This item is only available as the following downloads:
1.This document is HS 748, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida C ooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date first printed: April 1999. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu .The Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences is an equal opportunit y /affirmative action emplo y er authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, sex, a g e, handicap, or national ori g in. For information on obtainin g other extension publications, contact y our count y Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences / Universit y of Florida / Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Dean2.J. J. Ferguson, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; and G. D. Israel, professor, Program Development and Evaluation Center, Agricultural Education and Communication Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville, 32611.HS 748Size, Location, and Management of Florida Citrus Groves: a 1996 Survey1 J. J. Fer g uson and G. D. Israel2Florida citrus acreage, production, u tilization, andmanaged the groves of others (manage both). Pr oduction marketing data are published every two years by theregions included the central Florida Ridge, the Indian Florida Agricultural Statistic Service as the most detailed,River area (east coast of Florida), southwest Florida, west reliable information about industry trends, including theFlorida, and a mu ltic ounty category that included impact of major citrus freezes. Although a major freezerespondents with groves in more than one county. Planting has not affected the Florida citrus industry since 1989,system referred to groves that were nonbedded (primarily growers on nonbedded groves indicated in a 1992 surveythe deeply drained, sandy soils of the Ridge) and bedded that cold protection was their third most important(primarily poorly drained, shallow soils in the Indian information need after pest management and cost-effectiveRiver area and southwest Florida). Data were also chemicals. Growers on bedded groves also ranked coldanalyzed in terms of grove size: 1-25 acres, 26-49 acres, protection ninth out of 17 items. A moderate freeze during50-99 acres, 100-499 acres, 500-999 acres, and greater the 1995-96 season further emphasized the need tothan 1,000 acres. Data were compared within pr oduction document current cold-protection and other relatedsystems, production regions, management patterns, and production practices, including related information ongrove size. In some cases, growers could choose more than grove size, location, and management.one response; in other cases, data from a series of A mail survey was conducted in 1996, obtaining aone graph, resu lting in what appears to be a greater than sample population of 674 citrus growers from the ma iling 100% response. "N" values indicate the number of lists of extension agents in 27 Florida counties whererespondents answering a question. citrus was commercially grown. Of the mailed surveys, 451 useable responses were returned (66% response rate), with an expected sampling error of 4% at the 95% level. Data were analyzed on five different levels: 1) statewide (27 counties), 2) planting system, 3) production region, 4) grove size, and 5) management patterns. Ownership and management patterns included growers who owned but did not manage their groves (owners only), those who owned and managed their own groves (owners/managers), caretakers who managed the groves of others (manage others), and those who both owned their own groves and questions requiring a yes or no answer were combined intoGrove SizeOn a statewide basis, 30% of surveyed growers indicated that their groves were less than 49 acres, compared to 1989 data establishing that 51% of groves ranged from 10 to 60 acres. Twenty-five percent of respondents had groves ranging from 100 to 499 acres, with another 25% reporting that their groves were greater than 1,000 acres. These data can be compared to the 35% in 1989 who said their groves were from 61 to 600 acres
30 13 25 7 25Acres 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 <49 50-99 100-499 500-999 >1000n = 451 41 26 10 19 3Re g ion 0 10 20 30 40 50 Rid g e Indian River SW Florida W Florida Multi-Count y n = 451 Size, Location, and Mana g ement of Florida Citrus Groves: a 1996 Surve y Pa g e 2Ma y 1999 Figure 1 Size of Florida citrus g roves. Figure 2 Location of surve y respondents b y production re g ion.and 14% who had groves greater than 600 acres. In this survey, 13% also had groves from 50 to 99 acres, and 7% had groves from 499 to 999 acres (Fig. 1). Alt hough grove acreage categories were not the same in the 1989 and 1996 surveys, the above data suggest a trend toward larger-sized groves. Another trend was the shift in the percentage of growers with nonbedded and bedded groves. Forty-two percent indicated they produced citrus on nonbedded groves, and 58% on bedded groves, corroborating citrus acreage for generally nonbedded ( 350,620 acres or 42%) and bedded (504,291 acres or 58%) c ounties reported in the 1996 Commercial Citrus Inventory (Florida Agricultural Statistics Service). This transition could also be seen in the changing ratio of nonbedded to bedded growers in the following three surveys: 1989, 59%/41%; 1992, 52%/48%; and 1996, 42%/58%. Within production systems, 47% of nonbedded growers had groves less than 50 acres, compared to 17% of bedded growers. A similar percentage of growers on both production systems (23 to 27%) had groves from 100 to 499 acres, but 41% of bedded growers had groves greater than 1,000 acres, compared to only 4% of nonbedded growers in that same category. Considering the distribution of nonbedded and bedded groves within each production region, 76% of Ridge growers had nonbedded groves, and 24% had bedded groves; 18% of Indian River growers had nonbedded groves, but 82% had bedded groves; 8% of southwest Florida growers had nonbedded groves, with 92% having bedded groves; 26% of west Florida growers had nonbedded groves, with 74% having bedded groves;(26%), west Florida (23%), and southwest Florida (17%). 100% of growers in the mu ltic ounty category had beddedThe greatest concentration of groves greater than 1,000 groves (Table 1).acres was in the multic ounty category (92%), southwest Florida and the Ridge having 16 and 13%, respectively, ofGrove LocationWhen the regional distribution of survey respondents was considered, the largest percentage of respondents were located on the Ridge (41%), followed by the Indian River area (26%), 10% in southwest Florida, and 19% in west Florida. Three percent of respondents fell into the multic ounty category (Fig. 2). When grove size within production regions was considered, growers in the Ridge counties (37%), west Florida (34%), and the Indian River area (26%) had the highest percentage of groves less than 50 acres. The highest percentage of growers with groves from 100 to 499 acres were located on the Ridge (29%), Indian River Florida (57%), and the Indian River area (31%), with west groves in this category (Table 1). Greater than 5% of respondents indicated that the majority of the acreage they owned or managed was in the following counties: DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Indian River, Lake, Polk, and St. Lucie (Table 2), with an additional 5% managing groves in more than one county (multic ounty). The percentage of survey respondents from each county generally correlated with the county acreage expressed as the percentage of statewide acreage, with the exception of Hendry, Lake, and St. Lucie counties. Hendry County accounted for 3% of the survey respondents but approximately 12% of the total citrus acreage. St. Lucie
8 58 18 16Pattern 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Owner Onl y Owner/Mana g er Mana g es Others Mana g es Both n = 451Size, Location, and Mana g ement of Florida Citrus Groves: a 1996 Surve y Pa g e 3Ma y 1999 Figure 3 Mana g ement patterns for Florida citrus. Table 1. Characteristics of citrus g roves within production re g ion. Production region Respondents ( % ) Rid g eIndian RiverSouthwest FloridaWest FloridaMulticount y Production System Nonbedded g roves 76 18 8 26 0 Bedded g roves 24 82 92 74 100 Grove Size ( acres ) <49 37 26 13 34 0 50-99 13 9 9 21 0 100-499 29 26 17 23 8 500-999 8 8 4 6 0 >1000 13 31 57 16 92County had 6% of respondents but almost 13% of thehighest percentages of owners/managers were Ridge total acreage. Apparently, a relatively small number of(44%), Indian River (26%), and west Florida (22%) growers in these counties managed groves of very largegrowers. Those who managed the groves of others were sizes. In contrast, Lake County accounted forprimarily located in the Indian River and southwest approximately 9% of survey respondents but only 3% ofFlorida areas (31% in each). Those who managed both total citrus acreage, supporting other data in this reporttheir own groves and those of others were strongly that Lake and Polk counties contain a relatively largerepresented on the Ridge (45%), Indian River (27%), number of growers with groves of small sizes.and southwest Florida (27%). Those who were owners 51% having groves from 1 to 49 acres, 23% havingManagement PatternsOn a statewide basis, 58% of growers were owners and managers of their groves, followed by statistically similar percentages of growers who managed the groves of others and managed both their own groves and those of others. Those who owned but did not manage their groves constituted the lowest percentage of growers (Fig. 3). Comparing management patterns in terms of production systems, 29% of growers who were owners only had bedded groves, while 71% had nonbedded groves. A similar percentage of owner/managers had bedded groves (52%) and nonbedded groves (48%). Of those who managed groves for others and managed both their own grove and those of others, most had bedded groves (77% and 70%, respectively). Of those who were owners only, the highest percentage were located on the Ridge (63%), with 20% in west Florida and 14% in the Indian River area. The only tended to have smallto medium-sized groves, with groves from 50 to 99 acres, and 20% having groves from 100 to 499 acres. Eighty-seven percent of those who were owners/managers also tended to have smallto medium-sized groves, with 42% having groves from 1 to 49 acres and 29% having groves from 100 to 499 acres. Those who managed the groves of others (63%) and those who managed both (51%) operated groves greater than 1,000 acres.
Size, Location, and Mana g ement of Florida Citrus Groves: a 1996 Surve y Pa g e 4Ma y 1999 Table 2 Count y location of ma j orit y of acrea g e owned orSeasonal Cultivarsmana g ed. N = 451 County Respondents ( % ) County Acreage as Percentage of Total Acreage Brevard4.01.3 Charlotte0.72.5 Citrus0.40.03 Collier2.44.3 Desoto6.07.7 Fla g ler 0.2 not listed Glades 1.3 not listed Hardee 8.0 6.1 Hendr y 3.1 11.6 Hi g hlands7.3 8.9 Hillsborou g 1.3 3.3 Indian River8.0 7.8 Lake 9.3 2.5 Lee 2.4 1.4 Manatee 3.1 2.8 Marion 0.4 0.1 Martin 3.1 5.5 Multicount y 5.3 not listed Okeechobe1.6 1.4 Oran g e2 01 2 Osceola 3.1 1.8 Palm 1.3 1.5 Pasco 0.2 1.4 Polk 16.9 12.1 Sarasota 0.2 0.3 Seminole 0.9 0.2 St. Lucie 6.0 12.5 Volusia 1.3 0.2 *Citrus Summar y ( 1996-97 ) Florida A g ricultural Statistics ServiceGrowers were asked to estimate what percentage of their groves were planted with early-, mid-, and lateseason cultivars. Data are presented as percentage of respondents with percentage of acreage in different seasonal cultivars and provide only relative comparisons. Thirty-seven percent of respondents said they had from 26 to 50% of their groves planted with early-season fruit. Forty-four percent of growers had from 1 to 25% of their groves in midseason fruit. Forty-five percent had from 26 to 50% in late-season fruit. Considering cultivar pr oduction within production systems, 43% of bedded growers produced early-season fruit on 26 to 50% of their acreage, compared to 29% of nonbedded growers on the same percentage acreage. Only 15% of bedded growers produced early-season fruit on 76 to 100% of their acreage, compared to 30% of nonbedded growers on the same percentage acreage (Fig. 4). Forty-eight percent of bedded growers produced midseason fruit on 1 to 25% of their acreage, compared to 37% of nonbedded growers on the same percentage acreage (Fig. 5). A similar percentage of growers (43 to 47%) also produced late-season cultivars on 26 to 50% of their acreage (Fig. 6). ConclusionAccording to the 1992 Census of Agriculture, the number of farms within Florida greater than 10 acres decreased from 1987 to 1992, with farms from 1,000 to 1,999 acres decreasing the least (-1.6%) and farms from 500 to 999 acres decreasing the most (-9.2%). With reference to the Florida citrus industry, these data imply that groves over 1,000 acres are not decreasing in number at the same rate as groves less than 1,000 acres. Surveys of the Florida citrus industry in 1989 and 1996 further supported the trend toward larger groves, with percentage of growers with smaller groves decreasing and percentage of growers with larger groves increasing. However, the greatest concentration of growers, according to this survey, spanned a wide acreage range, with 30% having groves less than 49 acres and 50% of growers having groves from 100 to 499 and greater than 1,000 acres. A higher percentage of nonbedded than bedded growers also had groves smaller than 49 acres, with the reverse true for groves greater than 500 and 1,000 acres. Growers who were owners and managers constituted the largest management group statewide, with those who owned but did not manage concentrated on nonbedded groves and caretakers (manages others,
25 43 17 15 19 29 22 30Acrea g e (%) Bedded Nonbedded 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 25 26 50 51 75 76 100 n = 377 48 34 9 9 37 37 10 16Acrea g e ( % ) Bedded Nonbedded 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 25 26 50 51 75 76 100 n = 258 Size, Location, and Mana g ement of Florida Citrus Groves: a 1996 Surve y Pa g e 5Ma y 1999 Figure 4 Production of earl y -season fruit within production s y stems. Figure 5 Production of midseason fruit within production s y stems. Figure 6 Production of late-season fruit within production s y stem.manages both) concentrated on bedded groves, especially those greater than 1,000 acres. Given this detailed information on production system, production region, grove size, management pattern, and cultivars, statewide extension programs must still be designed to appeal to a broad range of growers, but regional programs can also be designed to target a much more specific regional and management-pattern clientele than has been hitherto possible. ReferencesFlorida Agricultural Statistical Service. 1996. 1996 Commercial Citrus Inventory. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. 1992 Census of Agriculture.