Identifying Needs Using Secondary Data Sources

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Identifying Needs Using Secondary Data Sources
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Beaulieu, Lionel J.
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CD28 June1992IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources1 LionelJ.Beaulieu2Itisimportantforlocalleadersandconcerned citizenstodevelopagoodunderstandingoftheissues facingtheircommunity.Anattemptwasmadeto outlineaframeworkthatcouldhelpindividualsto assessinasystematicmannertheneedsexistinginthe community(seeNeedsAssessment:AFrameworkfor DeterminingCommunityNeeds:).Aswasnoted,an importantstepassociatedwiththatneedsassessment modelwasthedeterminationofthepresentsituation (Whatis?)throughtheuseofprimaryandsecondary datacollectiontechniques.Primarysourcesfor gatheringinformationwereelaborateduponinthe papertitled,"ConductingaCommunityNeeds Assessment:PrimaryDataCollectionTechniques." Ourintentistonowpresentadetailedtreatmentof secondarysourcesofinformationrelevantto communityneedsassessmentactivities.Letusbegin byprovidinginformationonsomeofthekey attributesassociatedwiththisapproach.SECONDARYDATAAPPROACH PurposeToobtaininsightsabouttheissuesandproblems impactingonthecommunitythroughtheuseof nonattitudinal statisticaldata.ApproachTheprocessinvolvesthetappingofinformation sourcesthatalreadyexistineitherpublishedor unpublishedform.Thesedatamaycomefromsuch sourcesastheU.S.Censusorstateagencyreports. Anattemptisusuallymadetoidentifykeyvariables (forexample,thenumberoffamilieswithincomes belowthepovertylevel)thathaveimportantvalue fromaneedsassessmentperspective.Thatis,one seekstoexaminedatathatmightprovidesome suggestionofneedsthatexistinthecommunity.Itis desirablethatdatabeexaminedformorethanone pointintimesothatsomeevaluationcanbemade aboutthenatureandextentofchangesoccurringin thecommunity.SOURCESOFSECONDARYDATAStatisticaldataonmanyareasoflocalconcernare publishedbylocal,stateandfederalgovernment agencies.Privateorganizationsalsorelease informationthatmayproveusefulforlocal communities.Someoftheseinclude:FederalSources CensusesofPopulation,Housing,Agriculture, Government,Transportation,Business, Manufacturers,plusothers. 1.ThisdocumentisCD28,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publication date:June1992. 2.LionelJ.Beaulieu,professor,ruralsociology,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida, GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page2 StatisticalAbstractoftheUnitedStates CountyandCityDataBook ,whichincludesdata onacountyandcitybasis. CountyBusinessPatterns,publishedannuallyby theBureauoftheCensus.Thispublication providesdetailedinformationonthebusinessand industrialcompositionofallcountiesinthe UnitedStates. TheMunicipalYearbook,publishedbythe InternationalCityManagersAssociation. CountyandMetropolitanAreaDataBookfor Hospitals,HealthManpower,andNursingHomes publishedbytheU.S.PublicService.StateReports FloridaStatisticalAbstract,whichcontainsstate andcountydataonamyriadofitems,including population,housing,income,agriculture, employment,etc. Employmentandunemploymentfiguresprepared monthlybytheFloridaDepartmentofLaborand EmploymentSecurity. PopulationStudiesBulletins publishedbythe BureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch, UniversityofFlorida,whichpresentup-to-date estimatesontheage,raceandsexcompositionof thestateanditscounties,aswellasnumberof householdsandaveragehouseholdsizeatboth thestateandcountylevels. FloridaVitalStatistics ,publishedbythe DepartmentofHealthandRehabilitativeServices (HRS).Excellentinformationonthehealth statusofFloridiansisalsoreportedinHRS's AnnualStatisticalReport. AnnualReportonCrimeinFlorida,publishedby theFloridaDepartmentofLawEnforcement. AnnualReportoftheCommissionerofEducation: ProfilesofFloridaSchoolDistricts ,acompilation ofenrollmentsinvariouseducationprogramsin thestate(i.e.,Kthrough12,vocationaleducation, exceptionaleducation,andadulteducation programs).LocalReportsIncludessourcessuchasthecitydirectory,reports issuedbycityorcountygovernment,documents preparedbyregionalandlocalplanningcouncils,and localChamberofCommercepublications.Also relevantareminutesoflocalmeetingsofthe county/citycommissions,schoolboard,andotherlocal publicagencies.Yourlocallibrarycanperforma veryusefulroleinassistingyouinsecuringlocally producedinformationonyourcommunity.TYPESOFINFORMATIONSecondarysourcesofdatacanprovide informationonavarietyofitemsofimportancewithin thelocalcommunity.Examplesoftheseare: Populationsize,growth/decline,processesand composition. Thesocialbehaviorandwell-beingofpeople, suchascrimerates,povertystatus,family stability,andmorbidity/mortalityrates. Thegeneralconditionofvariouscommunity sectors,suchashousing,employment,health,and localgovernment.SOMEADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES Advantages1.Needsassessmentemployingsecondarydata sourcescanbecarriedoutquickly. 2.Theapproachmakesgooduseofalreadyexisting statisticaldata. 3.Secondarydatacanbesecuredatrelativelylow costbypersonswithlimitedresearchtrainingor technicalexpertise. 4.Itoffersoneoftheeasiestwaystomonitor changesoccurringtoacommunityovertimeand theneedsassociatedwiththosechanges. 5.Thisapproachrepresentsagoodwaytocompare thelevelofwell-beingofdifferentgeo-political units(i.e.,countyvs.state). 6.It'satechniquethatcomplementsprimarydata collectionapproaches(suchaskeyinformants, surveys).

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page3Disadvantages1.Manyofthedatautilizedareonlyindirect measuresofproblemsorconcernsthatmightexist inthecommunity. 2.Itisdifficulttodeterminethereliabilityofsome ofthedatabeingused. 3.Someoftheavailabledatamayberelatively dated. 4.Extremecautionmustbeexercisedwhenmerging datafromdifferentsourcesinordertomakesure thattheyaremeasuringthesamething. 5.Doesnotrevealindividualvalues,beliefs,or reasonsthatmaybeunderlyingcurrenttrends. 6.Greatquantityofdatamayoverwhelmtheuser unlessselectivityisexercised. 7.Cautionmustbeexercisedwheninterpretingdata.GENERALGUIDELINESFORANALYZING SECONDARYDATAOneoftheapparentdifficultiesassociatedwith theuseofsecondarydataisthetendencyforpeople tofeeloverwhelmedbytheabundanceofinformation existingontheircommunityorcounty.Howcanone avoidfallingintothistrap?Obviously,animportant firststepistohaveaclearunderstandingofwhatyou wanttodoandwhy.Inconductinganeeds assessment,haveaclear,well-definedpurposefor carryingoutthestudy.Next,specifywhataudience(s) orspecificproblem(s)youwishtocollectinformation on.Equippedwiththisinformation,youwillbeina betterpositiontoascertainwhatsecondarydata sourcesareofgreatestutility.Theimportantthingis tohavesomefocustoyoursecondarydatacollection activities. Oncedatahavebeencollected,whatnext?Itis recommendedthatyouundertakeacloseexamination oftheinformationtodeterminewhatitmaysuggest astoproblemsorconcernsfacingthecommunity. Someoftheareastoconsiderinclude: localconditionsthatthedatadescribe thedirectionofchange(thatis,arethingsbetter orworse?) theintensityofchange(howmuchbetteror worsedothingsappeartobe?) howyourcommunityorcountycompareswith othersimilarcommunities/countiesorthestatein termsofconditionsandchangesinconditions thecomprehensivepicturethatthedatasuggest aboutyourcommunityorcounty(thatis,what arethepriorityconcernsthatappeartobe reflectedinthedata?) Inmostinstances,itisrecommendedthat secondarydatabesecuredattwoormorepointsin time.Bysodoing,moreinformeddecisionscanbe maderegardingthenatureandextentofchanges takingplaceinyourlocalarea.ANALYZINGSECONDARYDATAAssuggestedearlier,secondarydataareavailable onatleastthreeimportantcommunity/county dimensions:(1)populationsize,growth/decline, processesandcomposition;(2)thesocialbehavior andwell-beingofpeople;and(3)thegeneral conditionsofvariouscommunitysectors.Itwouldbe usefultobrieflydiscusseachinformationtypeandto presentexamplesofeach.DemographicAnalysesThestudyofpopulation,includingitssize, composition,distributionandchangesisknownasthe fieldofdemography.Anexcellenttreatmentof demographyanditsapplicationtothestudyoflocal populationdynamicsiscontainedinapublication authoredbyC.ShannonStokestitled, Community PopulationAnalysis.Wewouldliketobriefly highlightsomeoftheexcellentpointspresentedin thisdocument. Stokesnotesthatthedemographicapproachto communitiescanbeseparatedintotwomajor categories: structuralcharacteristics and demographicprocesses .Elementsassociatedwiththe formerincludepopulationsize,distribution,and composition,whilefertility,mortalityandmigration representaspectsofthelattercategory.Thebasic conceptsandmeasuresrelevanttocommunity populationanalysisarepresentedinTable1. Stokespresentsanexcellenttreatmentofthetwo basicdemographicconceptsinhispublication.The followingisanexcerptofthatdiscussion:

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page4 Table1. BasicConceptsandMeasuresofDemographicAnalysis. StructuralCharacteristics DemographicProcesses SIZE Growthordecline,absoluteandrelative growth FERTILITY Crudebirthrate,age-specificfertilityrate, fertilityratio DISTRIBUTION Populationdensity,rural-urbanresidence MORTALITY Crudedeathrate,infantmortality,agespecificmortalityrate COMPOSITION Age,sex,racialandsocio-economic composition MIGRATION Inandoutmigration,selectivemigrationStructuralCharacteristicsStructuralcharacteristicsrefertopopulation size, geographicdistribution ,and composition.Any populationunit(community,county,stateornation) maybedescribedonthesedimensionsandcompared tootherpopulations.Theimportanceofgrowthor declineinpopulationsizeiswellknown.However,it isimportanttodistinguishbetweenabsoluteand relativegrowthordecline.Absolutechangein populationreferstotheactualnumberofpersons addedorlostduringagivenperiodoftime.While suchnumbersareimportantforlocalplanning purposes,theydonotprovidethe comparative informationneededtoevaluatethepositionofone areainrelationtoothers.Relativepopulationchange referstothepercentagechange.Twocommunities canbecomparedaccuratelyusingpercentagechange dataregardlessoftheirrespectivesizes.Absolute changecanbemisleadingunlessthecommunitiesare approximatelythesamesize.Inaddition,percentage changesaregiveninmostcensuspublications,thus permittingcomparisonsofcommunitygrowth/decline withstateandnationalgrowthpatterns. Populationdistributionreferstothegeographic locationofpopulationovertheavailablelandarea. Analysisofpopulationdistributionfocusesupona community,county,stateorotherrecognizedunitsof analysis.Thegrowthordeclineoftheseunits, movementfromoneunittoanother--ruraltourban, metropolitantonon-metropolitan--andthechanging characteristicsofeachunitareimportantfor understandingpopulationtrendssuchassuburban growthorruralpopulationchange. Populationcompositionreferstothedistribution ofoneormoretraitsorattributesofindividuals withinapopulation.Thisincludesnotonlytheage andsexcompositionofapopulation,butalso importantcharacteristicslikerace,ethnicorigin, occupation,incomelevelandeducationalstatus.DemographicProcessesThedemographicprocessesof fertility, mortality and migration areasimportantasthestructural characteristicsofpopulations.Thesethreeprocesses arebothdeterminantsandconsequencesofchanges inpopulationsize,distributionandcomposition. Fertility referstotheactualnumberofbirths occurringinapopulation,while mortality measures thenumberofdeaths. Migration includesmovement intoandoutofanarea.Theinterdependenceof demographicprocessesandstructuralcharacteristics maybeillustratedbyanextremeexample. Apopulationcomposedofadisproportionate numberofelderlypersonswilltendtohaveaboveaveragemortalityandlower-than-averagefertility eveninareaswherehealthconditionsareexcellent. PinellasCounty,Florida,forexample,hasmore deathsthanbirths.In1987,thecrudedeathrate (deathsper1,000population)was15.1;thecrude birthrate(birthsper1,000population)was11.1.If oneexaminesonlythetotalnumberofbirthsand deaths,orthecrudebirthanddeathrates,onecould concludethatisamostunhealthyplacetolive.Of course,thisisnotthecase;theratesmerelyreflect thedisproportionatenumberofelderlypersonsinthe totalpopulationandtherelativelysmallerpercentage (comparedtothenation)ofwomeninthe childbearingages,15-49.Thisillustrationpointsout thenecessityofviewingpopulationstructureandthe demographicprocessesasinterdependent.To understandacommunity'spopulationproperly,a numberofseparatebutinterrelatedpiecesof informationarerequired.ExamplesofDemographicAnalysisThefollowingareintendedtoillustratesomeof thewaysinwhichdemographicanalysesofthetype suggestedbyStokescanproveinstrumentalinmany

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page5needsassessmentactivities.Both Table2. EstimatesofChangesintheUnitedStatesPopulation:TheYears 1970to2000. 1970 1980 1990 2000 TotalPopulation 203,302,031 226,504,825 250,410,000 268,266,00 0 AGEDISTRIBUTION Lessthan15 28.5% 22.6% 20.3% 18.8% 15to24 17.4%18.7%15.7% 15.1% 25to44 23.6% 27.7% 32.7% 30.2% 45to64 20.6%19.7%18.7% 22.9% 65orover 9.9% 11.3% 12.6% 13.0% SEXDISTRIBUTION Male 48.7% 48.6% 48.8% 48.9% Female 51.3%51.4%51.2% 51.9% PERCENTPOPULATIONCHANGE 1970to1980 11.4% 1980to19909.5% 1990to2000 6.7% Source:Florida:FinalPopulationandHousingUnitCounty,PHC80-V-11,1980 CensusofPopulationandHousing;(March)1981.1980ObersBEA RegionalProjection,U.S.DepartmentofCommerce:(July)1981.Projects ofthePopulationoftheUnitedStates,byAge,Sex,andRace;1988to 2080,SeriesP-25,No.1018,U.S.Dept.ofCommerce,1989,examplesemploystatewidedatain theanalyses. Ex.1:Thepurposeofthis exerciseistoexaminewhatthe patternofpopulationgrowthhas beenandisanticipatedtobein Florida,andhowthiscompares totheUnitedStatesasawhole. Arelatedissueiswhatthesex andagecompositionofthat populationhasbeenandwillbe. Theessentialinformationfor addressingtheseitemsisreportedin Tables2and3.Table2presents dataontheUnitedStates,while Table3dealswithFlorida-specific information.Asyoucansee,both providepopulationsizefigures(in absoluteform)fortheyears1970, 1980,1990and2000.Inaddition, relativegrowthinpopulationforthe periods1970-80,1980-90and19902000arenoted.Theageandsex distributionofthepopulationatfour pointsintimeisoutlinedaswell. Onethebasisofthedatacontainedinbothtables, thefollowingtypeofanalysismightbeprepared: RecentdatareleasedbytheU.S.Bureauof theCensusdocumentthecontinuedgrowthofthe populationintheUnitedStates.Estimates indicatethatourcountry'spopulationgrewby 23.9million(from226.5millionto250.4million) overthe1980to1990period,agrowthrateof9.5 percent.Assumingnomajordeviationfrom currenttrendsorpolicies,itisexpectedthatthe U.S.populationwillexceedthe268millionmark bytheturnofthecentury.

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page6Ofparticularimportance,arethe Table3. EstimatesofChangesintheFloridaPopulation:Theyears1970to 2000. 1970 1980 1990 2000 TotalPopulation 6,791,418 9,746,324 13,152,701 15,988,031 AGEDISTRIBUTION Lessthan15 25.8% 19.3% 19.2% 18.3% 15to24 15.8%16.7%12.9% 11.7% 25to44 22.2% 25.1% 29.9% 26.5% 45to64 21.6%21.6%20.7% 24.4% 65andover 14.6% 17.3% 17.6% 19.1% SEXDISTRIBUTION Male 48.2% 48.0% 48.4% 48.3% Female 51.8%52.0%51.6% 51.7% PERCENTPOPULATIONCHANGE 1970to1980 43.4% 1980to1990 25.9% 1990to2000 17.7% Source:Florida:FinalPopulationandHousingUnitCounty,PHC80-V-11,1980 CensusofPopulationandHousing;(March)1981.1980-2020Projectionof FloridaPopulationbyCounty,BureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch; (May)1979.demographiccharacteristicsassociatedwiththe U.S.population.ThedatapresentedinTable2 signalanumberofsignificanttrends.First,the UnitedStateswillexperienceadeclineinthe proportionofitspopulationunder25yearsof age.Second,anexpansionofthepopulation65 yearsofageorolderwillpersistthroughthe 1990s.Andthird,femaleswillconstitutea majorityofthenationalpopulationduringthe remainderofthiscentury. Overthe1980to1990timeperiod,Florida experienceda25.9percentgrowth,orover3.4 millionpersons.Whilethemagnitudeofthe growthoverthenext10yearsisnotexpectedto rivalthe1980-90growthpattern,itisbelieved thatthestate'spopulationwillexpandatarate twotothreetimesthatofthenationasawhole. Accompanyingthispopulationexpansionwill beamajorreshiftingoftheagestructureofthe state.Theproportionofthepopulation65years oldandoverwillincreasesubstantiallybytheyear 2000,aswillthepercentage25to44yearsofage. Declinesareprojectedintheless-than-15and15to-24agegroupings.Minor changesinthesexdistribution areexpectedthroughoutthe remainderofthecentury. Someoftheimportant implicationsthatcanbedrawn fromthesedataare:(1)the growthofthestate'spopulation willcontinueatapacewellabove thenationalaverage,thereby intensifyingdemandsforpublic servicesandourvitalnatural resources(water,land,energy); and(2)withthecontinuedinflux ofretireesintothestate,the medianageofthepopulationwill proceedonanupwardcourse, therebysuggestingthatlocal/state leaderswillhavetoremain attunedtotheneedsofanaging population. Ex.2:Thepurposeofthis exerciseistoexaminespecific changesthathaveoccurredand willlikelytakeplaceinthesize andcompositionoftheyouthpopulationintheFlorida. Thesizeoftheyouthpopulationbysexandselect agegroupingsarepresentedinTable4.Actual figuresarepresentedfor1970,1980,and1990,with estimatesbeingprovidedfortheyear2000.Briefly, thedatashowthattheabsolutenumberofpersons5 to9yearsold,and10to14yearsofagecontinuesto increase.Ontheotherhand,the15to19age groupingdeclinedinnumbersoverthe1980-90time period,butwillincreasedramaticallybytheturnof thecentury.Thenumberofpersonsunder5years oldincreasedrapidlybetween1980and1990,butis expectedtogrowmuchmoreslowlybetween1990 andtheyear2000. WhilethedataoutlinedinTable4areusefulin themselves,theytakeonaddedmeaningwhenthey arecomparedtostatewidepopulationfigures.Figure 1reportsFlorida'syouthpopulationasaproportion ofthetotalpopulation,1970through2000.Visually, thepatternisquiteclear--persons19yearsofageand lesswillcompriseasmallerandsmallerproportionof thetotalFloridapopulationbytheyear2000.

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page7ThecriticaltrendfoundinFigure Table4. FloridaYouthPopulationbySexandSelectAgeGrouping:The years1970to2000. 1970 1980 1990 2000 TotalPopulation 6,789,443 9,745,324 13,152,701 15,988,03 1 AGE Under5years 501,179 570,224 908,087 917,488 5to9 605,714621,534852,624 977,440 10to14 643,014 685,016 759,037 1,031,293 15to19 576,776811,340806,815 994,905 BOYS Under5years 255,850 291,286 463,122 467,171 5to9 308,295317,254434,450 497,794 10to14 326,969 349,914 388,058 527,107 15to19 292,261411,458411,022 506,829 GIRLS Under5years 245,329 278,938 444,965 450,317 5to9 297,419304,280418,147 479,646 10to14 316,045 335,102 370,979 504,186 15to19 284,515399,882395,793 488,076 Source:PopulationofFlorida:CountiesbyAgeandSex:April1,1980,Population Studies,CollegeofBusiness.BulletinNo.59(March)1982.1980Obers BEARegionalProjections.U.S.DepartmentofCensus,Bureauof EconomicAnalysis.Volume1(July)1980.PopulationEstimatesand Projections.BureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch.Vol.23,No.34,BulletinNo.93-94,(June)1990. Figure1. TheFloridaYouthPopulation:Theyears1970to2000.1wouldnothavebeenasobvioushad wefocusedsolelyontheabsolute numbersreportedinTable4.This examplefurtherhighlightsthe importanceoflookingatrelative growthpatternsinadditionto absoluteones.Moreover,itshows howdatacanbetransformedintoa visuallyinformativediagram(suchas Figure1)toquicklycapturewhatis happeningtothesizeoftheyouth populationinproportiontothe statewidepopulationpattern. Arethereimportantissuesthat mightbesuggestedbythesedata? Theremaybeseveralavenuesof investigationthatmightbefruitfulto pursue,suchasthegrowthordecline inpre-kindergarten,kindergarten, primaryandsecondaryschool enrollmentsthatmayoccurasa resultoftheyouthpopulationtrends, orthecontributiontothesizeand compositionofthelaborforcethat willbemadebythispopulation segmentinthefuture,etc. Remember,thesedatawillnot necessarilyansweryourquestions aboutwhatthekeyconcernsare,but theywilloftenguideyouinthe determinationwhatitemsshouldbe probedmoredeeply.SocialBehaviorandWell-being ofPeopleThefocusofthissourceof secondaryinformationisonfactors whichprovidesomeindicationofthe healthandsocialwell-beingofpeople inthecommunity.Mostoften,this includesinformationonthefollowing: mortalityrates morbidityratesforvarioustypes ofillnesses crimerates,includingjuvenile delinquency suiciderates familyinstability,suchasdivorceratesandoneparenthouseholds levelofalcoholanddrugabuse povertystatusofindividualsandfamilies Thebulkofthedataoutlinedabovearepublished bytheU.S.BureauoftheCensusandvariousstate

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page8agencies(suchastheDepartmentof Figure2. TheU.S.RuralCrimeRateandtheFloridaRuralCrimeRate,Per 100,000Persons.(Source:FloridaUniformCrimeReportsandF.B.I.Crime Reports.)HealthandRehabilitativeServices, DepartmentofLawEnforcement). Whencarefullyanalyzed,these secondarysourcescanprovidea wealthofinformationconcerning needsthatmightexistinthe community.Letusnowturntoa coupleofexamplesofdatathatare reflectiveofthe"socialbehaviorand well-beingofpeople"dimension. Ex.1:Thepurposeofthis exerciseistoestablishwhether crimehasbeenaproblemin ruralareasoftheStateofFlorida. Oneofthebestknownand utilizedreportsaddressingtheissue ofcrimeisthe UniformCrimeReport ,published annuallybytheFederalBureauofInvestigation(FBI) inconcertwiththeFloridaDepartmentofLaw Enforcement.Examinationofthedatacontainedin thesedocumentscanprovidethebasisfor determiningtheextenttowhichruralcrimeis prevalentinthestate.Figure2presentstherateof crime(per100,000persons)foratwenty-nineyear period(1959through1987)forruralareasofFlorida. Thecrimerateisbaseduponacrimeindexofseven majoroffenses,namely,murder,forciblerape, robbery,aggravatedassault,burglary,larceny,and motorvehicletheft.Toprovideanimportantpointof comparison,theruralU.S.crimeratesareshownas well.Clearly,thisadditionalinformationshedsmuch lightonthemagnitudeofthecrimeprobleminrural Florida. WhatcanbesaidaboutFigure2?Basically, thesedatashowatrendofincreasingtotalcrimerates forbothruralareasoftheUnitedStatesandFlorida 1959.Overtheperiod1959to1980,thecrimerate forruralAmericaincreasedsome477percent(the 1980crimerateminusthe1959crimerate/1959crime rate,thenmultipliedby100).InruralFlorida,the ratejumpedby625percentoverthesameperiodof time.Crimeratesdecreasedsomewhatduringthe earlypartofthe1980s,buttheFloridaruralcrime raterosesignificantlyfrom1984to1988.Infact,the ruralcrimeprobleminFloridaremainsquitehigh relativetotheremainderoftheruralUnitedStates. Obviously,thedatasuggestthatfurtherstudy designedtouncovertherootcausesoftheruralcrime probleminthestate,orpossiblestrategiesfor reducingit,mightbeinorder.Theresultofthis effortmaybetofirstdesignprogramstoeducatethe publicontheextentoftheruralcrimeproblemin theirarea,orthentoimplementcrimeprevention programstargetedtothecommunity,home,farm and/orbusinessestablishments.Itisimportantto rememberthatdescriptivedataofthetypepresented inFigure2oftenallowyoutomakesomereasonably soundinferencesregardingneedsthatmayexistin yourcommunity(orstate). Ex2:Therehasbeenmuchdiscussionregarding thelargenumberofunwedteenagerswhohave becomepregnantintheUnitedStates.Arethere largenumberoflivebirthstoteenageunwed mothersinFlorida? Ausefulsourceofinformationonthisproblemis theFloridaVitalStatistics.Table5presentsresident livebirthstounwedmothersunder19yearsofage forthe1980to1988period.Figuresshowthatover 32percentofalllivebirthsin1980weretounwed mothers18yearsofageandunder.In1988,this proportiondroppedto23.5percent.Whilethislatter figurerepresentsasubstantialproportionaldecline fromthe1980percentage,adifferentmessageis providedwhenoneexaminestheabsolutenumberof livebirthstounwedteenagemothers.Whatyou discoveristheactualnumberwas9,720in1980and 12,462in1988,a28.2percentincrease.Thisbrief analysisseemstosuggestthelevelofteenage pregnanciesissizableandthisproblemisonethat mayneedtobeaddressedbyparents,educators, and/oryouthdevelopmentprofessionals.

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page9GeneralConditionofVarious Table5. ResidentLiveBirthstoUnwedMothersUnder19YearsofAge,ByAgeGroupingandRace,1980-88. Overall White Black 1980 1988 1980 1988 1980 1988 AgeofMother 10to14 571 677 105 173 466 504 15 1,257 1,447 321 424 936 1,023 16 2,091 2,468 619 937 1,472 1,531 17 2,654 3,676 824 1,512 1,830 2,164 18 3,147 4,194 1,063 1,934 2,084 2,260 Total 9,720 12,462 2,932 4,980 6,788 7,482 %change(1980to1988) 28.2% 69.8% 10.2% a.TotalLiveBirthstoUnwedMothersin1980: 30,156 b.TotalLiveBirthstoUnwedMothers18andUnderin1980: 9,720 c.ProportionofLiveBirthsin1980toUnwedMothers18andUnder: 32.2% d.TotalLiveBirthstoUnwedMothersin1988: 52,953 e.TotalLiveBirthstoUnwedMothers18andUnderin1988: 12,462 f.ProportionofLiveBirthsin1988toUnwedMothers18andUnder: 23.5% Source:StateofFlorida,FloridaVitalStatistics1981.DepartmentofHealthandRehabilitativeServices.CommunitySectorsThefinalbroadlydefinedtypeofsecondarydata thatisusefulforcommunityneedsassessment activitiesisonethatprovidessomeindicationofthe generalwelfareofvariousaspectsofthecommunity, suchashousing,business/industry,employment, healthmanpowerandservices,publicservices,and publicfinancingandtaxation.Theseofteninclude informationon: housingquantityandquality,suchasnumberof housingunits,substandardhousing,extentof overcrowding economicdevelopment,includingnewor expandingbusinessesandindustriesinthe community employmentactivities,suchasnumberofpeople inthecivilianlaborforce,unemploymentrate, andnumberofnewlycreatedjobs supplyofhealthcareservices,suchasnumber andtypesofphysicians,nurses,dentists,and otherhealthprofessionals,includinghealthcare professional/populationratios;healthfacilities suchashospitals,nursingcarehomes,homesfor specialhealth-relatedservices,emergencyhealth careclinics availabilityofvariouspublicservices(e.g.,fire andpolice,recreationfacilities,publicschool) governmentfinances,includingrevenuesand expenditures Manymoresourcesandtypesofdataassociated withthisdimensioncouldbeuncovered.However, thoselistedaboveprovidesomeflavorofthetypeof informationthatwouldfallundertherubricof "generalconditionofvariouscommunitysectors."A specificexampleofsecondarydataofthistypeisas follows: Ex.1:Oneofthemajorgoalsofoureducational systemistoprovideyouthwiththeskillsneeded tobecomeproductive,contributingmembersof societyandtheircommunitiesduringtheiradult

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page10lives.Oneaspectofthiseffortistoofferyouth Table6. EstimatesandProjectionsofEmploymentbyIndustryfortheStateofFlorida:1969to1995. 1969 1978 1983 1990 1995 TOTALNUMBEROFJOBS 2,680,000 3,857,300 4,627,200 5,755,800 6,407,000 PERCENTOFJOBSBYINDUSTRY AgriculturalProduction 3.6 2.8 2.1 1.9 1.8 AgriculturalServices,Forestry,FisheriesandOther1.21.81.82.0 2.0 Mining 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 Construction 7.36.67.07.2 6.8 Manufacturing 12.5 11.1 10.2 10.3 10.0 Transportation,CommunicationandPublicUtilities5.75.45.45.2 5.2 WholesaleTrade 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.2 RetailTrade 17.418.817.919.7 20.0 Finance,InsuranceandRealEstate 5.2 6.5 7.2 7.5 6.8 Services 22.723.325.426.4 27.3 Government 19.1 18.4 16.3 14.4 13.7 Source:ObersBEARegionalProjections,U.S.DepartmentofCommerce;July1985.appropriatecareeropportunities.Whatarelikely tobethecareeropportunitiesavailabletoour youthintheyearsahead? Onepieceofsecondarydatathatcouldpotentially contributetotheeducationalsystem'sdesireto providemeaningfulcareerchoicestoouryouthisthe projecteddemandforemploymentbythevarious industrialsectorsinFlorida(NOTE:weareutilizing statewidedatainthisexample,butcountyleveldata ofthistypeareavailableaswell).Estimatesand projectionsofemploymentdemandsbyindustryare outlinedinTable6.Theemploymentpictureforthe statesuggeststhatfullyone-fourthofthejobsin1990 willbeassociatedwiththeserviceindustry.Moderate gainsareanticipatedinthefinance,insurance,and realestate,andintheretailtradeindustries. Employmentintheagriculturalproductionareais expectedtodeclineto1.8percentofthelaborforce bytheyear1995.Thesedataraiseamyriadof questions.Forexample,shouldoureducational systembysensitivetotheseemploymenttrends,and ifso,inwhatway?Willsomemodificationofthe curriculumofferingsatthehighschooland/orcollege levelsberequired?SUMMARYInthisclasssession,wehaveattemptedto elaborateonsecondarysourcesofinformationthat mightbetappedwhencarryingoutacommunity needsassessmentstudy.Wehavepresentedthree majortypesofsecondarydatathatmightbeutilized inyourexamination,thesebeing demographic profiles,the socialbehaviorandwell-beingofpeople andthe generalconditionofvarioussectorsinthe community.Hopefully,theyrepresentauseful frameworkforclassifyingthewealthofsecondarydata thatexistonyourlocality. Weencourageyoutocloselyexaminethe secondaryinformationyouhavecollected,including whatitmaybesuggestingaboutlocalconditions,the directionandmagnitudeofchange,andhowyour communitycompareswithothercommunitiesorthe state.Theseriesofexamplespresentedinthis modulewereintendedtodemonstratehowthismight bedonewiththeuseofvarioussecondarydata informationsources.

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IdentifyingNeedsUsingSecondaryDataSources Page11Finally,itisimperativethatweremindyouthat thediversityofsecondaryinformationresourcesthat havebeendiscussedinthissessionwillnottellyou whattheneedsofthecommunityare.Theywillserve asfruitfulsourcesfordefiningthecurrentsituation. Determinationofthepreferredordesiredsituation (thesecondpieceofinformationnecessaryinany communityneedsassessment)willrequiretomove beyondthesedescriptivedata.Again,thepreferred situation(the"Whatshouldbe?")willbebasedon values--yourvalues,thoseofcommunityleaders, and/oroflocalresidents.Onlywiththeadditionof thissecondpieceofinformationwillyoutrulybe successfulinascertainingtheneedsofyour community.REFERENCESBureauofEconomicandBusinessResearch. BusinessandEconomicDimension.Universityof Florida,Gainesville.Volume17(3),1981. Butler,LornaMichaelandRobertE.Howell. Coping withGrowth:CommunityNeedsAssessment Techniques.Corvallis:OR:WesternRural DevelopmentCenter,1980. Fear,FrankA.,KeithA.Carter,ErikR.Andersen, ChristopherE.MarshallandBenjaminH.Yep. NeedsAssessmentinCommunityDevelopment:A ResourceBook.Ames,Iowa:Departmentof SociologyandAnthropology,IowaState University.SociologyReportNo.243(August) 1978. C.ShannonStokes. CommunityPopulationAnalysis, CommunityAffairsSeriesNo.8 .ThePennsylvania StateUniversity,CollegeofAgricultureExtension Service. Warheit,GeorgeJ.,RogerA.Bell,andJohnJ. Schwab. PlanningforChange:NeedsAssessment Approaches.TheNationalInstituteofMental Health,GrantNo.15900-05S1.