Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice From Florida Oranges

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Title:
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice From Florida Oranges
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Matthews, Richard F.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Acquisition:
Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Publication date: April 1994."
General Note:
"FS 8"

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004648:00001


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FactSheetFS8 April1994FrozenConcentratedOrangeJuiceFromFloridaOranges1 RichardF.Matthews2FCOJFrozenConcentratedOrangeJuiceis thestaroftheFloridacitrusindustry.Thisproduct, whichwasdevelopedin1945-46,requires80%ofthe annualFloridaorangecroptomeettheconsumer demand.Duringthe1979-80season,173million boxes(7.8millontons)ofFloridaorangeswereused tomakeFCOJ.Thisismorethan30poundsofjuice perpersonintheUnitedStates.WHYISFCOJSOPOPULAR?ThereareanumberofreasonsFCOJisso popular.Itisveryconvenientandtimesaving comparedtosqueezingjuiceathome.Itreadily pourswhenthawedandeasilyreconstituteswith water.ThetemperatureofthefrozenFCOJcauses thereconstitutedjuicetobepleasantlycool immediately. MostofthesuccessofFCOJisprobablydueto itsgoodjuiceflavor.Lackofflavorwasaproblem thathadtobeovercomeinthedevelopmentof FCOJ.Intheconcentrationprocess,partsofthe orangeresponsibleforgoodflavorarelostwhen waterisevaporated.Thediscoverythatfreshorange juiceflavorcouldberestoredbyaddingasmall percentageofunconcentratedfreshjuicewasthebasis forthesuccessofFCOJ. In1948,U.S.patentNo.2,453,109wasissuedto Floridaresearchersfortheprocesstomanufacture FCOJwiththeadditionofapproximately10percent freshjuicetothefinalproduct. WhenFCOJispreparedfromfreshjuicethereis verylittlelossofnutritionalvalue.Forexample,98% oftheVitaminC,themostabundantvitamininfresh orangejuice,isretainedinFCOJ.Thisisalossof only2%intheprocessofjuiceextraction,juice concentrationandfreezing.ORANGESTOFCOJHOWFCOJISMADEFCOJisproducedfromorangesinapproximately 35Floridacitrusprocessingplants(seeFigure1). Themechanicalextractorsusedtoobtainjuicefrom thefruitareamazinglyefficientandremovethejuice from400to700orangesperminute.Theprocessing plantshaveverylargecapacitieswithsomeplants processingmorethan100,000boxesoforangesper day.Thisis517,000gallonsoforangejuiceperday ayear'ssupplyofFCOJfor17,000people.STEPSINTHEFCOJPROCESS1.Afruitsampleistestedforqualitybeforethe orangesareapprovedbystateauthoritiesfor processing. 2.Fruitiscleanedandwashed. 3.Orangeoilisrecoveredfromthepeelofthefruit. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetFS8,aseriesoftheFoodScienceandHumanNutrition,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:April1994. 2.RichardF.Matthews,Professor,FoodTechnologist,FoodScienceandHumanNutritionDepartment,CooperativeExtensionService,Institute ofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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FrozenConcentratedOrangeJuiceFromOrangeJuice Page24.Juiceisextractedfromthefruit.Approximately 50%ofthefruitweightisjuice,theremainderis peel,pulpandseeds. 5.Juiceisscreenedtoremovepiecesofseedsand Figure1. Stepsintheproductionoffrozenconcentratedorangejuice.largeparticlesofpulp. 6.Juiceisheatedtoinactivatethenaturalenzymes presentinthejuice.Ifnotinactivatedthese enzymescauselossofquality. 7.Juiceisconcentratedinahighvacuum evaporator.Waterinthejuiceisevaporatedand thejuicesugarsandsolidsareconcentrated.The juicesolublesolids(Brix)inthefreshjuiceare approximately12%.IntheconcentratetheBrix isincreasedtoapproximately65%. 8.Theconcentrateisfrozenandstoreduntil needed.

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FrozenConcentratedOrangeJuiceFromOrangeJuice Page39.Freshjuiceismixedwithfrozenconcentrate.The finalconsumerproducthas41.8%juicesugars Brix.Whenmixedwith3volumesofwaterthe reconstitutedjuiceis11.8Brix,approximatelythe sameasthefreshjuice. Acrosssectionofanorangeispresentedin Figure2. Figure2. Crosssectionofanorange.Thepeelwhichconsistsoftheflavedoandalbedo providesusefulproducts.Sacsintheflavedoprovide peeloil(citrusessentialoil)whichisusedinflavors andperfumes.Insmallamountscitrusoiladds desirableflavortoorangejuice,however,toomuch oilgivesabittertastetothejuice.Afterremoving thepeeloil,theremainderofthepeel,seed,and segmentmembranesaredriedtoproduceanutritious cattlefeed.MAINTAININGFCOJQUALITYToinsuretheFCOJproducedinFloridaisofthe highestquality,threeagenciesdirectlyregulatethe industry.ThesearetheFloridaDepartmentof Citrus,theFloridaDepartmentofAgricultureand ConsumerServices,andtheU.S.Departmentof Agriculture.FRESHFRUITINSPECTIONAssuringthatorangesprocessedforFCOJmeet therequirementsforqualityistheresponsibilityof theFloridaDepartmentofAgricultureandConsumer Services,FruitandVegetableInspectionDivision, WinterHaven,Florida.Fromeachtruckloadof orangesthatisdeliveredtothecitrusplantasample oforangesistaken,thefruitisjuicedandthejuice evaluatedformaturityrequirementsofBrix,Acid, Ratio,andpercentjuicecontent.Brix(totalsolublesolids)Asusedinthecitrus industrythisisameasureofthetotalsolublesolidsin thejuiceorconcentrate.Thesesolublesolidsare primarilysugars;sucrose,fructose,andglucose.Citric acidandmineralsinthejuicealsocontributetothe solublesolids.Brixisreportedas"degreesBrix"and isequivalenttopercentage.Forexample,ajuice whichis12degreesBrixhas12%totalsolublesolids.Acid(titratableacidity)ameasureoftotalacid presentinajuice.Thepredominantacidnaturally occurringinorangejuiceiscitricacid.Thereare smallamountsofmalicacidandtartaricacidpresent. Theamountofacidpresentinthejuiceisreportedas percentcitricacid.Ratio(Brix/AcidRatio)TheRatioorBrix/Acid Ratioisdeterminedbysimpledivision.Forexample: iftheBrixis12degreesandthecitricacidvalueis 1.0percent,theRatiowouldbe12. IfanotherjuicehadaBrixof12andanacidvalueof 0.8percent,theratiowouldbe15. TheRatiocannotbelessthan12.5normorethan 19.5.Thisbalancebetweensugarsandacid,sweet andtart,isanimportantmeasureofjuiceflavor qualityandmaturity.FCOJINSPECTIONTheU.S.DepartmentofAgriculturestandardfor GradeAflavormustbemetforallFCOJpackaged inFloridaforsaleintheUnitedStates.The followingrequirementsapply:PRODUCTDESCRIPTIONFrozenconcentratedorangejuice(orfrozen orangejuiceconcentrate)istheproductdefinedin thestandardsofidentity(21CFR27.109)issued underregulationsoftheFederalFood,Drug,and CosmeticAct.

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FrozenConcentratedOrangeJuiceFromOrangeJuice Page4(a)Withoutsweetener.TheBrixvalueofthe finishedconcentrateisnotlessthan41.8 degreesandshallbesuchthatwhen reconstitutedaccordingtodirections,the reconstitutedjuicetestsnotlessthan11.8 degreesBrix. (b)"U.S.GradeA"(or"U.S.Fancy")isthe qualityoffrozenconcentratedorangejuice thatreconstitutesproperlyandofwhichthe reconstitutedjuice: (1)hasanappearancesimilartothatoffresh orangejuice; (2)hasaverygoodcolor; (3)ispracticallyfreefromdefects; (4)possessesaverygoodflavor;and (5)scoresnotlessthan90pointswhen scoredinaccordancewithscoringsystem outlinedinthissubpart. (c)Factorsratedbyscorepoints.Therelative importanceofeachfactorwhichisscoredis expressednumericallyonascaleof100.The maximumnumberofpointsthatmaybegiven suchfactorsare: Factors Points Color .......................40 Defects .....................20 Flavor ......................40 TotalScore .................100 TheU.S.D.A.hasinspectorsateachprocessing plantwhomustbepresentanytimefruitisbeing processed.Theinspectorscontinuallyevaluatethe FCOJbeingproducedtoassureitmeetsGradeA standards.Theinspectorsalsohavetheresponsibility ofseeingthatalltheequipmentandfacilitiesusedin processingaremaintainedinasanitarycondition.FLORIDADEPARTMENTOFCITRUSTheFloridaDepartmentofCitrusisempowered tomakerulesandregulationsregardingtheoperation ofcitrusprocessingplantsandtheproducts,suchas FCOJ,thattheyproduce.Thedepartmenthas adoptedregulationsforFCOJwhicharemore stringentthanrequiredbytheU.S.Departmentof Agriculture.Theseregulationsservetomakethe FloridaFCOJthehighestqualityproductavailableto theconsumer.