Issues For Florida Communities 4 Who's Moving Into Metro And Nonmetro Florida: Human Resource Flows

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Issues For Florida Communities 4 Who's Moving Into Metro And Nonmetro Florida: Human Resource Flows
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Fact sheet
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Israel, Glenn D.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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"Publication date: May 1994."
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"IFC 4"

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IFC4 May1994IssuesforFloridaCommunities4 Who'sMovingintoMetroandNonmetroFlorida:Human ResourceFlows1 GlennD.Israel2Theflowofhumanresourcesthroughinmigrationto Floridasuggeststhatmetrocountiesarebenefiting morethannonmetrocounties. OnlyahermitmightnotknowthatFlorida's populationexplosionhasoccurredasaresultofthe millionsofpeoplewhohavemovedtothestate.But howhavetheseinmigrantsaffectedtheplacesto whichtheymove?Towhatextentdoinmigrants bringskills,experience,andtrainingthatenhancesthe humanresourcebaseoftheircommunities?In addition,whatdoesitmeanifmetrocountiesreceive inmigrantswithhigherhumanresourcesthan nonmetrocounties? Inthispaper,characteristicsofpeoplewhoare recentmigrants,migrantswhohavelivedinFlorida forsometime,andnativeFloridiansareexamined. Comparisonofthesegroupsprovidessomeclues abouttherelativegainsinhumanresourcesthat metroandnonmetrocountieshavehadasaresultof inmigration.Althoughwecanexaminethehuman resourcesofpeoplewhomoveintoFlorida,wewill notknowhowhumanresourcesareaffectedby outmigrationfromFloridatootherstatesorby migrationbetweencountieswithinFlorida(Smith, 1990).DEFINITIONS Ametropolitancountyisdefinedas,a)acounty withacentralcityof50,000ormoreresidents,b) oneofapairofcountieswith50,000urban residentsbetweenthemandatotalpopulationof atleast100,000,orc)asmallercountywhichis economicallyorsociallyintegratedwithan adjacenturbannucleus.Allothercountiesare definedasnonmetropolitan. "Recentmigrants"referstothosewhohavelived inFloridalessthan10years.Migrantswhohave livedinFloridafor10ormoreyearsarecalled "pastmigrants."Residentswhohavelivedtheir entirelifeinFloridaarecalled"natives." White-collarjobsreferstoworkersinprofessional andtechnicaloccupations,managerialand administrative,salesorclericaloccupations. Servicejobsarejustthat.Militaryemployees, farmers,andblue-collarworkerscomprisethe remainingcategoriesonwhichtheratiosare based. 1.ThisdocumentisIF C4,a seriesoftheFloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,Universityof Florida.Publicationdate:May1994. 2.GlennD.Israel,associateprofessorandProgramSpecialist,AgriculturalEducationandCommunicationDepartment,CooperativeExtension Service,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611.Teamleader,RevitalizingRuralFlorida Extensionprogram. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,Dean

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IssuesforFloridaCommunities4 Who'sMovingIntoMetroAndNonmetroFlorida:HumanResourceFlowsPage2 Table1. NetMigrationinSelectedFloridaCounties, 1980-1990. Loss/SmallGain HighGain Gadsden-4,396 PalmBeach 274,629 Hardee -2,967 Broward 224,093 Taylor -483 Dade 206,404 Union -396 Pinellas 159,878 Jefferson-77 Orange 159,306 Gulf 395 Hillsborough 131,728 Madison795 Lee 126,086 Holmes 956 Volusia 115,730 Franklin1,004 Brevard 110,521 Liberty 1,113 Pasco 99,496 Source:BureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch, 1991.RECENTMIGRATIONTRENDSDuringthe1980s,Florida'spopulationgrewby 32.8percenttoreach12.9million.Nearlyallofthis growthwasduetonetmigration.Whilesomepeople movedoutofFloridaduringthe1980s,manymore peoplemovedin--anetgainof3.2million.Bythe endofthe1980s,growthfromnetinmigrationhad beguntoslow(BureauofEconomicandBusiness Research,1991). Manypeopledon'trealizethatthegrowthwas notdistributedevenly.AllbuttwoofFlorida's countiesgrewduringthe1980s,withGadsdenand HardeeCountieslosingasmallpercentageoftheir population.Buteventhoughmostcountiesgrew duringthelastdecade,nonmetrocountiesinNorth FloridaandthePanhandlehadamongthelowest numberofnetinmigrants(Table1).Incontrast, countieswiththelargestnetinmigrationwereall metrocountieslocatedintheFloridapeninsula (Figure1).Clearly,growthfromnetinmigrationis affectingsomecountiesmorethanothers.HUMANRESOURCEATTRIBUTESOF MIGRANTSTheskills,experience,andtrainingthatmigrants bringwiththemareindicatedbyobjectivemeasures: education,laborforceparticipation,employment status,occupationalstatus,andincome.Giventhat ageaffectsmanyofthesemeasures,thisisalso includedinourexaminationofinmigrants. Figure1. MapofFlorida'smetrocounties(shaded)and nonmetrocounties. Figure2. Percent18-44yearsofagebyresidentstatus.AgeIngeneral,agreaterpercentageofrecent migrantsareintheyoungeragegroupsthanpast migrantsandnatives(Figure2).However,nonmetro countieslagbehindmetrocountiesinattracting youngerinmigrants.Becauseyoungerinmigrantshave moreyearstoworkbeforetheyretire,countieswhich receivealargershareofsuchpeoplewillbenefitmore thancountiesthatreceiveasmallershare.Inthis case,itisthemetrocounties.

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IssuesforFloridaCommunities4 Who'sMovingIntoMetroAndNonmetroFlorida:HumanResourceFlowsPage3 Figure3. Percentofcollegegraduatesbyresidentstatus. Figure4. Percentparticipatinginthelaborforcebyresident status.EducationAgreaterproportionofallmigrantstoFlorida havegraduatedfromcollegethanhavenative residents.Thepercentageishigherstillforrecent migrantsthanforpastmigrants.Althoughthe percentageofcollegegraduatesamongrecent nonmetromigrantsishigherthanthatofpast nonmetromigrants,itlagsbehindtherateformetro migrants(Figure3).LaborForceParticipationForFloridaasawhole,migrantsparticipateinthe laborforceatnearlythesamerateasnativeresidents (Figure4).Thisismoretrueforrecentmigrantsthan forpastmigrants--areflectionoftheyoungerage Figure5. Percentemployedbyresidentstatus.structureamongrecentmigrants.Moresignificantly, justoverhalfofnonmetromigrants(bothrecentand pastmigrants)arenotinthelaborforce.Thelabor forceparticipationratefornonmetromigrantsis muchlowerthanthemetrorate. Whiletheolderagestructurefoundamong nonmetromigrantsappearstoaccountformuchof thisdifference,thereasonsthatmigrantsgavefor movingtoFloridaprovidesomefurtherexplanation. Amongrecentmigrants,metromigrantsweretwiceas likelyasnonmetromigrantstosaytheymovedfor employment(16and32percent,respectively). Conversely,morerecentnonmetromigrantssaidthey movedfortheclimatethandidrecentmetromigrants (35and25percent,respectively).EmploymentStatusForthoseresidentswhoareinthelaborforce (andexcludingthosewhoarenot),thereislittle differenceinemploymentstatus(Figure5).Nonmetro residentshaveaslightlyloweremploymentratethan metroresidents.Inparticular,recentnonmetro migrantshadthelowestemploymentrate(87 percent),butrecentmetromigrantshadasimilarrate (89percent).OccupationalStatusOfallthemeasuresofhumanresources, occupationalstatuspresentsthemostunclearpicture. ForFloridaasawhole,theratioofservicejobsto white-collarjobsishighestamongrecentinmigrants

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IssuesforFloridaCommunities4 Who'sMovingIntoMetroAndNonmetroFlorida:HumanResourceFlowsPage4andlowestamongnativeworkers(Israeland Figure6. Ratioofservicejobstowhite-collarjobsby residentstatus.Stephenson,1990)(Figure6).Inotherwords,the percentageofserviceworkers(thosewhoarenot white-orblue-collarworkers,farmersorinthe military)ishighestamongrecentinmigrants(27 percent).Thisisconsistentwithreportsthatmostof thejobscreatedduringthe1980swereintheservice sectoroftheeconomy. Whilepastinmigrantstononmetrocountieswere somewhatmorelikelytohaveawhite-collar occupationandlesslikelytobeinaservice occupationthanwerepastmetroinmigrants(shown bytheirrespectiveratios,.7and.8),theratio reversedforrecentinmigrantswitharatioof1service jobtoeachwhite-collarjobinnonmetrocountiesand .9servicejobstoeverywhite-collarjobinmetro counties.Thetrendofincreasingserviceoccupations innonmetrocountiesappearssomewhatinconsistent withthewidelyheldbeliefthatthetourismand hospitalityindustriesaremostdevelopedinmetro areas,especiallytheOrlandometropolitanarea.IncomeOverall,slightlyoverone-quarterofFlorida's residentsreportedincomesover$45,000(Figure7). Nonmetromigrantshadasmallerpercentagewith incomesover$45,000thantheirmetrocounterparts. Thisdifferenceincreasedamongrecentinmigrants fromthatforpastinmigrants.Inpart,thedifference betweenmetroandnonmetromigrantsmaybea resultofthedifferencesnotedearlierintheage structure,laborforceparticipation,and Figure7. Percentwithanincomeover$45,000byresident status.unemploymentrates.IMPLICATIONSTheflowofhumanresourcesthroughinmigration toFloridasuggeststhatmetrocountiesarebenefiting morethannonmetrocounties.Theconvergence amongthemeasures--age,education,laborforce participation,employmentstatus,andincome,show arelativeadvantageformetrocountiesinreceiving peoplewith"higher"humanresourceattributes. WhatdoesthismeanfornonmetroFlorida? NonmetroFloridaalreadylagsbehindmetroFlorida ineducationallevels,theemploymentrate,andper capitaincome(IsraelandStephenson,1990).This, togetherwiththeinabilitytoattractanequalshareof thehumanresourcesflowingintothestate,willmake itmoredifficulttocatchupwithmetroareas.And, ifthecharacteristicsofoutmigrantsfromFlorida's nonmetrocountiesaresimilartothoseoftheU.S., thentheprospectsforimprovingthestockof nonmetrohumanresourcesarebleak.Thisisbecause nonmetrocountiesarelosingtheiryoungestandbest educatedtometropolitanareas(Lichter,McLaughlin, andCornwell). Thedataalsoimplythatnonmetrocountieswill haveasmallerhumanresourcebaseonwhichtodraw asresidentsworktomeetthechallengesfacingtheir communities.Thequestionisnotwillpeopledoit, buthoweffectivelytheyareabletomeetthose

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IssuesforFloridaCommunities4 Who'sMovingIntoMetroAndNonmetroFlorida:HumanResourceFlowsPage5challenges.Inthisregard,nonmetrocountiesmay suffer.RESOURCESFORCITIZENSANDLEADERSCitizensandleaderswhowishtobetter understandmigrationanditsimpactontheir communitycancontacttheircounty'sCooperative ExtensionServiceoffice.Informationabout conductingapublicpolicyprocessfordealingwith migrationspecifically,orbroaderhumanresource issues,isavailable(Beaulieu,1992;Israel,1992). Thesematerialscanhelpinclarifyingtheissue, identifyingalternativepolicies,assessingthe consequencesofpolicies,makingchoices,and developinganimplementationplan(Beaulieu,1992). Throughtheuseoftheseresources,citizensand leaderswillbebetterabletoaddresswhatmaybe undesirableimpactsonhumanresourcesintheir community.ABOUTTHEDATAThedatacamefromninemonthly"Florida ConsumerConfidenceSurveys"conductedduring 1991bytheBureauofEconomicandBusiness ResearchattheUniversityofFlorida.Telephone surveymethodsareusedtocollectinformationfrom adultssampledfromacrossthestate.Atotalof5,113 respondentscomprisethedataset.Thenumberfor anyonemeasureofhumancapitalmayvarydueto nonresponse.Somebiaseshavebeenfoundinthe data--notably,fewerblacksandmorefemalesarein thesampleascomparedtoCensusdata(Smith, 1990).LITERATURECITEDBeaulieu,L.J."ThePublicPolicyEducationModel: AFrameworkforAddressingLocalIssues." FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,IFAS, UniversityofFlorida.June,1992. BureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch. Florida Population:CensusSummary1990 .Collegeof BusinessAdministration,UniversityofFlorida. (April)1991. Israel,G.D."Migration'sImpactonHuman Resources."FloridaCooperativeExtension Service,IFAS,UniversityofFlorida.June,1992. Israel,G.D.,andW.C.Stephenson."Populationand AgricultureinFlorida:ANewLookatTrends andCharacteristics."FloridaCooperative ExtensionService,IFAS,UniversityofFlorida. PE-13.December,1990. Lichter,D.T.,D.K.McLaughlin,andG.T.Cornwell. "MigrationandtheLossofHumanResourcesin RuralAmerica."ForthcominginLionelJ. BeaulieuandDavidMulkey(eds.), Investingin People:TheHumanCapitalNeedsofRural America.WestviewPress. Smith,S.K."MigrantsandNativesinFlorida:A SummaryofSocioeconomicandDemographic Characteristics."Reportpreparedforthe DivisionofEconomicandDemographic Research,JointLegislativeManagement Committee,FloridaLegislature.June,1990. Articlesmaybereproduced,inwholeorinpart,withoutspecialpermission.Newspapers,periodicalsand otherpublicationsareencouragedtosubmitpreviouslypublishedarticlesofinteresttotheirreaders.Creditis requestedifsucharticlesarereprinted.Sendeditorialcommentsorcorrespondenceconcerningaddress changesormailingtoD.Mulkey,andJ.R.Gordon,Editors,FoodandResourceEconomicsDepartment,Box 110240,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida32611.