1992 Citrus Management Survey

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Title:
1992 Citrus Management Survey
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Fact sheet
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Ferguson, James J.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"Publication date: November 1993."
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"Bulletin 288"

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Bulletin288 November19931992CitrusManagementSurvey1 J.J.FergusonandC.L.Taylor2Duringthesummerof1992,398commercial citrusgroveownersandmanagersfromallof Florida'smajorcitrusproducingcounties(Brevard, Charlotte,Citrus,Collier,Desoto,Glades,Hardee, Hendry,Highlands,Hillsborough,IndianRiver,Lake, Lee,Manatee,Marion,Martin,Orange,Osceola, PalmBeach,Pasco,Polk,Sarasota,andSt.Lucie) answeredmailquestionnairesforthe1992Citrus ManagementSurvey.Therespondents'answersto questionsaboutgeneralmanagement,youngtreecare, pestmanagement,watermanagement,andcold protectionidentifiedtheirmostpressingproblemsand informationneedsandprovidedtheCooperative ExtensionServicewithabasisforfutureprogram planningandevaluation.METHODOLOGY DataGatheringCountyagentmailinglistsfrom23countieswhere citrusiscommerciallygrownwerecompiledtocreate amasteraddresslist,onwhich,afterduplicateand inappropriateentrieswereremoved,2,964addresses remained.Astratifiedproportionalsampling procedurewasusedtoobtainasampleof833 growers.Threehundredninety-eight(398)useable questionnaireswerereturned,providinganexpected errorrateof+/-4.7%witha95%confidence interval.DataAnalysisEachquestionnaireprovided339response options.Thedataprovidedbythequestionnaires wereanalyzedaccordingtofrequencythenumberof timesanoptionischosenandpercentthenumber oftimesanoptionischosendividedbythetotal numberofrespondentswhoansweredthatquestion. Inthetextandfigures,"n"referstothenumberof respondentswhoansweredaparticularquestion. SincecitrusisgrowninFloridaintwodifferent productionenvironments,thedeep,well-drained, sandysoilsofthecentralFloridaridgewith unbedded grovesandtheshallow,poorly-drainedflatwoodssoils ofsouthernFloridawith bedded groves,responsesto certainquestionshavebeenfurtheranalyzedby whethertherespondents'acreageis bedded or unbedded. Allrankedquestionswerearrivedatbyfirst weightingtheresponseoptions.Forinstance,a responseatoneendoftheoptionscalewouldbe weightedfive,aresponseattheotherendweighted one.Then,theoptions'frequenciesweremultiplied bytheirweightings.Forinstance,iffourrespondents checkedtheoptionatthehighendofthescale,four wouldbemultipliedbyfive,togiveaweightedvalue oftwenty.Foreachquestion,theweightedvalues fromeachpointalongtheoptionscalewereadded together,toarriveataweightedtotalthatcouldbe rankedamongotherweightedtotals. 1.ThisdocumentisBulletin288,aseriesoftheHorticulturalScienceDepartment,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodand AgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:November1993. 2.J.J.Ferguson,AssociateProfessorandExtensionHorticulturalist,HorticulturalScienceDepartment;C.L.Taylor,ProfessorandExtension Specialist,ProgramEvaluation;FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida, GainesvilleFL32611-0550. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page2GENERALMANAGEMENTQUESTIONSOfthe374respondentswhoindicatedthatthey heldmajordecision-makingresponsibilitiesfora commercialcitrusoperationoftenacresormore, 24%wereowners,butwerenotinvolvedinthedayto-daydecisionsconcerninggroveoperation.Fiftysevenpercentoftherespondentsownedandmanaged theirgroveandalsomanagedforothers.Nineteen percentweremanagersonly. Respondentsreportedowningand/ormanaging 315,943acresofcitrus,39%ofthecurrentacreage. Respondentsownedanaverageof189acres,owned andmanagedanaverageof488acres,andmanaged forothersanaverageof1,557acres.TypeOfCitrusOperation BeddedVersusUnbeddedAcreageRespondentswerequestionedabouttheirprimary plantingsystem.Ofthe374citrusgrowerswho respondedtothisquestion,slightlyoverhalf(52%) saidtheiracreage,atotalof70,352acres,is unbedded.The48%whosaidtheiracreageis bedded ownedand/ormanaged236,670acres. Surveyedgrowerswereaskedtoselectthetypeof citrusthatwasmostrepresentativeoftheiroperation. Amajorityofrespondents(68%)indicatedthatthey produceorangesfortheprocessedmarket.Another substantialproportionoftherespondents(18%) produceorangesforthefreshmarket.Other respondentsreportedgrowinggrapefruitforthefresh market(12%),grapefruitfortheprocessedmarket (1%),andmandarinsormandarinhybrids(lessthan 1%).TypeofFruitGrowthMoregrowerswith unbedded groves(95%) produceorangesforthefreshfruitorprocessed marketthangrowerswith bedded groves(73%). However,moregrowerswith bedded acreage(24%) producefreshgrapefruitthandogrowerswith unbedded land(2%).Aboutthesamepercentageof growerswith bedded acreageandgrowerswith unbedded acreageproducegrapefruitforthe processedmarketormandarinsormandarinhybrids. (SeeFigure1(a)andFigure1(b).) Respondentswereaskednotonlytoindicatethe typeofcitrusprimarilygrown,butalsothenumberof acresusedtogrowit.Ofthe40,211acresusedto groworangesforthefreshmarket,26,907are bedded and12,944, unbedded.(Numbersofbeddedand unbeddedacreagemaynotadduptototalacreage sincenotallrespondentsindicatedtheirplanting practices.)Ofthe163,078acresusedforgrowing orangesfortheprocessedmarket,119,490are bedded and41,092 unbedded.Ofthe25,964acresusedto growgrapefruitforthefreshmarket,24,392are bedded,1,513 unbedded,andofthe558acresusedto growgrapefruitfortheprocessedmarket,506are bedded,52, unbedded.Ofthe346acresusedtogrow mandarinsormandarinhybrids,65are bedded and 281 unbedded. Figure1(a). PrimaryTypeofFruitProducedbyGrowers with Bedded Groves(n=166). Figure1(b). PrimaryTypeofFruitProducedbyGrowers with Unbedded Groves(n=180).

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page3DiversionofFruitGrownforFreshand ProcessedMarketsDifferentsprayprogramsarerecommendedfor freshandprocessedcitrus.However,thisdoesnot precludefruitgrownforthefreshmarketfrombeing divertedtotheprocessmarketorviceversa.Ofthe cropsthatareproducedunderafreshfruitspray program,growerswith bedded grovesdivertan averageof34%ofthecroptotheprocessedmarket, growerswith unbedded groves,anaverageof49%;all growerstogetherdivertanaverageof41%. Conversely,ofthecropsthatareproducedundera processedfruitsprayprogram,growerswith bedded grovesdivertanaverageof37%ofthecroptothe freshmarket,growerswith unbedded grovesan averageof38%;allgrowerstogetherdivertedan averageof38%.(SeeFigure2(a)andFigure2(b).) Figure2(a). FreshandProcessedFruitDivertedby Growerswith Bedded Groves(n=178). Figure2(b). FreshandProcessedFruitDivertedby Growerswith Unbedded Groves(n=196).MostImportantInformationNeedsInordertoidentifytheirinformationneeds, respondentswereaskedtoselectandrankfromone tofivethefiveareasinwhichproductioninformation ismostneeded.Growerswith bedded grovessaid theymostneededinformationonpestmanagement, thecosteffectiveselectionofchemicals,marketing, governmentregulations,andwatermanagement. Growerswith unbedded grovesrankedastheirmost importantinformationneedspestmanagement,the costeffectiveselectionofchemicals,coldprotection, fertilization,andwatermanagement.(SeeFigure3 (a)andFigure3(b).) Figure3(a). RankingofInformationNeedsofGrowerswith Bedded Groves(n=148). Figure3(b). RankingofInformationNeedsofGrowerswith Unbedded Groves(n=160).

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page4 Figure4. SourcesofInformationforProductionand MarketingDecisions(n=375).SourcesofInformationfor Production/ManagementDecisionsInarelatedquestion,citrusgrowerswereasked toindicatetheirmostrelied-uponsourcesfor obtaininginformationtoassistwithdailyproduction andmarketingdecisions.Valuedsourcesof informationincludefertilizerandpesticide representatives,UniversityofFlorida(IFAS) personnel,IFASpublications,othergrowersand managers,industrymeetings,andtrademagazines. (SeeFigure4).ExpectationsfortheNextTenYearsInordertodeterminecitrusgrowers'expectations fortheshort-termfuture,allrespondentsweregiven alistofcurrentissuespertainingtocitrusproduction andmanagementandwereaskedtopredictifeach issuewouldincrease,decrease,orstaythesameinthe comingtenyears.RestrictionsonWaterUsageAskedaboutrestrictionsonwateruse,89%ofthe respondentssaidtheythinksuchrestrictionswill increase.Ninepercentexpectedwaterrestrictionsto remainattheircurrentlevel,andonly2%thoughtit likelythatsuchrestrictionswilldecrease. Inafollow-upquestion,respondentswereasked whateffectwaterrestrictionswillhaveontheir operation.Fifteenpercentpredictedthese restrictionswillhaveapositiveeffect,71%predicted anegativeeffect,and14%predictednoeffect. Figure5(a). ExpectationsOverNextTenYears(n=380). Figure5(b). EffectEachWillHaveonCitrusOperations (n=380).RestrictionsonPesticideUsageNinety-onepercentofrespondentsexpected pesticiderestrictionstoincrease.Eightpercent expectedthemtostaythesame,andonlyonepercent expectedthemtodecrease.Seventeenpercentof respondentssaidpesticiderestrictionswillhavea positiveeffectontheiroperation,74%saidtheywill haveanegativeeffect,and9%saidtheywillhaveno effect.LandAvailabilityAskedaboutfutureavailabilityofgoodlandfor citrusproduction,80%oftherespondentsexpected landavailabilitytodecrease,14%expecteditto remainthesame,and6%expectedittoincrease. Sixteenpercentpredictedthatthechangeinthe availabilityofgoodlandwillhaveapositiveeffecton theiroperation,31%predictedanegativeeffect,and 53%predictednoeffect.

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page5ForeignCompetitionAskedaboutcompetitionfromothercountries, 92%ofthegrowersrespondedthatforeign competitionisaproblemthatwillincreaseinthenext tenyears.Sevenpercentsaiditwillstaythesame, and1%expectedittodecrease.Seventeenpercent saidforeigncompetitionwillhaveapositiveeffecton them,74%saiditwillhaveanegativeeffect,andonly 9%expectedittohavenoeffect.AvailabilityofLaborTenpercentofrespondentsexpectedthe availabilityoflabortoincrease,37%expecteditto staythesame,and53%expectedittodecrease. Twentypercentofrespondentssaidchangesinthe availabilityoflaborwillhaveapositiveeffectfor them,55%saiditwillhaveanegativeeffect,and25% didnotexpectittoaffectthem.(SeeFigure5(a) andFigure5(b).)EnvironmentalRegulationsToascertaincommonattitudestowards environmentalrestrictionsplacedontheaverage grower(i.e.restrictionsonwaterusageandpesticide application),respondentswereaskedtoratethe urgencyofsuchrestrictions.Thequestionprovided threepossibleresponsecategories:thatenvironmental restrictionsareverynecessary,aresomewhat necessary,orarenotatallnecessary.An overwhelmingmajorityofcitrusproducers,95%, thoughtthatregulationstoprotecttheenvironment areatleastsomewhatnecessary.Only5%thought suchregulationsnotatallnecessary.ApplicationofTreatedWastes andManuresRespondentswereaskedwhetherornotthey applytreatedwastewater,treatedsludge,orlivestock orpoultrymanuretoyoungand/ormaturetrees.Few respondentsusethesematerialsintheirgroves. Approximatelyninepercentofallrespondentsuse livestockorpoultrymanure,on14,001acres,11,305 ofthem bedded 2,644ofthem unbedded.(Numbers ofbeddedandunbeddedacreagemaynotaddupto totalacreage,sincenotallrespondentsindicatedtheir plantingpractice.)Sevenpercentofallrespondents usetreatedsludge,on17,236acres,16,130ofthem bedded, 1,006 unbedded.Onlytwopercentofall respondentsusetreatedwastewater,on2,593acres, 1,778 bedded and735 unbedded.Theseareastreated withmanuresandmunicipalwastes,33,830acres total,representonlyabout4.3%ofthetotalstatewide citrusacreageof791,290acres.(SeeFigure6(a)and Figure6(b).) Figure6(a). TreatedWastesandManuresAppliedby Growerswith Bedded Groves. Figure6(b). TreatedWastesandManuresAppliedby Growerswith Unbedded Groves.QUESTIONSONYOUNGTREECAREForthepurposesofthissurvey,ayoungtreeis definedasatypicalcitrusnurserytreeplantedinthe fieldforuptothreeyears.MajorProblemsinTreeCare andMaintenanceThesurveypresentedalistof15problems commontoyoungtreecareandmaintenance. Respondentswereaskedtorateeachproblemas "seriousproblem,""moderateproblem,""little problem,"or"notaproblem."Growerswith bedded grovesreportedfireants,weedcontrol,foot/rootrot, coldprotection,andinsectpestsasthemostserious problemsincaringforyoungtrees.Growerswith unbedded grovesmostlyreportedthesameproblems, thoughtheyhavethemtodifferentdegrees.They

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page6saidtheirmostseriousprobleminyoungtreecareis coldprotection,followedbyfireants,weedcontrol, mites,andfoot/rootrot.(SeeFigure7(a)andFigure 7(b).) Figure7(a). RankingofYoungTreeCareProblemsfor Growerswith Bedded Groves(n=165). Figure7(b). RankingofYoungTreeCareProblemsfor Growerswith Unbedded Groves(n=148).CausesofDeathAmongYoungTreesInordertodeterminethemostcommoncausesof deathamongyoungtrees,respondentswerepresented withalistofninepossiblecausesandaskedtorank eachaccordingtothesamescaleusedintheprevious question.Growerswith bedded grovesindicatedthat foot/rootrot,followedbyfireantsandcolddamage, mostoftenkilledtheiryoungtrees.Growerswith unbedded grovessaidthatcolddamage,andthenfire antsandfoot/rootrotismostoftenthecauseofa youngtree'sdeath.(SeeFigure8(a)andFigure8 (b).) Figure8(a). RankingoftheCausesofYoungTreeDeath forGrowerswith Bedded Groves(n=165). Figure8(b). RankingoftheCausesofYoungTreeDeath forGrowerswith Unbedded Groves(n=185).ResetsLostPerAnnumCitrusgrowerswereaskedtowriteinthepercent ofresets(youngtreesthatreplacetreesthathave died)thatdieeachyear.Responsesrangedfromless than1%to71%.Theaveragenumberofresetslost inagivenyearforbothgrowerswith bedded trees andgrowerswith unbedded is4%.BareRootandContainerizedTreesForty-onepercentofthegrowersbuyalloftheir youngtreesbareroot,19%buythemcontainerized, and40%buythembothbarerootandcontainerized. Sixty-threepercentofalltreespurchasedarebare rootand37%arecontainerized.SpacingWithinandBetweenRowsOntheaverage,treesarespaced15feetapart withinrowsand24feetapartbetweenrows,inboth bedded and unbedded groves.Theaverageamount ofspacingvariationwithineachrowis6feetandthe

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page7averageamountbetweenrowsis4feet.Thesedata implyafairamountofvariationinthespacingof trees. Figure9(a). MostCommonlyUsedPost-PlantFertilizersfor YoungTrees(n=381). Figure9(b). FrequencyofYoungTreeFertigation(n=213).AverageYieldPerTreeRespondentswereaskedtoreportthe productivityofeachoftheirtwo-throughfive-yearold-trees.Forboth bedded and unbedded trees,the two-year-oldtreesproduceontheaveragealittleless thanhalfaboxoffruit,andthethree-year-oldtrees producealittlemorethanhalf.Both bedded and unbedded four-year-oldtreesproduceoneandahalf boxeseach,andthefive-year-oldtreesproducetwo andahalfboxes.FertilizationProgramRespondentswereaskedtomentionallfertilizer typesusedfollowingtheplantingofyoungtrees. Sixty-twopercentusewater-solubledrymaterial,35% usecontrolledreleasedrymaterial,and49%use liquidfertilizerinirrigation(fertigation).Ofthose usingfertigation,1%useitdaily,30%weekly,43% biweekly,and26%monthly.The1%whochecked "other,"wroteinresponsesof"nonewtrees,"and "N/A."(SeeFigure9(a)andFigure9(b).)FireAntTreatmentOverhalfoftherespondentstreattheiryoung treesforimportedredfireants.(SeeFigure10.) Theaveragenumberoffireanttreatmentsperyearis slightlyoverseven. Figure10. PercentageofGrowersWhoTreatYoungTrees forImportedRedFireAnts(n=372).UseofSystemicFungicidesSixty-twopercentofthecitrusgrowersapply systemicfungicidestotheiryoungtreestocontrol footandrootrot.(SeeFigure11.) Figure11. PercentageofGrowersWhoApplySystemic FungicidestoControlFootandRootRot(n=376).ChemicalsforWeedControlAnoverwhelmingmajorityofthesurvey respondents(98%)applychemicalsforweedcontrol neartheiryoungtrees.Amongthechemicalsapplied areburn-down-alonechemicals,suchasGramoxone; soilresidual/burn-downcombinationchemicals,such

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page8asKrovar-Gramoxone;soilresiduals,suchasSolicam; andsystemicherbicides,suchasRound-Up.Allof thesechemicalsareappliedanaverageof approximatelytwiceperyear.(SeeFigure12(a)and Figure12(b).) Figure12(a). PercentageofGrowersWhoApplyChemicals forWeedControl(n=381). Figure12(b). TypeandNumberofHerbicideApplications PerYear(n=381).ColdProtectionofYoungTreesIrrigationisthesinglemostcommonmeansused toprotectyoungtreesfromthecold.Otherpopular methodsofcoldprotectionincludewraps,irrigation usedwithwraps,banksorcovers,andsoilbanks.The leastcommonmeansofcoldprotectionareheaters, covers,andwindmachines.(SeeFigure13.)PESTMANAGEMENT SoilSamplesForty-fivepercentofthecitrusgrowerssurveyed sampledfornematodes.(SeeFigure14.)However, only31%oftherespondentsapplynematicidesto controlnematodes. Figure13. ColdProtectionMethodsforYoungTrees (n=382).Amongthoseapplyingnematicides,56%apply Figure14. PercentageofGrowersWhoUseSoilSamples toDetermineifGrovesAreInfestedwithNematodes(n=386).themfromtrunktodripline,27%applythematthe driplineonly,7%applythemfromtreetrunktotree trunk,5%applythemtotherowmiddle,and5% applythemsomeotherway.(SeeFigure15). Figure15. PercentageofGrowersWhoApplyNematicides toDifferentAreasoftheGrove(n=111).

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page9 Figure16. FrequencyofUseofTemikorNemacur(n=134).TemikandNemacurUsageThirty-eightpercentoftherespondentsusethe nematicidesTemikandNemacurintheirnematode managementprogram.Amongthat38%,almosttwo thirdsapplythemannually.(SeeFigure16.) ApproximatelyhalfofthoseusingTemikand Nemacursaidtheyusethematlessthanmaximum rates. Figure17. PercentageoftheAreaTreatedwithNematicides ThatIsAlsoWettedwiththeIrrigationSystem(n=204).IrrigationSystemsAlmostall(93%)ofthecitrusgrowersresponding tothesurveyhaveanirrigationsystem.Respondents wereaskedhowmuchoftheareatreatedwith nematicidesiswettedbytheirirrigationsystem.Of thosewithirrigationsystems,32%reportedthatallof theareaiswetted,15%reportedthatthreequarters oftheareaiswetted,21%reportedthatonehalfof theareaiswetted,12%reportedthatonequarterof theareaiswetted,and21%reportedthatlessthan onequarteroftheareatreatediswetted.(SeeFigure 17.) Figure18. PercentageofGrowersUsingDifferentWeed ManagementProgramsforRowMiddles(n=388).WeedManagementforRowMiddlesMorethanhalfoftherespondents(54%)use solelyamechanicalsystemofweedcontrolforrow middles,whereas40%usebothmechanicaland chemicalsystems.Anadditional6%useonly chemicalsystems.(SeeFigure18.) Figure19(a). PercentageofGrowerswith Bedded Groves WhoSaidtheNumberofCurrentlyUncontrollableWeed SpeciesIsIncreasing,Decreasing,orNotChanging(n=174).NumberofWeedSpeciesGrowerswereaskedifthenumberofweed speciesthatcannotbecontrolledwithcurrently availableherbicidesisincreasing,decreasing,ornot changing.Thirty-sevenpercentofthegrowerssaid thenumberisincreasing,12%saiditisdecreasing, and51%saiditisnotchanging.Growerswith beddedacreage,andgrowerswith unbedded respondedsimilarly;41%ofthegrowerswith bedded acreageand34%with unbedded saidthenumberis increasing,48%with bedded and54%with unbedded saiditisnotchanging,and11%with bedded and 12%with unbedded saiditisdecreasing.(SeeFigure

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page1019(a)andFigure19(b).) Figure19(b). PercentageofGrowerswith Unbedded GrovesWhoSaidtheNumberofCurrentlyUncontrollable WeedSpeciesIsIncreasing,Decreasing,orNotChanging (n=191).WATERMANAGEMENTANDCOLD PROTECTION TypesofIrrigationRespondentsreportedthatovertwo-thirds(70%) ofalltheiracreageisirrigatedwithmicrosprinklers. (SeeTable1.) Table1. PercentageofAcreageunderDifferentIrrigation Systems. IrrigationSystem PercentageofAcreage Noirrigation 3.20 Dripirrigation 9.88 Microsprinkler 68.78 Gun .79 Overhead 5.70 Undertreerotary .15 Flood/seepage 11.50WaterQualityApproximately60%oftherespondentssaidthat waterqualityhasnotbeenaproblemforthem.Those whosaidthatwaterqualityisaproblemwereasked tospecifythekindsofproblems.Respondents reportedproblemswithbacteriaoralgae,ironor sulfur,non-waterborneparticles,saltsordissolved solids,andotherparticulatematter.Some respondentswereunsureofthespecificcauseoftheir waterproblems,andafewcitedhighpHasa concern.(SeeFigure20.) Figure20. ProblemsinWaterQuality(n=148).IrrigationSystemsOverhalfofthecitrusproducerssaidtheir irrigationsystemsaredesignedforfertigationand/or chemigation.Manysaidtheirirrigationsystemsare usedtoinjectfertilizers(94%),fungicides(42%), herbicides(35%),andinsecticides(24%).(See Figure21andFigure22.) Figure21. PercentageofGrowerswithIrrigationSystems DesignedforFertigationand/orChemigation(n=375).DeterminingWhentoIrrigateRespondentswereaskedtorankinorderfrom onetofivethemostimportantfactorsindetermining whentoirrigatetheirgroves.Growerswith bedded grovesindicatedtheydeterminewhentoirrigate primarilybytheappearanceofthesoil,thenumberof dayssincethelastrain,andwiltingofthetrees;they alsousetheaccountingmethodandotherirrigation schedulingmethods.Growerswith unbedded groves alsoreportedusingthesamefactorstodetermine whentoirrigate,thoughtheyindicatedrelyingmore onthenumberofdayssincethelastrainthanonthe appearanceofthesoilandmoreonotherirrigation schedulingmethodsthanontheaccountingmethod.

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page11(SeeFigure23(a)andFigure23(b).) Figure22. IrrigationSystemsUsedtoInjectFertilizers and/orPesticides(n=184). Figure23(a). BasisforIrrigationDecisionsby Growerswith Bedded Groves(n=115). Figure23(b). BasisforIrrigationDecisionsby Growerswith Unbedded Groves(n=110).LowVolumeIrrigationCitrusoperationsusinglowvolumeirrigation wereaskedtospecifytheaveragenumberoftimes perweekthattheirrigationsystemisrunduringeach seasonoftheyear.Asexpected,irrigationismost frequentduringthespring,whensystemsarerunan averageof2.3timesperweek.Duringthesummer, irrigationsystemsarerun1.8timesperweek,during thefall,1.7timesperweek,andduringthewinter1.6 timesperweek.(SeeFigure24.) Figure24. AverageNumberofTimesPerWeekThat LowVolumeIrrigationSystemsAreRun(n=231).IrrigationofResetsAlmostall(97%)respondentssaidtheirresetsare irrigated,mostcommonlywithmicrosprinklers. Resetsarealsoirrigatedbydripandoverhead systems,waterwagons,andvolumeguns.(SeeFigure 25.) Figure25. IrrigationofResets(n=368).IrrigationforYoungTreeColdProtectionRespondentswhouseirrigationtoprotectyoung treesfromcoldwereaskedtoestimatethe temperature(F)atwhichtheyturnonirrigation. Ninepercentturnontheirrigationattemperatures exceeding40,35%attemperaturesof36to40,43% attemperaturesof33to35,9%at32exactly,and 45%attemperaturesbelow32.(SeeTable2.)

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page12Respondentswerealsoaskedtocitetheaverage Table2. TemperaturesatWhichRespondentsTurnOn IrrigationforYoungTreeColdProtection(n=329). Temperature PercentageofGrowers Above40F 9 36-40 F 35 33-35 F 43 32F 9 Below32F 4temperatureatwhichirrigationisturnedoff.Ten percentterminatetheirirrigationattemperatures exceeding45,33%attemperaturesof40to45,45% attemperaturesof35to39,and12%at temperaturesof32to34.Onepercentofthecitrus producersstopirrigatingattemperaturesbelow32.ColdProtectionInMatureGrovesToprotectmaturegrovesfromthecold,growers mostoftenusemicrosprinklerirrigationsystems. Othercommonmeansofcoldprotectionarefloodor seepageirrigationsystems.Afewrespondents reportedusingheaters,windmachines,anddrip irrigation.(SeeFigure26.) Figure26. ColdProtectioninMatureGroves(n=366).IrrigationforColdProtectionThosethatuseirrigationsystemsforcold protectionwereaskedtheaveragenumberofacres thatcanberunsimultaneouslyundereachsystem. Growerswith bedded grovescouldrundripirrigation onanaverageof751acres,floodandseepage irrigationonanaverageof1,068acres,and microsprinklerirrigationonanaverageof819acres. Growerswith unbedded grovescouldrundrip irrigationonanaverageof89acres,floodand seepageirrigationonanaverageof139,and microsprinklersonanaverageof143.(SeeFigure27 (a)andFigure27(b).) Microsprinkleruserswereaskedtospecifythe Figure27(a). AverageNumberofAcresonWhichGrowers with Bedded GrovesCanRunIrrigationSystem(s) SimultaneouslyforColdProtection(n=178). Figure27(b). AverageNumberofAcresonWhichGrowers with Unbedded GrovesCanRunIrrigationSystem(s) SimultaneouslyforColdProtection(n=196).numberofgallonsusedpertreeperhourandthe numberofhoursofoperationduringmonthsproneto freezes.Growerswith bedded grovesuseanaverage of12gallonspertreeperhourforanaverageof36 hoursduringwintermonths.Growerswith unbedded grovesuseanaverageof13gallonspertreeperhour foranaverageof42hours. Thesurveyalsoaskedmicrosprinklerusersto indicatetheheightoftheiremittersabovethesoil. Ofthe129respondentswith bedded groves,55%have emittersatlessthan12incheshigh.Thirty-seven percenthaveemittersat12to24inches,6%have emittersat25to36inches,and2%haveemittersat 37to48inches.Ofthe153respondentswith unbedded groves,49%haveemittersatlessthan12

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page13incheshigh.Thirty-sevenpercenthaveemittersat12 to24inches,11%haveemittersat25to36inches, and3%haveemittersat37to48inches.No respondentsreportedhavingemittersover48inches high.(SeeFigure28(a)andFigure28(b).) Figure28(a). HeightofMicrosprinklerEmittersAbovethe SoilforGrowerswith Bedded Groves(n=129). Figure28(b). HeightofMicrosprinklerEmitters AbovetheSoilforGrowerswith Unbedded Groves (n=153).PrimarySourceofWeatherInformationRespondentswereaskedwhatsourceofweather informationtheyrelyuponthemost.Slightlymore thanhalfsaidtheyrelymostontheNationalWeather Service(Ruskin,NOAAWeatherRadio). Respondentsalsocitedcommercialradioand television,Extensionservices,andprivate meteorologists.(SeeFigure29.)InformationNeedsConcerningCold ProtectionCitrusgrowerswereaskedtoranktheirmost importantinformationneedsconcerningcold protection.Theysaidtheymostneedtoknowhowto obtaincorrectforecastsandhowtouseirrigationfor coldprotection.Theyalsosaidtheyneedtoknow howtointerpretforecastsandhowtousecurrent frostprotectionmethods,treewraps,windbreaks,tree covers,thermometers,andinversiontowers.(See Figure30.) Figure29. PrimarySourceofWeatherInformation(n=312). Figure30. InformationNeedsforColdProtection(n=325).CREDITSProjectInvestigators: J.J.FergusonandC.L.Taylor Co-ProjectInvestigators: EdHolcomb;Charlotte,Collier,LeeandGlades Counties SteveFutch;Hardee,DeSoto,Manatee,and SarasotaCounties JohnJackson;LakeandOrangeCounties ChrisOswalt;BrevardandOsceolaCounties TomOswalt;PolkCounty JamesCummings;St.LucieCounty RobertWhitty;MartinCounty JohnBulger;HillsboroughandPascoCounties WilliamPhillips;MarionCounty

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1992CitrusManagementSurvey Page14 AndrewRose;CitrusCounty TimHurner;HighlandsCounty ClaytonE.Hutcheson;PalmBeachCounty JackHebb;IndianRiverCounty DallasTownsend;HendryCounty TechnicalWriter: GlennMueller Editor: AnneFugate DataAnalysis: TyannNelson SteveHerlocker SecretarialSupport: JudyRogers LauriePellegrino Graphics: EdAnthony SteveHerlocker SurveyCoordinator: EdithBlalack AdministrativeSupport: D.J.Cantliffe,DepartmentChair J.L.App,AssistantDean,Agriculture M.F.Cole,DistrictExtensionDirector S.F.Ryan,DistrictExtensionDirector H.P.Warnock,DistrictExtensionDirector J.T.Woeste,DeanforExtension