtension Service);SS-VEC-801:1-5. Clark,G.A.,D.N.Maynard,C.D.Stanley,G.J. Hochmuth,E.A.HanlonandD.Z.Haman.1990. Irrigationschedulingandmanagementofmicro-

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page11irrigatedtomatoes.Circular (FloridaCooperative ExtensionService);872. Hanlon,E.A.,G.Kidder,andB.L.McNeal.1990. Soil,containermedia,andwatertestingInterpretationsandIFASstandardizedfertilization recommendations.Circular (FloridaCooperative ExtensionService);817. Hochmuth,1988.Polyethylenemulchingforearly vegetableproductioninNorthFlorida.Circular (FloridaCooperativeExtensionService) ;805. Hochmuth,G.,andG.Clark.1991.Fertilizer applicationandmanagementformicro(drip) irrigatedvegetablesinFlorida.SpecialSeries (FloridaCooperativeExtensionService) ;SSVEC45. Hochmuth,G.,D.Maynard,C.Vavrina,andE. Hanlon.1991.Planttissueanalysisand interpretationforvegetablecropsinFlorida. SpecialSeries (FloridaCooperativeExtension Service);SSVEC-42. Hochmuth,G.J.1992.Double-croppingvegetables onpolyethylene-mulchedbeds.Circular (Florida CooperativeExtensionService) ;SP109. Hochmuth,G.,E.Hanlon,B.Hochmuth,G.Kidder, andD.Hensel.1993.Fieldfertilityresearchwith PandKforvegetables-interpretationsand recommendations. SoilandCropScienceSociety ofFloridaProceedings. 52:95-101. Rhoads,F.M.,E.A.Hanlon,andS.M.Olson.1993. Phosphorusavailabilitytosnapbeansasaffected bylimesequenceandphosphorussource. Soil andCropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 52:90-94. Hochmuth,G.,andE.Hanlon.l995.IFAS standardizedfertilizationrecommendationsfor vegetablecrops.Circular(FloridaCooperative ExtensionService);1152. LITERATUREDOCUMENTATION(BYCROP) Bean(Snap) AsgrowSeedCo.1987.Freshmarketbeansnitrogen andspacingresponse.Miscellaneousreport, AsgrowSeedCo. ,Kalamazoo,MI. Hochmuth,G.,B.Hochmuth,andE.Hanlon.1992. ComparisonofvariousNschedulingmethodsfor snapbeans.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-5.10pp. Hochmuth,G.,B.Hochmuth,andE.Hanlon.1992. FieldtestofIFASPandKrecommendationsfor snapbeans.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-15.6pp. Hochmuth,G.,B.Hochmuth,andE.Hanlon.1992. Responseofsnapbeantonitrogenfertilizationon asandysoil.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-6.12pp. Nettles,V.F.,andW.C.Hulbert.1966.Effectsof placementsandlevelsoffertilizerontheyieldof vegetables. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 79:185-191. Rhoads,F.M.,E.A.Hanlon,S.M.Olson,andG.J. Hochmuth.1990.ResponseofsnapbeanstoN ratesandsoil-testPandK. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 49:10-13. Stall,W.M.,andM.Sherman.1983.Snapbean productioninFlorida.Circular (Florida CooperativeExtensionService) ;100.4pp. Broccoli Csizinszky,A.A.,andC.D.Stanley.1984.Effect oftrickletubesperbedandNandKrateson springbroccoliandcabbageyields. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 43:51-55. Csizinszky,A.A.1987.Nutritionofcolecropswith thefull-bedpolyethylenemulchsysteminwestcentralFlorida. JournalofPlantNutrition. 10:1489-1497. McCubbin,E.N.1952.Somefactorsaffecting productionofbroccoliatHastings. Proceedings oftheFloridaStateHorticulturalSociety.65:118120.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page12Olson,S.M.,andM.Sherman.1990.Broccoliand cauliflowerproductioninFlorida.Circular (FloridaCooperativeExtensionService) ;555. 5pp. Singleton,G.1953.Somefactorsaffectingtheyield ofbroccolionScrantonfinesandinFlorida. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society.66:97-99 Cabbage Bryan,H.H.,W.K.Robertson,andF.G.Martin. 1967.Effectofnitrogen,phosphorus,and potassiumonyieldandsizeofsweetpotatoes, cabbage,andcauliflowergrownonNorfolkfine sandinNorthFlorida. SoilandCropScience SocietyofFloridaProceedings. 27:259-267. Bustillo,B.A.,D.F.Rothwell,R.B.Forbes,andW. T.Scudder.1967.Effectofmulchesand fertilizeroncabbageyieldandsoilfertility. Soil andCropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 27:170-176. Csizinszky,A.A.,andC.D.Stanley.1984.Effect oftrickletubesperbedandNandKrateson springbroccoliandcabbageyields. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 43:51-55. Csizinszky,A.A.andD.J.Schuster.1985. Responseofcabbagetoinsecticideschedule,plant spacing,andfertilizerrates. Journalofthe AmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 110:888-893. Csizinszky,A.A.1987.Nutritionofcolecropswith thefull-bedpolyethylenemulchsysteminWestcentralFlorida. JournalofPlantNutrition. 10:1489-1497. Forbes,R.B.,J.B.Sartain,andN.R.Usherwood. 1984.OptimumKfertilizationschedulefor maximizingyieldsofcabbage,sweetcorn,and soybeansgrowninamultiplecroppingsequence. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 43:64-68. Hensel,D.R.1967.Fertilizerplacementoncabbage. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 27:227-234. Hochmuth,G.J.(ed.).1988.Cabbageproduction guideforFlorida.Circular (FloridaCooperative ExtensionService);117E.12pp. Hochmuth,R.C.,G.J.HochmuthandMichaelE. Donley.1993.Responsesofcabbageyields, headquality,andleafnutrientstatus,andof second-cropsquash,topoultrymanure fertilization. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 52:126-130. McCubbin,E.N.1960.Supplementalfertilizersfor cabbage. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 73:156-160. Nettles,V.F.,andW.C.Hulbert.1966.Effectof placementsandlevelsoffertilizerontheyieldof vegetables. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 79:185-191. Robertson,W.K.,andH.W.Young.1964. ResponseofvegetablesgrownintheQuincyarea onNorfolkloamyfinesandtofertilizerandsoil amendments. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 77:198-204. Carrots Crnko,G.S.,A.Ferrer,E.A.Hanlon,C.A.Neal, andJ.M.White.1993.Carrotandsweetcorn yieldswhenfertilizedaccordingtosoiltestresults. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 106:199-201. Forbes,R.B.,andP.J.Westgate.1963.Carrot fertilizationexperimentsincentralFlorida. Soil andCropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 23:99-104. Forbes,R.B.1966.Nitrogensourcesforcarrots. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 26:120-124. Cauliflower Bryan,H.H.,W.K.Robertson,andF.G.Martin. 1967.Effectofnitrogen,phosphorus,and potassiumonyieldandsizeofsweetpotatoes, cabbage,andcauliflowergrownonNorfolkfine sandinnorthFlorida. SoilandCropScience SocietyofFloridaProceedings. 27:259-267.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page13Csizinszky,A.A.,andA.J.Overman.1979.Effect ofdripirrigationtubeplacementandtypeand quantityoffertilizeronyieldsofbroccoliand cauliflowerwithplasticmulch. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 38:46-48. Csizinszky,A.A.1982.Effectoffertilizerplacement andin-rowspacingoncaulifloweryield. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 95:328-330. Csizinszky,A.A.1987.Effectofnitrogensource, plantspacingandseedlingcontainercellsizeon trickleirrigatedcauliflower. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 46:84-88. Csizinszky,A.A.1987.Nutritionofcolecropswith thefull-bedpolyethylenemulchsysteminwestcentralFlorida. JournalofPlantNutrition. 10:1489-1497. Csizinszky,A.A.,andD.J.Schuster.1988.Impact ofinsecticideschedule,NandKratesand transplantcontainersizeoncaulifloweryield. AppliedAgriculturalResearch. 3:12-16. Kovach,S.P.,A.A.Csizinszky,andC.D.Stanley. 1983.Effectofbedsizeandsupplementaldry fertilizeronyieldsofdripirrigatedcauliflower andtomato. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 96:96-98. Wall,T.E.,G.J.Hochmuth,andE.A.Hanlon. 1989.CalibrationofMehlich-IandIIIextractable potassiumforpolyethylene-mulched,drip-irrigated cauliflower. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 48:46-49. Celery Allison,R.V.,O.C.Bryan,andJ.H.Hunter.1927. Thestimulationofplantresponseonrawpeat soilsoftheFloridaEvergladesthroughtheuseof coppersulfateandotherchemicals.Bulletin (FloridaAgriculturalExp.Sta.) ;190. Beckenbach,J.R.1939.Fertilityprogramforcelery productiononEvergladesorganicsoils.Bulletin (FloridaAgriculturalExp.Sta.) ;333.p.11-12. Beverly,R.B.1984.ManaginghighsoilpHandMn availabilityinEvergladesvegetableproduction. ResearchReport (UniversityofFloridaEverglades REC);11.17pp. Beverly,R.B.1984.Nutritionalsurveyofthe Evergladesvegetableindustry. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety .97:210-205. Beverly,R.B.1987.Celeryresponsetofoliar nutritionalspraysandacidificationofahistosol. HortScience. 22(6):1271-1273. Beverly,R.B.,andD.L.Anderson.1988.Response ofpot-growncelerytofoliarMn,soilP,andsoil acidificationoftwohistosols. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 47:49-52. Burdine,H.W.,andV.L.Guzman.1969.Celery cultivarresponsestopHadjustmentonEverglades organicsoil. JournaloftheAmericanSocietyfor HorticulturalScience. 94:520-523. Burdine,H.W.,andV.L.Guzman.1969. Nutritionalfactorsaffectingnodalcrackingof somecelerycultivars. SoilandCropScience SocietyofFloridaProceedings. 29:351-362. Burdine,H.W.,andV.L.Guzman.1969.Some celeryresponsestofertilizerlevelsandsoiltest results.MimeoReport (UniversityofFlorida EvergladesStation);EES69-17.13pp. Espinosa,L.,C.A.Sanchez,andT.J.Schueneman. 1993.Celeryyieldrespondstophosphorusrate butnotphosphorusplacementonHistosols. HortScience. 28:1168-1170. Sanchez,C.A.,H.W.Burdine,andV.L.Guzman. 1990.Soiltestingandplantanalysisasguidesfor thefertilizationofceleryonhistisols. Soiland CropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 49:69-72. ChineseCabbage Nettles,V.F.,andM.B.Ali.1970.Effectof nitrogenandpotassiumlevelsandmethodsof plantingonyieldandqualityofChinesecabbage. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 30:16-19. Obreza,T.A.,andC.S.Vavrina.1993.Production ofChinesecabbageinrelationtonitrogensource,

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page14rate,andleafnutrientconcentration. CommunicationsinSoilScienceandPlant Analysis. 24(13-14):1465-1479. Shuler,K.D.1989.Evaluationofaslowrelease potassiumnitratefertilizerinChinesemustard, TomYeeFarm,BoyntonBeach,Florida,Spring, 1989.ExtensionReport (PalmBeachCounty); 1989-10. Shuler,K.D.1992.NapaChinesecabbageyield responsetoreducedratesofsidedressednitrogen andpotassiumfertilizer,Yeefarms,JETfarm, Loxahatchee,FL,fall,1991.ExtensionReport (PalmBeachCounty) ;1992-5. Vavrina,C.S.1991.Chinesecabbagestatewide figuresandfertilization. Vegetarian. 91-06:3. Vavrina,C.S.(ed.).1992.Productionguidefor FloridaChineseleafyvegetables.Circular (FloridaCooperativeExtensionService) ;SP-100. Vavrina,C.S.,T.A.Obreza,andJ.Cornell.1993. ResponseofChinesecabbagetonitrogenrateand sourceinsequentialplantings. HortScience. 28:1164-1166. Collards Sutton,P.1964.Responseofcollardstonitrogen, phosphorus,andpotassiumfertilization. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 77:186-189. Cucumber Cantliffe,D.J.,andA.F.Omran.1977.Nitrogen fertilizationratesforslicingcucumberstreated withethephon. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety.90:373-376. Everett,P.H.1963.Minorelementandnitrogen studieswithcucumbers. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 76:143-149. Forbes,R.B.,andJ.M.White.1982.Nitrogenand potassiumside-dressingofpicklingcucumbers. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 41:182-185. Forbes,R.B.,andJ.M.White.1986.Fertilization ofslicercucumberincentralFlorida. Soiland CropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 45:87-90. Hochmuth,R.C,andG.J.Hochmuth.1991. Nitrogenrequirementformulchedslicing cucumbers. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 50:130-133. Navarro,A.A.,andS.J.Locascio.1973.Cucumber responsetocopperrateandfertilizerplacement. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 86:193-195. Navarro,A.A.,andS.J.Locascio.1980.Copper nutritionofcucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)as influencedbyfertilizerplacement,phosphorus rate,andphosphorussource. SoilandCrop ScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 39:16-19. Nettles,V.F.,andW.C.Hulbert.1966.Effectof placementsandlevelsoffertilizerontheyieldof vegetables. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 79:185-191. Eggplant Albregts,E.E.,andC.M.Howard.1975.Influence ofmulchtypeandfertilizerratesoneggplant response. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 34:61-62. Hochmuth,G.,BobHochmuth,EdHanlon,and MichaelDonley.1991.Nitrogenrequirementsof mulchedeggplantinnorthernFlorida.Research Report (SuwanneeValleyAREC(LiveOak)) ;9114. Hochmuth,G.J.,BobC.Hochmuth,EdA.Hanlon, andMichaelDonley.1992.Effectofpotassium onyieldandleaf-NandKconcentrationsof eggplant.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-2. Hochmuth,G.J.,R.C.Hochmuth,M.E.Donley,and E.A.Hanlon.1993.Eggplantyieldinresponse topotassiumfertilizationonsandysoil. HortScience. 28:1002-1005. Shuler,K.D.,andG.J.Hochmuth.1993.Eggplant yieldresponsetoreducedratesofnitrogenand

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page20fruitingresponse. SoilandCropScienceSociety ofFloridaProceedings. 47:146-149. Albregts,E.E.,C.M.Howard,andC.K.Chandler. 1989.Fertilizerinjectionintostrawberryfruiting beds. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 48:108-111. Albregts,E.E.,C.M.Howard,C.K.Chandler,andF. G.Martin.1990.Fruitingresponseofstrawberry asaffectedbyratesandsourcesofcontrolled releaseNfertilizer,andirrigationmethod. Soil andCropScienceSocietyFloridaProceedings. 49:46-49. Albregts,E.E.,C.M.Howard,andC.K.Stanley. 1991.EffectofhighNratesonfruiting strawberry. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 50:134-136. Albregts,E.E.,G.A.Clark,C.D.Stanley,F.S. Zazueta,andA.G.Smajstrla.1991.Preplant fertilizationoffruitingmicroirrigatedstrawberry. HortScience. 26:1176-1177. Albregts,E.E.,C.M.Howard,andC.K.Chandler. 1991.StrawberryresponsestoKrateonafine sandsoil. HortScience. 26:135-138. Locascio,S.J.,andB.D.Thompson.1960. Strawberryyieldandthesoilnutrientlevelsas affectedbyfertilizerrate,typeofmulch,andtime ofapplication. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 73:172-179. Locascio,S.J.,andG.K.Saxena.1967.Effectsof potassiumsourceandrateandnitrogenrateon strawberrytissueandcompositionandfruityield. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 80:173-176. Locascio,S.J.1971.Strawberryyieldandsoil nutrientlevelsasinfluencedbyplantpopulation, fertilizerrate,andbedshape. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 84:160-162. Locascio,S.J.,andJ.MostellaMyers.1975.Trickle irrigationandfertilizationmethodforstrawberries. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 88:185-189. Locascio,S.J.,J.M.Myers,andF.G.Martin.1977. Frequencyandrateoffertilizationwithtrickle irrigationforstrawberries. Journalofthe AmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 102:456-458. SummerSquash Bryan,H.H.1966.Effectofplasticmulchonthe yieldofseveralvegetablecropsinnorthFlorida. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 79:139-146. Csizinszky,A.A.,D.N.Maynard,G.J.Hochmuth, andF.G.Martin.1987.Supplemental fertilizationofcucurbitsgrowinginfull-bed polyethylenemulchculture. JournalofPlant Nutrition. 10:1479-1488. Dweikat,I.M.,andS.R.Kostewicz.1989.Row arrangement,plantspacing,andnitrogenrate effectsonzucchinisquashyield. HortScience. 24:86-88. Hochmuth,G.J.,andR.C.Hochmuth.1992. Nitrogenfertilizationofsummersquashona sandysoil.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-19. Robertson,W.K.,andH.W.Young.1964. ResponseofvegetablesgrownintheQuincyarea onNorfolkloamyfinesandtofertilizerandsoil amendments. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 77:198-204. Sutton,P.1965.Effectofnitrogen,phosphorus,and potassiumonsquashyield. SoilandCropScience SocietyFloridaProceedings. 25:47-50. SweetCorn Burdine,H.W.,andW.W.Deen.1974.Responses ofthreesweetcornhybridstoliquid polyphosphateappliedintheband.Research Report (BelleGladeAREC) ;EV-1974-6.9pp. Crnko,G.S.,A.Ferrer,E.A.Hanlon,C.A.Neal, andJ.M.White.1993.Carrotandsweetcorn yieldswhenfertilizedaccordingtosoiltestresults. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 106:199-201.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page21Hochmuth,G.J.,BobHochmuth,andM.Donley. 1992.Nitrogenfertilizationofsweetcornona sandysoilinnorthernFlorida.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValleyAREC(LiveOak)). 92-8. Hochmuth,G.J.,E.A.Hanlon,andBobHochmuth. 1992.Responsesofpepper,muskmelon, watermelon,andsweetcorntoPandK fertilizationatLiveOak,FL.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValleyAREC(LiveOak)) ;92-28. Mohamad,A.R.B.1985.Theeffectofthe nitrificationinhibitor,dicyandiamide,onsweet corn(Zea mays var.sacharata )yieldandsoil nitrogenlevels.MasterofScienceThesis, UniversityofFlorida. Patel,S.K.,E.A.Hanlon,G.J.Hochmuth,andJ.M. White.1988.Nitrogenandpotassium managementstudiesforsweetcorn. Soiland CropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 47:142-146. Rhoads,F.M.1990.Sweetcornresearchinnorth Florida.VegetableFieldDayReport (North FloridaAREC(LiveOak)) Robertson,W.K.1962.Astudyofsources,rates, andmethodsofapplicationofnitrogenonsweet corn. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 75:249-253. Rudert,B.D.,andS.J.Locascio.1979.Growthand tissuecompositionofsweetcornasaffectedby nitrogensource,nitrapyrin,andseason. Journal oftheAmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 104:520-523. Sanchez,C.A.,R.T.Nagata,andV.L.Guzman. 1989.Responseofsweetcorntonitrogensource andrateonHistosols. HortScience. 24(6):925927. Sanchez,C.A.,P.S.Porter,andM.F.Ulloa.1991. Relativeefficiencyofbroadcastandbanded phosphorusforsweetcornproducedonHistosols. SoilScienceSocietyofAmericaJournal. 55:871875. SweetPotato Bryan,H.H.,W.K.Robertson,andF.G.Martin. 1967.Effectofnitrogen,phosphorus,and potassiumonyieldandsizeofsweetpotatoes, cabbage,andcauliflowergrownonNorfolkfine sandinNorthFlorida. SoilandCropScience SocietyofFloridaProceedings. 27:259-267. Nettles,V.F.1960.Resultsoffertilizertrialswith sweetpotatoes. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 73:179-183. Robertson,W.K.andH.W.Young.1964.Response ofvegetablesgrownintheQuincyareaon Norfolkloamyfinesandtofertilizerandsoil amendments. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 77:198-204 Tomato Clark,G.A.,C.D.Stanley,D.N.Maynard,G.J. Hochmuth,E.A.Hanlon,andD.Z.Haman. 1991.Waterandfertilizermanagementof microirrigatedfreshmarkettomatoes. TransactionsoftheAmericanSocietyfor AgriculturalEngineering. 34:429-435. Csizinszky,A.A.1980.Responseoftomatoesto fertilizerratesandwithinrowplantspacingintwo andfourrowproductionsystems. Proceedingsof theFloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 93:241243. Csizinszky,A.A.,andJ.W.Scott.1985.Response oftomatobreedingline7060and'Horizon'to nitrogenandpotassiumrates. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 98:240-244. Csizinszky,A.A.,andD.J.Shuster.1987.Yield responseofstaked,fresh-markettomatoesto reduceduseoffertilizersandinsecticides. JournaloftheAmericanSocietyforHorticultural Science. 107:648-652. Dangler,J.M.,andS.J.Locascio.1990.Yieldof trickle-irrigatedtomatoesasaffectedbytimeofN andKapplication. JournaloftheAmerican SocietyforHorticulturalScience. 115:585-589. Everett,P.H.1976.Effectofnitrogenand potassiumratesonfruityieldandsizeofmulch-

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page22grownstakedtomatoes. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 89:159-162. Hochmuth,G.,E.Hanlon,P.Gilreath,andK.Shuler. 1989.Fieldevaluationsofnitrogenfertilization programsforsubsurface-irrigatedtomatoes. ProceedingsFloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 102:351-354. Hochmuth,G.J.,E.A.Hanlon,P.R.Gilreath,andK. D.Shuler.1991.EffectsofKratesonyieldof tomatoatthreecommercialproductionsites. Soil andCropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 50:169-172. Hortenstine,C.C.,andR.E.Stall.1962.Theeffects ofCaandPfertilizationonyieldandqualityof manapaltomatoesgrownonvirginImmokalee finesoil. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 22:125-131. Locascio,S.J.,S.M.Olson,andF.M.Rhoads. 1989.WaterquantityandtimeofNandK applicationfortrickle-irrigatedtomatoes. Journal oftheAmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 114:265-268. Picha,D.H.,andC.B.Hall.1982.Effectof potassiumfertilizationandseasononfreshmarket tomatoqualitycharacters. HortScience. 17:634635. Persaud,N.,S.J.Locascio,andC.M.Geraldson. 1976.Effectofrateandplacementofnitrogen andpotassiumonyieldofmulchedtomatousing differentirrigationmethods. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 89:135-138. Rhue,R.D.,andP.H.Everett.1987.Responseof tomatoestolimeandphosphorusonasandysoil. AgronomyJournal. 79:71-77 Shuler,K.D.,G.J.Hochmuth,andE.A.Hanlon. 1989.Effectsofreducednitrogenandpotassium fertilizationontomatoesinBoyntonBeach, Florida,Fall/Winter1988-89.ExtensionReport (PalmBeachCounty) ;1989-6. Shuler,K.D.,G.J.Hochmuth,andE.A.Hanlon. 1991.Tomatoyieldresponsetoreducedratesof nitrogenandpotassiumfertilizer,ThomasProduce, BocaRaton,FL,Fall-Winter1990-91.Extension Report (PalmBeachCounty) ;1991-7. Shuler,K.D.,G.J.Hochmuth,E.A.Hanlon,andN. Roe.1992.Tomatoyieldresponsetoreduced ratesofnitrogenandpotassiumfertilizer,Neillco Farm,BoyntonBeach,FL.Fall-Winter,1991-92. ExtensionReport (PalmBeachCounty) ;1992-4. Watermelon Brinen,G.H.,S.J.Locascio,andG.W.Elmstrom. 1979.Plantandrowspacing,mulch,andfertilizer rateeffectsonwatermelonproduction. Journalof theAmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 104:724-726. Elmstrom,G.W.,J.G.A.Fiskell,andF.G.Martin. 1973.Watermelonyieldandquality:effectof fertilizerrateandplacement. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 86:196-200. Elmstrom,G.W.,andJ.G.A.Fiskell.1974. Watermelonyieldresponsetosupplemental magnesium. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof FloridaProceedings. 33:222-223. Everett,P.H.1960.Theinfluenceofnitrogensource andfertilizerrateonwatermelonyields. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 73:107-111. Everett,P.H.,S.J.Locascio,andJ.G.A.Fiskell. 1965.Factorsinvolvedinlimingsoilfor watermelonproduction. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 78:178-182. Fiskell,J.G.A.,S.J.Locascio,P.H.Everett,andH. W.Lundy.1967.Effectoffertilizerplacements andratesonwatermelonyields. Proceedingsof theFloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 80:168173. Halsey,L.H.1959.Watermelonspacingand fertilization. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 72:131-135. Hanlon,E.A.,G.J.Hochmuth,andO.A.Diaz. 1991.Mehlich-Isoil-testcalibrationfor watermelon:Cu,Zn,andMn. Communications inSoilScienceandPlantAnalysis. 2:2077-2087.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page23Hochmuth,G.,andE.A.Hanlon.1989.Mehlich-I soil-testcalibrationforwatermelons:phosphorus andpotassium. SoilandCropScienceSocietyof Florida.Proceedings. 48:40-43. Hochmuth,G.J.,EdHanlon,andBobHochmuth. 1992.Field-testingNrecommendationsfor iceboxandstandardwatermelonsinnorthcentral Florida.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValley AREC(LiveOak)) ;92-27. Hochmuth,G.J.,E.A.Hanlon,andBobHochmuth. 1992.Responsesofpepper,muskmelon, watermelon,andsweetcorntoPandK fertilizationatLiveOak,FL.ResearchReport (SuwanneeValleyAREC(LiveOak)) ;92-28. Hochmuth,G.J.,E.A.Hanlon,andJ.Cornell.1993. Watermelonphosphorusrequirementsinsoilswith lowMehlich-1-extractablephosphorus. HortScience. 28:630-632. Hopkins,D.L.,andG.W.Elmstrom.1976.Effect ofsoilpHandnitrogensourceonFusarium wilt ofwatermelononlandpreviouslycroppedin watermelons. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 89:141-143. Locascio,S.J.,andH.W.Lundy.1962.Limeand minorelementstudieswithwatermelons. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 75:131-136. Locascio,S.J.,andJ.G.Fiskell.1966.Copper requirementsofwatermelons. Proceedingsofthe AmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 88:568-575. Locascio,S.J.,J.G.A.Fiskell,P.H.Everett,andJ. M.Crall.1966.Watermelonresponsetocopper andacompletemicronutrientsource. Proceedings oftheFloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 79:150154. Locascio,S.J.,P.H.Everett,andJ.G.A.Fiskell. 1968.Effectsofphosphorussourcesandcopper ratesonwatermelons. Proceedingsofthe AmericanSocietyforHorticulturalScience. 92:583-589. Locascio,S.J.,J.G.A.Fiskell,andH.W.Lundy. 1970.Patternoffertilizationforwatermelons: I.Influenceonplantgrowthandfruityield. ProceedingsoftheFloridaStateHorticultural Society. 83:144-148. Locascio,S.J.,andJ.G.A.Fiskell.1970.Effectsof sulfur-coatedureaandpotassiumchlorideon watermelonproductionandsolublesalts. Soiland CropScienceSocietyofFloridaProceedings. 30:113-123. Locascio,S.J.,J.G.A.Fiskell,andF.G.Martin. 1972.Influenceoffertilizerplacementand micronutrientrateonwatermeloncompositionand yield. JournaloftheAmericanSocietyfor HorticulturalScience. 97:119-123. Locascio,S.J.,J.G.A.Fiskell,andH.W.Lundy. 1973.Watermelonresponsetosulfur-coatedurea, mulches,andnitrogenrates. Proceedingsofthe FloridaStateHorticulturalSociety. 86:201-204. Locascio,S.J.,J.G.A.Fiskell,andG.W.Elmstrom. 1978.Comparisonofsulfur-coatedanduncoated ureaforwatermelons. SoilandCropScience SocietyofFloridaProceedings. 37:197-200. Nettles,V.F.,andH.W.Lundy.1958.Resultsof watermelonfertilizertrialsatGainesvilleandLive Oakin1958. ProceedingsoftheFloridaState HorticulturalSociety. 71:13-15.

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CommercialVegetableCropNutrientRequirementsinFlorida Page24Vann,C.D.,R.C.Hochmuth,andG.J.Hochmuth. 1993.WatermelonNandKpetiolesaptesting. Proc.1993IFASVineCropsInst.SpecialSeries (FloridaCooperativeExtensionService) ;SS-HOS3:8-14. Volk,G.M.,andN.Gammon,Jr.1964.Comparison ofnitrogensourcesassidedressings:II. Efficiencyonwatermelonsatvariouslimelevels. SoilandCropScienceSocietyofFlorida Proceedings. 24:76-80.