Laws Governing Use And Impact Of Agricultural Chemicals: Regulation Of Hazardous Wastes And Use Of Hazardous Chemicals

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Laws Governing Use And Impact Of Agricultural Chemicals: Regulation Of Hazardous Wastes And Use Of Hazardous Chemicals
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Fact sheet
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Olexa, Michael T.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"Publication date: September 1995."
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"FRE-146"

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FactSheetFRE-146 September1995LawsGoverningUseandImpactofAgriculturalChemicals: RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardous Chemicals1 MichaelT.Olexa2STORAGEANDDISPOSALOFPESTICIDES ANDPESTICIDECONTAINERS: FIFRAANDTHERESOURCE CONSERVATIONANDRECOVERYACT (RCRA)Farmersandcommercialpesticideapplicatorsare subjecttopenaltiesiftheyfailtostoreordisposeof pesticidesandpesticidecontainersproperly.Thetwo principalfederalstatutesapplicableinthisareaare FIFRA1andtheResourceConservationand RecoveryAct(RCRA).2TheEPAhastheprimary responsibilityforenforcementofthesestatutes.EPARecommendedProceduresfor StorageandDisposalInadditiontothemandatoryprocedures containedwithinthelabelingofeachpesticide product,theEPAhaspublishedrecommended proceduresforstorageanddisposalofpesticidesand containersintheCodeofFederalRegulations.3Theseproceduresarenotmandatory,butare recommendedasextremelyusefulguidelinesforsafe storageanddisposal.4Therecommendedprocedures applytobothgeneralandrestrictedusepesticides, andaddresstheneedsofbothprivateandcommercial applicators.5Therecommendedproceduresdonot applytothedisposalofsinglecontainersofpesticides registeredforuseinthehomeandgarden,whichmay bedisposedofduringmunicipalwastecollectionif wrappedaccordingtorecommendations.6TheEPAguidelinesprovidethatingeneral, personsinpossessionofexcesspesticidesshould eitherstorethemforfutureuse,orattempttoreturn themtothemanufacturerforrelabelingor reprocessing.Onlyifthesetwooptionsare unavailableshouldtheuserattempttodisposeof them.7Storagesitesshouldbecarefullychosento minimizethechanceofcontaminationintothe environment.8Pesticidesshouldnotbestoredinan areasusceptibletofloodingorwherethe characteristicsofthesoilatthesitewouldallow 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetFRE-146,aseriesoftheFoodandResourceEconomicsDepartment,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService, InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:September1995. 2.MichaelT.Olexa,ProfessorandAgriculturalLawSpecialist,FoodandResourceEconomicsDepartment,CooperativeExtensionService, InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. Thisdocumentisdesignedtoprovideaccurate,currentandauthoritativeinformationonthesubject.However,sincethelaws,administrativerulin gs, andcourtdecisionsonwhichitisbasedaresubjecttoconstantrevision,portionsofthispublicationcouldbecomeoutdatedatanytime.This publicationisdistributedwiththeunderstandingthattheauthorsarenotengagedinrenderinglegalorotherprofessionaladvice,andtheinformat ion containedhereinshouldnotberegardedasasubstituteforprofessionaladvice.Forthesereasons,theutilizationofthesematerialsbyanyperson constitutesanagreementtoholdharmlesstheauthors,theInstituteofFoodanAgriculturalSciences,andtheUniversityofFloridaforanyliabilit y claims,damages,orexpensesthatmaybeincurredbyanypersonasaresultofreferencetoorrelianceontheinformationcontainedinthis publication. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage2leachingintogroundwater.9Storagefacilitiesshould bedryandwell-ventilated,andshouldbeprovided withfireprotectionequipment.Storedpesticides shouldbecarefullylabeledandsegregatedandstored offoftheground.10Pesticidesshouldnotbestored inthesameareaasanimalfeed.11Where"relevant andpracticable"thestoragefacilityshouldalsobe surroundedbyaclimb-prooffence,andthefacility shouldbekeptlockedwhennotinuse.12Further precautionsincludeappropriatewarningsigns13and regularinspectionofcontainersforcorrosionor leakage.14Protectiveclothinganddecontamination equipmentshouldalsobepresentwherehighlytoxic pesticidesarestored.15Extremecareshouldbetakeninthedisposalof pesticidesorpesticidewastes.Disposalrequiresthe useofspecializedequipmentortheavailabilityof speciallydesignatedlandfills,andshouldnotbe undertakeniftheseareunavailable.16TheEPA guidelinesseparatepesticidesintothreecategories andspecifyincreasinglystringentdisposalprocedures foreach:organicpesticides(exceptorganicmercury, lead,cadmium,andarsenic),metallo-organic pesticides,andinorganicpesticides(thiscategory includesorganicmercury,lead,cadmium,and arsenic).17Thefirstcategorymaybeincineratedin pesticideincineratorspursuanttoinstructionsonthe labeling.18Thesecondandthirdcategoriesrequire specialtreatmenttorecoverheavymetalsor chemicallydeactivatethepesticideresidues.19Ifsuch treatmentisunavailable,pesticidesinthesecond categorymaybedisposedofatalandfillspecially designatedforthispurpose.20Pesticidesinthethird categorymustbeencapsulatedbeforedisposalatsuch afacility.21HazardousWasteRegulationsRelatingto PesticidesandContainersAlthoughFIFRAcontrolsfederalregulationof pesticideuse,includingapplication,storage,and disposal,insomecircumstances,thedisposalof pesticidesandpesticidecontainersissubjecttothe EPA'shazardouswastemanagementregulations pursuanttoRCRA.22Discardedpesticidesandtheir containersconstitutesolidwasteunderRCRA.23Individualpesticideproductsandtheircontainersand residuesconstitutehazardoussolidwasteiftheymeet thecharacteristicsofhazardouswastesspecifiedinthe EPA'shazardouswasteregulations,24orifthe pesticideisincludedintheEPA'slistingofhazardous wastes.25Itistheresponsibilityofthegeneratorof thewastestodeterminewhetherthewasteconstitutes hazardouswastesundertheregulation.Agenerator maypetitiontheAdministratoroftheEPAforthe exemptionofaparticularwastefromthe regulations.26Mostregisteredpesticides,containers,and residuescomewithinthehazardouswastecategoryof subpartD,section261.33oftheEPA'sregulations, becausethiscategoryincludesdiscardedcommercial chemicalproducts,off-specificationspecies, containers,andresiduesthereof.Pesticidecontainers, innerliners,andanyresiduearesubjecttothe hazardouswasteregulatoryprovisionsunlessthe containersorlinersareempty.27Acontaineror linerremovedfromacontainerthatheldacute hazardouswasteisempty28if: thecontainerorlinerhasbeentriplerinsedusing asolventcapableofremovingthecommercial chemicalproduct; thecontainerorlinerhasbeencleanedby anothermethodthathasbeenshowninthe scientificliterature,orbytestsconductedbythe generator,toachieveequivalentremoval,or; inthecaseofacontainer,theinnerlinerthathas preventedcontactofthecommercialchemical product...withthecontainer,hasbeenremoved.29Onceemptiedbyoneofthesemethods,the containerisnolongersubjecttothehazardouswaste regulations.Improperdisposalofcontainersthat havenotbeenemptiedsubjectsthegeneratortocivil andcriminalpenalties,30aswellascitizensuits31for violatingtheprovisionsofRCRA.ExceptionsforFarmersFarmersdisposingofwastepesticidesfortheir ownusearenotrequiredtocomplywiththe requirementsofpart264,265,268,or270ofthe EPA'shazardouswasteregulations,providedthatthey triplerinseeachcontainer,asdescribedabove,and disposeoftheresiduesontheirownfarmsina mannerconsistentwiththedisposalinstructionson thepesticidelabel.32Notethatdisposalofpesticide residuesintowaterorwheretheyarelikelytoreach surfaceorgroundwatermaybeconsideredasourceof pollutionundertheCleanWaterAct,theSafe DrinkingWaterAct,ortheCoastalZone ManagementAct.Disposalofpesticideresiduesmay alsoberegulatedunderstatelaw. Uponfollowingthetriplerinseprocedure,the containersarethen"empty,"andthefarmercan

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage3discardthemwithoutfurtherregardtothehazardous wasteregulations.However,emptycontainersare alwayssubjecttothedisposalinstructionscontained withinthelabelingoftheproduct.Disposalina manner"inconsistentwiththelabelinginstructions"is aviolationofFIFRA.33CompliancewiththeEPA guidelinesdetailedwithinthischapterisnecessaryto minimizeexposuretolegalliability.Stateregulations maybemorestringent.ExceptionsforSmallGeneratorsofHazardous WastesNotwithstandingthefarmerexception,aperson disposingofpesticidecontainersorresiduesisexempt fromthehazardouswasteregulationsiftheperson generateslessthan1kilogram(2.2pounds)per monthofthehazardouswastedescribedin40C.F.R. .31-261.33oftheEPA'sregulations,or100 kilograms(220pounds)ofresidueorcontaminated debrisresultingfromcleanuporaspill.34Evenifanapplicatorfallswithinthesmall quantitygeneratorexemption,theapplicatormuststill makeadeterminationofthehazardousnatureofthe wasteasper40C.F.R..11oftheEPA's regulations,andfollowcertainproceduresforstorage anddisposal.Hazardouswastethatisbeing legitimatelyrecycled,reused,orreclaimedisnot subjecttothehazardouswastemanagement regulations.35SpecialRegulationsforCommercial ApplicatorsandOperatorsofStorage, Treatment,orDisposalFacilitiesCommercialapplicatorsarehazardouswaste generatorsundertheregulationswheneverthey generateordiscardcommercialchemicalproducts,or spillresiduesasdescribedin40C.F.R..33,or anyotherhazardouswasteasdefinedinthe regulations.Theexemptionforfarmerswhouse pesticidesontheirownlanddoesnotapplyto commercialapplicators.Norarecommercial applicatorslikelytoqualifyforthesmallquantity generatorexemption.Commercialapplicatorsstoring ordisposingofpesticidesorcontainersare,therefore, subjecttothestandardsforgenerators,transporters, anddisposersofhazardouswastelistedin40C.F.R. parts122-124and262-267. ThemajorelementsofRCRAhazardouswaste provisionsare(1)notification,(2)permitting,and(3) standardsforhandlinghazardouswastes.Section 6930ofRCRArequiresanypersonwhogeneratesor transportshazardouswastes,orownsoroperatesa facilityforthestorage,treatment,ordisposalof hazardouswaste,tonotifytheEPAoftheidentityof thehazardouswasteinvolvedandthenatureofthe activity.Transporting,storing,ordisposingof hazardouswastebeforefilingthenoticeis unlawful.36Additionally,eachpersonowningor operatingafacilityforthestorage,treatment,or disposalofhazardouswastes,musthaveapermit fromtheEPA.Thepermittingproceduresare publishedat40C.F.R.parts122-124. Extensiveregulationsregardingrecord-keeping andreporting,storage,transportation,anddisposal, bothoff-andon-site,arecontainedin40C.F.R.parts 262-264.Amajorfeatureoftheseregulationsisa manifestsystemthatallowstheEPAtofollow hazardouswastefromgenerator,totransporter,to disposer.UponrequestbytheEPAordesignated stateofficials,thegeneratormustpermittheofficials toinspectthefacility,inspectandreproducerecords, andinspectandobtainsamplesofwastes,containers, orlabeling.37PenaltiesforHazardousWasteViolatorsWhentheEPAdeterminesthatapersonhas violatedanyprovisionofRCRA,theEPAhasseveral options.TheEPAcanissueanorder assessingacivilpenalty,or requiringcompliancewithinaspecifiedtime,or both,or theEPAcancommenceacivilactionforatemporary orpermanentinjunction.38Indeterminingthe amountofthecivilpenalty,theEPAconsidersthe seriousnessoftheviolation,andanygoodfaithefforts tocomplywiththeapplicablerequirements.39Thepersonchargedcanrequestapublichearing withinthirtydays,butifnohearingisrequestedthen theorderisfinal.40Iftheviolatorfailstocomply withinthespecifiedtime,theEPAmayassessafine ofnotmorethan$25,000perdayofcontinued noncompliance,andtheEPAmaysuspendorrevoke theviolator'spermit.41Inaddition,theEPAimposescriminalpenalties onanypersonwhoknowingly: (a)transportshazardouswastetoafacilitythat doesnothaveapermit,

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage4(b)treats,stores,ordisposesofanyhazardous wastewithoutobtainingapermit,or (c)makesanyfalsestatementsorrepresentations onanyapplication,label,manifest,record, report,permit,ordocumentrequiredbythe statute.42Uponconvictionforviolating(a)or(b),the violatorissubjecttoafineofnotmorethan$50,000 foreachdaythattheviolationcontinues,fiveyears imprisonment,orboth.Uponconvictionforviolating (c),theviolatorissubjecttothesamefine,twoyears imprisonment,orboth.Subsequentviolationsof(a) or(b)arepunishablebyfinesofnotmorethan $100,000aday,tenyearsimprisonment,orboth. Subsequentviolationsof(c)arepunishablebythe samefines,fouryearsimprisonment,orboth.43UnlikeFIFRA,RCRAallowscitizensuitsfor violationsofthestatute.Theplaintiffmustnotifythe allegedviolator,theEPA,andtheappropriatestate authoritiesatleastsixtydayspriortobringingsuit andmaynotbringsuitagainstanypersonalready beingprosecutedundertheAct.44EMERGENCYPLANNINGAND COMMUNITYRIGHT-TO-KNOWTitleIIIoftheSuperfundAmendmentsand ReauthorizationActof1986(SARA)requiresstates andlocalitiestodevelopplansforcopingwith hazardouschemicalemergencies.45Eachstatemust establishan"EmergencyResponseCommission"46anddesignate"EmergencyPlanningDistricts"47and a"LocalEmergencyPlanningCommittee"48foreach district.Eachdistrictmustdevelopemergency responseplans.Toenablestateandlocalbodiesto planintelligently,thelawrequiresthatfacilitiesthat manufacture,process,orusespecifiedhazardous chemicalsprovideinformationaboutthenatureand useofsuchchemicalstolocalplanningagencies.49Farmsthatusepesticidesmaybe"facilities" subjecttothenotificationrequirementsofthelaw. TheEPAhasdevelopedalistof"extremelyhazardous substances"anda"thresholdplanningquantity"(TPQ) foreachsubstance.50Numerouspesticidesareon thislist.Iftheamountofanextremelyhazardous substancepresentatthefacilitymeetsorexceedsthe TPQ,thenthefacilityissubjecttotheplanningand notificationrequirementsofTitleIII.51IftheTPQ ismet,thefacilitymustnotifythestatecommissionof thisfact,andcooperatewiththelocalplanning commissionbyprovidingrequestedinformation. Notificationisalsorequiredforemergency releasesofhazardouschemicals.52However,a continuousreleaseofpotentiallyhazardouspesticide isnotconsideredanemergencyrelease,soa continuousreleaseisexemptedfromthisnotification requirement.53Nonetheless,anytimetheamountof thereleasechanges,itwouldbewisetoconsultthis section.Thecommunityright-to-knowprovisionsof theactrequirethatmaterialsafetydatasheets requiredunderOSHA(seediscussionofOSHA HazardCommunicationStandardatpp.49-51below), aswellasdocumentsshowingthelocationand amountofchemicalspresentatthefacility,be providedtothestateandlocalemergencyplanning bodiesandtothelocalfiredepartment.54TRANSPORTATIONOFHAZARDOUS MATERIALS:DOTANDTHEHAZARDOUS MATERIALSTRANSPORTATIONACTTheHazardousMaterialsTransportationAct (HMTA)wasenactedbyCongressovertheirconcern forspillsofunknownsubstancesonpublichighways. ThisactisunderthejurisdictionoftheDepartment ofTransportation(DOT)sinceitistheagency responsibleforthesafetransportationofallmaterials onpublichighways. HMTAgrantstheSecretaryofTransportationa broadgrantofauthoritytodesignateanymaterial shippedincommerceashazardousifitposesan unreasonablerisktohealth,safetyandproperty. Hazardousmaterialscanincluderadioactive materials,etiologicalagents,flammableand combustibleliquidsorsolids,oxidizingorcorrosive materials,compressedgases,poisonsandexplosives. Thelistofmaterialsdoesincludecertainchemicals usedinpesticides.Infact,mostpesticidesfallwithin thematerialscharacterizedashazardousunderthe regulationsissuedbyDOT.TheSecretaryofthe DOTalsopromulgatesregulationsgoverningany aspectdeemednecessaryforthesafetransportation ofhazardousmaterials. Theregulationsapplytocommon,contract,or privatecarriersofhazardousmaterials.55A commercialpesticideapplicatortransporting pesticidesforapplicationundercontractwould constituteeitheracontractororprivatecarrierand thusbesubjecttotheregulations.Undercertain circumstances,aprivatepesticideapplicator transportingpesticidesforhisownusemaybe consideredaprivatecarriersubjecttotheregulations.

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage5Generallyspeaking,thecarrierssubjecttoHMTA regulations: operateacrossstatelinesandtransportmaterials listedontheHazardousMaterialTable;or transportmaterialsabovethereportable quantitiesforvariouschemicalslistedonthe HazardousSubstanceTable;or donotmeettheaboverequirements,butoperate inastatethatrequirescompliancewithDOT regulations. MoststateshaveadoptedtheDOTrequirements forintrastate(withinstate)commerce.Itisimportant tonotethatoneshouldalwaysfollowtheDOT regulationsevenifthereisnostaterequirementsand thereisnotinterstate(betweenstates)commerce. SomecourtshaveinterpretedtheDOTregulationsto includeallcompanies,intrastateaswell,becausemost areusingchemicalsthatcrossstatelinesinshipment totheuserofthechemical.Thelegalinterpretation isthatpurchasingachemicalthathascrossedstate linesmakesthepurchaserapartofinterstate commerce. Theemphasisoftheactistoproduceregulations. DOTregulationslistthematerialsdeemedhazardous intransport.56Additionally,theregulationssetforth ingreatdetailtherequirementsfor 1.thetestingofcontainersusedinshipment, 2.obtainingshippingpapersandcertification (includingthepreparationofahazardouswaste manifestasrequiredbyEPAregulationsat40 C.F.R.part262), 3.markingandplacardingofvehicles, 4.theinspectionofvehicles, 5.thetrainingofdriversandrelatedpersonnel, 6.theloading,unloading,andstorageofhazardous materials,and 7.theimmediatereportingofhazardousmaterials accidentswhichresultindeath,injuryrequiring hospitalization,materialdamageinexcessof $50,000,fires,orspills.57TheCodeofFederalRegulationscoversall transportationofhazardousmaterialsincluding structuralpestcontrolchemicals.58Theregulations addresschemicals,notthetypesofbusinesses.The HazardousMaterialsTableanditsappendixlistand describeallthehazardousmaterialsdefinedby DOT.59WithintheappendixistheHazardous SubstanceTable.Thistableliststhesubstancesthat areconsidereddangerouswhentransportedatcertain levels.Thelevels,or"reportablequantities", determineatwhatpointaspillwilltrigger requirementsundertheHMTAregulations.The followingisanexampleofthereportablequantities forsomepestcontrolchemicals: onepoundofchlorpyrifos onepoundofpyrethrins onepoundofdiazinon 100poundsof2.4-D Toavoidliability,manufacturersanddistributors ofhazardousmaterialsoftenprovidetheinformation neededtofollowHMTAregulations.However,itis theresponsibilityofanyonehandlinghazardous chemicalstoensurethattheinformationiscorrect. AnyonewhofallsunderthejurisdictionoftheDOT andHMTAshouldknowhowtousetheHazardous MaterialsTableandHazardousSubstanceTable. Mostcarrierstransportinghazardousmaterials, includingpesticides,acrossstatelinesmusthave specialinsurancecoverage.60Privatecarriers transportingpurelywithinthebordersofasinglestate areexemptedfromthisrequirementprovidedthe transportvehiclehasagrossvehicleweightifless than10,000pounds.61Ifthevehicleisatanktruck, itmusthaveatankoflessthan3,500watergallons capacity(regardlessoftheactualquantityofmaterial transported)tobeexemptedfromtheinsurance requirement.62TheoverridingprincipleofHMTAistomakeit unlawfulforanypersontotransportorofferor acceptfortransportationahazardousmaterialor waste,exceptinaccordancewiththeappropriate regulations.Ifacompanyorindividualsuchasa farmerisinvolvedwiththetransportationofa material(likeapesticide)thatmightbeconsidered hazardous,s/heshouldcheckwiththeDOT regulationstoseeifs/heissubjecttothejurisdiction oftheDOTandHMTA.UNDERGROUNDSTORAGETANKSUndergroundstoragetanksareregulatedunder RCRA.63Astoragetankisconsideredtobe undergroundifgreaterthantenpercentofitsvolume, includingtheundergroundpipesconnectedthereto, isbeneaththesurface.64Thecapacityofthetank mustbegreaterthan1,100gallonsforittofallunder RCRA.65Thestatutelistsexceptionstothe definition.Theseexceptionsincludeheatingoilfor homeuse,septictanks,surfaceimpoundments,ponds,

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage6pits,lagoons,stormandwastewatercollection,and flow-throughprocessingtanks.Tankslocatedin basementsarealsoexcepted.66RCRArequiresthatthestateorlocalgovernment benotifiedoftheexistenceofanundergroundstorage tank.67Furthermore,stateandlocalauthorities mustalsobenotifiedofanyleaks.68WhileRCRA providesthebasisfortheregulationofunderground storagetanks,stateandlocalgovernmentscananddo regulatethesetanksaswell.69Themorespecific stateandlocalregulationsaremorestringentthanthe minimumRCRArequirements,70thustheyshould alwaysbeconsulted.THECOMPREHENSIVEENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE,COMPENSATION, ANDLIABILITYACT(CERCLA)TheComprehensiveEnvironmentalResponse, Compensation,andLiabilityAct(CERCLAor Superfund),71authorizesthefederalgovernmentto cleanupinactivehazardouswastesitesthatthreatened humanhealthortheenvironment.CERCLAenables theEPAtorecovercleanupcostsfromthoseparties responsibleforthecontamination,iftheycanbe identified.CERCLAprovidesafund,theHazardous SubstanceSuperfund,72topayforthecleanupof contaminatedsiteswhennootherpartiesareableto conductthecleanup. CERCLAwasamendedin1986bytheSuperfund AmendmentsandReauthorizationAct(SARA).73SARAreauthorizedandclarifiedpartsoftheoriginal law.Asamended,CERCLAenablestheEPAto identifyandcleanupinactivehazardouswastesites andtolooktocertainpartiesforreimbursement. OnesectionofCERCLAauthorizestheEPAtoact wheneverthereisareleaseorsubstantialthreatof releaseofahazardoussubstanceor"anypollutantor contaminantthatmaypresentanimminentor substantialdangertothepublichealthorwelfare" intotheenvironment.74CERCLAalsoauthorizesseveraltypesof responses,including short-termremovalactionstodealwithspills, emergenciesrequiringimmediateresponse,and non-emergencieswhichpresentanear-term threat;75 long-termremedialactionsdesignedto permanentlysolvetheproblemsencounteredat hazardouswastesites76whicharelistedonthe NationalPrioritiesList,amasterlistofthe"worst sites"createdtoprioritizesitecleanup;77and enforcementactionsagainstpotentially responsiblepartiescapableofpayingthecostsof cleanup.78CERCLArecognizesseveraldistinctclassesof partiesresponsibleforcleanup,includinggenerators ofthewaste,transportersandthosewhoarrangefor transportationofthewaste,andcurrentorpast ownersoroperatorsofthefacility.79Liability imposedunderCERCLAisretroactive,strict,and jointandseveral.80Thepartiesresponsiblefor cleanupofasitearealsoresponsiblefornotifyingthe EPAofthefacilityandretainingrecordsrelatingto thefacilityfor50years.81DefensesIndividualscitedunderCERCLAmayargueasa defensethatthereleaseordamageswerecausedby anactofGod,anactofwar,ortheactionsofa"noncontractual"thirdparty.82SincetheactofGodand actofwardefensesareonlyaremotepossibility,the thirdpartdefenseisthebestargumentforavoiding liability.Toprevailunderthethirdpartydefense,the individualchargedmustestablishthat: nocontractualrelationshipexisted,eitherdirectly orindirectly,betweentheindividualchargedand thethirdparty; thethirdpartywasthesolecauseoftherelease orthreatenedrelease;and theindividualchargedshowedallduecarewith respecttothehazardoussubstanceandthat precautionsweretakenagainstsuch occurrences.83Onecaseinwhichadefendantsuccessfully invokedthethirdpartydefenseisLincolnProperties v.Higgins .84Inthiscasetheownerofashopping center(Lincoln)periodicallyleasedtodrycleaning businesses.Manyofthesedrycleanersused perchloroethylene(PCE)inthecourseoftheir business.TheofficialsofSanJoaquincounty (County),wheretheshoppingcenterwaslocated, discoveredPCEinsomeoftheCountywellsinthe vacinityoftheshoppingcenter.Lincolnagreedto paycleanupcostsunderCERCLA,butsuedthe Countyforcleanupcostcontributions.Lincolnbased itssuitonthefactthattheCountyownedaportion oftheleakysewerlinesfromwhichthePCEhad seapedintothewells.TheCountyinvokedthethird partydefensetoabsolveitselfofliability.

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage7ThecourtruledthattheCountyhadestablished thatLincolnwasthesolecauseofthereleasebecause althoughtheCountyownedthesewerlinestherewas noevidencethatittookpartindischargingPCE. Thecourtalsoruledthatnocontractual relationshipexistedbetweenLincolnandtheCounty althoughLincolnpaidassessmentstoandreceived maintenanceservicesfromthecounty.Thecourt statedthatthiswasnotthetypeofcontractual relationshipthatcongressenvisionedwhenitcreated thethirdpartydefense.Thecourtfurtheraddedthat contractualrelationships,forthepurposeofthethird partydefense,arethosethattransferlegaltitle. TherewasnosuchtransferbetweenLincolnandthe County. Finally,thecourtfoundthattheCountyhad exercisedduecarewithrespecttoPCEbytaking precautionsagainstforeseeabledischarges.The CountyinspecteditswellsforPCEdischargesand upondiscoveringPCEinoneofitswells,theCounty promptlytookthewelloutofserviceandbegan destroyingit.ThecourtalsonotedthattheCounty sewerlineshadbeenbuiltandmaintainedin accordancewithindustrialstandards.Therefore,the Countyestablishedallthreeelementsofthe CERCLAthirdpartydefenseandwasnotliableto Lincolnforanycleanupcosts. PriortothepassageofSARA,thethirdparty defenseofferedlittleprotectionfromcleanupliability forinnocentpartiesacquiringpropertyafterithad beencontaminated.But,inSARA,Congressclarified whatconstituteda"contractualrelationship."This clarificationisnowreferredtoasthe"innocent landownerdefense".85Inadditiontothethirdparty andinnocentlandownerdefenses,CERCLAalso offersasecurityinterestexceptionforthosewitha securityinterestinthefacilitywhodonotparticipate inthemanagementofthefacility.86Enforcement CriminalPenaltiesThePresidentmayrequiretheAttorneyGeneral toissueanabatementactionifthePresident determinesthattheremaybeanimminentand substantialendangermenttothepublichealthor welfareortheenvironment.87Inaddition,any personwhoviolatestheabatementordermaybe finednotmorethan$25,000perdayforeachdaythe violationcontinues.88Anypersoninchargeofarelease,otherthana federallypermittedrelease,inaquantitygreaterthan 1pound(or2poundsinthecaseofafewparticular substances),whofailstoimmediatelynotifythe applicableagencyorwhosubmitsinformationwith knowledgethattheinformationisfalseormisleading, shalluponconvictionbefinedorimprisonedfornot morethan3years,ornotmorethan5yearsinthe caseofasecondorsubsequentconviction,orboth.89CivilPenaltiesAnypersonwhoatthetimeofdisposalofany hazardoussubstanceownedoroperatedafacilityat whichsuchhazardoussubstancewasdisposedofis liableforallcostsofremovalorremedialaction,any othernecessaryresponsecosts,damagesforinjuryto, destructionof,orlossofnaturalresources,andthe costsofanyhealthassessmentorhealthstudycarried outtodeterminetheassociatedhealthrisks.90In addition,ifthepersonfailstoproperlyprovidefor removalorremediation,thepersonmaybeliablefor punitivedamagesinanamount3timestheamountof anycostsincurredbytheSuperfundasaresultofthe failuretotakeproperaction.91Twoclassesofadministrativepenaltiesmaybe assessed:ClassIadministrativepenaltiesofupto $25,000perdayforviolation;andClassII administrativepenaltiesofupto$25,000forafirst violation,andupto$75,000forsubsequentviolations, perdayforeachdaytheviolationcontinues.Both classescanbeassessedonlyaftertheallegedviolator isgivennoticeandanopportunitytobeheard.92Inadditiontopunitivedamagesand administrativepenalties,judicialpenaltiesmayalsobe assessedupto$25,000perdayforafirstviolation, andupto$75,000perdayforsubsequentviolations, foreachdaytheviolationcontinues.93CitizenSuitsAnypersoncanbringacivilactiononhis/herown behalfagainstanyotherpersonincludingthe PresidentoranofficeroftheUnitedStates.No actionmaybecommencedbefore60daysafterthe individualbringingtheactiongivesnotice.Thecourt mayshiftthelitigationcostsoftheprevailingpartyto thelosingparty.Additionally,nosuchactionmaybe commencedagainstapersonifthePresidenthas alreadycommencedandisdiligentlyprosecutingan actionunderCERCLAortheSolidWasteDisposal Act.94

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage8ImpactonFarmers,Commercial ApplicatorsandDistributorsStorage,use,anddisposalofcropmanagement materialsandotherhazardoussubstancesare commonfarmandranchoperationpractices. CERCLAdoesprovidesomeliabilityprotectionfor agriculturalproducers.CERCLAexemptsthe producer"foranyresponsecostsordamagesresulting fromtheapplicationofapesticideproductregistered underFIFRA."95Thefarmorranchwillnotbe consideredaSuperfundsiteortheownerheld responsibleforthecostofcleanupsincethepesticides appliedincompliancewithlabelingarenot consideredhazardoussubstances.96Thisalso includesthenormalapplicationoffertilizers. However,soil,groundandsurfacewaters contaminatedbytheimproperuse,storage,or disposalofregisteredpesticidescanresultin CERCLAliability.Plus,CERCLAdoesnotmodify otherprovisionsofstateorfederallaw,including commonlawactions,sosuitsmaystillbebrought underthoseprovisions.97Someofthemoreseriouson-farmcontamination problemsinvolvemixingandloadingsites.Cleanup costsinthisinstancecanbeexcessive.Thousandsof theseabandonedandcontaminatedsitesarethought toexistintheUnitedStates.Whilefarmersand ranchershavenotyetbeenspecificallytargetedbythe regulatoryagencies,otheragricultural-related enterprises,suchasnurseriesandgolfcourses, have.98Sincethecostsofcleanupresponsescan exceedthevalueofcollateral,CERCLAdefensesand courtdecisionsaccentuatetheneedforlendersto examinecollateralforenvironmentalcontamination priortoandduringthecourseofthecreditor/debtor relationship.Asaresult,lendersareincreasingly waryofbecomingfinanciallyinvolvedwithproperties onwhichcurrentorpastactivitiesinvolvedhaulingof agriculturalchemicals.99DEFINITIONS,ABBREVIATIONS ANDACRONYMS CitationDefinitionsEtseq. :andthefollowing Id :thesame;usedtoindicateareference previouslymade. Infra :within;usedtoindicateareferencemade inalaterpartofthepaper. Supra :above;usedtoindicateareferencemade inapreviouspartofthepaper.DefinitionsActualDamages --Theamountawardedtoa plaintiffincompensationoftheplaintiff'sactual andreallossorinjury. CommonLaw --Itisabodyoflawthatdevelops andderivesthroughjudicialdecisions,as distinguishedfromlegislativeenactments. Enjoin --Torequireaperson,bywritof injunction,toperform,ortoabstainordesist from,someact. Injunctions --Acourtorderprohibitingsomeone fromdoingsomespecifiedactorcommanding someonetoundosomewrongorinjury. Inherentlydangerous --Dangerinheringinan instrumentalityorconditionitselfatalltimes,so astorequirespecialprecautionstopreventinjury; notdangerarisingfrommerecasualorcollateral negligenceofotherswithrespecttounder particularcircumstances. NominalDamages --Thetriflingsumawardedto aplaintiffinanaction,wherethereisno substantiallossorinjurytobecompensated,but stillthelawrecognizesatechnicalinvasionofhis rightsorabreachofthedefendant'sduty. PunitiveDamages --Damagesthatareaboveand beyondthatwhichwouldcompensatetheplaintiff forhisloss.Theyarebasedonthepublicpolicy ofpunishingadefendantwhoactedwillfully, maliciously,orfraudulently.

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage9StatutoryLaw --Thebodyoflawcreatedbyacts ofthelegislatureincontrasttoconstitutionaland commonlaw. Definitionsaretakenfrom Black'sLawDictionary 1990edition.AbbreviationsC.F.R.:CodeofFederalRegulations U.S.C.:UnitedStatesCodeAcronymListBMP-BestManagementPractices CERCLA-ComprehensiveEnvironmental Response,Compensation,andLiabilityAct CZMA-CoastalZoneManagementAct DOT-DepartmentofTransportation EPA-EnvironmentalProtectionAgency ESA-EndangeredSpeciesAct FAA-FederalAviationAdministration FACT-Food,Agriculture,Conservation,and TradeAct FDA-FoodandDrugAdministration FFDCA-FederalFood,Drug,andCosmeticAct FIFRA-FederalInsecticide,Fungicide,and RodenticideAct IPM-IntegratedPestManagement MCL-MaximumContaminantLevel MCLG-MaximumContaminantLevelGoals NPDES-NationalPollutionDischarge EliminationSystem OSHA-OccupationalSafetyandHealthAct PPE-PersonalProtectiveEquipment RCRA-ResourceConservationandRecovery Act RCWP-RuralCleanWaterProgram REI-Restricted-EntryInterval SARA-SuperfundAmendmentsand ReauthorizationAct TPQ-ThresholdPlanningQuantity USDA-UnitedStatesDepartmentofAgriculture WPS-WorkerProtectionStandardACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheauthorisindebtedtolegalresearchersSusan Kubar,ToniCunninghamandPatrickMeriwetherof theUniversityofFloridaCollegeofLawandthose stateandfederalagencypersonnelwhogaveoftheir timeandadviceinthepreparationofthispublication. Thispublicationissupportedinpartbyagrant fromtheNationalAgriculturalPesticideImpact AssessmentProgram(NAPIAP)oftheUnitedStates DepartmentofAgriculture.1.7U.S.CCh.6(1994). 2.42U.S.C.Ch.82(1994). 3.40C.F.R.part165(1993). 4.Id .at.2(a)(1993). 5.40C.F.R..2(1993). 6.40C.F.R..2(c),(e)(1993). 7.40C.F.R..2(f)(1993). 8.40C.F.R..10(b)(1993). 9.Id 10.40C.F.R..10(c)(1993). 11.40C.F.R..10(d)(1993). 12.40C.F.R..10(e)(1)(1993). 13.40C.F.R..10(c)(1)(1993). 14.40C.F.R..10(c)(2)(1993).

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage1015.40C.F.R..10(d)(2)(1993). 16.40C.F.R..10(f)(1993). 17.40C.F.R..8,165.10(1993). 18.40C.F.R..8(1993). 19.40C.F.R..8(a)(1993). 20.40C.F.R..8(b),(c)(1993). 21.40C.F.R..8(b)(1993). 22.40C.F.R..8(c)(1993).Theguidelinesdefine"encapsulate"as"tosealapesticide,anditscontainerifappropriate,inan imperviouscontainermadeofplastic,glass,orothersuitablematerialwhichwillnotbechemicallydegradedbythecontents.This containershouldthenbesealedwithadurablecontainermadefromsteel,plastic,concrete,orothersuitablematerialofsufficient thicknessandstrengthtoresistphysicaldamageduringandsubsequenttoburialorstorage."40C.F.R..1(j)(1993). 23.42U.S.C.etseq.(1994). 24.Id .at(27)(1994). 25.40C.F.R.part26,subpartC(1993). 26.40C.F.R.part26,subpartD(1993). 27.40C.F.R..22(1993). 28.40C.F.R..7(a)(1)(1993). 29.40C.F.R..7(b)(3)(1993).See also 40C.F.R..7(b)(1)whichsetsforththerequirementsforacontainerorlinerremoved fromacontainerthatheld any hazardouswaste,and40C.F.R..7(b)(2)whichsetsforththerequirementsforacontaineror linerremovedfromacontainerthatheldahazardouswastethatwasa compressedgas 30.42U.S.C.(1994). 31.42U.S.C.(1994). 32.40C.F.R..70(1993). 33.Id .TheEPAhasactedtoeliminateanyinconsistenciesbetweenthedisposalproceduresindicatedontheproductlabelingandthe disposalproceduresrequiredbythehazardouswastemanagementregulations.Section262.70saysthatFIFRAisnotviolatedwhen disposalis"inamannerconsistentwiththedisposalinstructionsonthepesticidelabel." 34.40C.F.R..5(1993);see also 42U.S.C.(d)(1994). 35.40C.F.R..5(f)(1993). 36.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 37.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 38.42U.S.C.(a)(1994).Accordingto42U.S.C.(a)(2)(1994),ifthepersonviolatesastatehazardouswasteprogram,the EPAmustnotifythestatepriortoactingunder42U.S.C.(a)(1). 39.42U.S.C.(f)(1994). 40.42U.S.C.(b)(1994). 41.42U.S.C.(c)(1994).

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage1142.42U.S.C.(d)(1994). 43.Id .TheEPAimposesmoreseverepenaltiesiftheviolatorcommitsknowingendangerment,whichisdefinedin42U.S.C.(f). Uponconviction,aknowingviolatorissubjecttoafineofnotmorethan$250,000,notmorethantwoyearsimprisonment,orboth. However,iftheviolator'sconductmanifestsanextremeindifferenceforhumanlife,theviolatorissubjecttoafineofnotmorethan $250,000,notmorethanfiveyearsimprisonment,orboth.42U.S.C.(e)(1994). 44.42U.S.C.(1994). 45.100Stat.1728(1986)codifiedas42U.S.C.etseq.(1994). 46.Id .at(d)(1994). 47.42U.S.C.(b)(1994). 48.42U.S.C.(c)(1994). 49.42U.S.C.(1994). 50.40C.F.R.part355(1993).Thislistofextremelyhazardoussubstancesappearsas"AppendixA"topart355. 51.Id .at.30(1993). 52.40C.F.R..40(1993). 53.40C.F.R..40(a)(2)(1993). 54.42U.S.C.(1994). 55.Theterm"common,""contract,"and"private"carriersarenotdefinedintheActoritsregulations.DOTapparentlyemploysthe definitionsprovidedbytheFederalMotorCarrierAct,asamendedbytheInterstateCommerceAct,49U.S.C.etseq.(1994). Commoncarriersarethosecarrierstransportingpersonsorpropertyforthegeneralpublicforcompensation.49U.S.C.(4) (1994).Contractcarrierstransportonlyundercontinuingagreementswithalimitednumberofparties.49U.S.C.(5)(1994). Privatecarriersareanypersonsthattransportproperty(1)thattheyown,lease,orholdunderbailment,(2)acrossstatelinesor onapublichighway,(3)whenthepropertyisbeingtransportedforsale,lease,rent,orbailment,ortofurtheracommercial enterprise.49U.S.C.(15)(1994). 56.49C.F.R.s171.1-177.870andapp.A. 57.49C.F.R.s177.807-177.861. 58.Title49C.F.R. 59.49C.F.R.172.101 60.49C.F.R.part387(1993) 61.Id. at387.3(c)(1993). 62.Id .Thissectionstatesthat"therulesinthispart(theTransportationAct)donotapplytothetransportationof...nonbulkhazardous materials...."Thedefinitionof"inbulk"isfoundin49C.F.R..5(1993).Readingthesetwosectiontogetherresultsinthe outcomethattanktruckswithatankoflessthan3,500watergallonscapacityareexemptfromtheinsurancerequirementsofthe Act.This exceptiondoes not apply tovehiclesusedthetransportationofanyquantityofClassAorBexplosives,anyquantityof poisongas,orhighwayroutecontrolledquantityofradioactivematerials. 63.42U.S.C.(1994).TheResourceConservationandRecoveryActissetoutin42U.S.C.etseq.[Ch.82](1994). 64.Id .at(1)(1994). 65.Id 66.Id

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage1267.42U.S.C.a(a)(1)(1994). 68.42U.S.C.b(1994). 69.42U.S.C.c(1994). 70.42U.S.C.g(1994). 71.42U.S.C.etseq.(1994). 72.26U.S.C.(1994).TheSuperfundisfundedbyenvironmentaltaxes,amountsrecoveredunderCERCLA,amountsrecovered undertheCleanWaterAct,penaltiesassessedunderCERCLA,andpunitivedamagesrecoveredunderCERCLA.Id .The governmentmayusefundmoneyforanyusessetforthin42U.S.C.(1994). 73.Pub.L.No.99-499,100Stat.1613-1782(1986)codifiedthroughout42U.S.C.-9675(1994). 74.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 75.Id 76.42U.S.C.(b)(1994). 77.42U.S.C.(a)(8)(B)(1994). 78.42U.S.C.(25)(1994). 79.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 80.42U.S.C.(32),9607(1994).Aretroactivelawisalawwhichtakesawayorimpairsvestedrightsacquiredunderexistinglaws, createsnewobligations,imposesanewduty,orattachesanewdisabilityinrespecttothetransactionsorconsiderationsalreadypast. Black'sLawDictionary 1317(6thed.1990).See also MichaelT.Olexa,CommonLawStandardsofConductandTheoriesof Liability fordefinitionsofstrictliabilityandjointandseveralliability. 81.42U.S.C.(d)(1994). 82.42U.S.C.(b)(1994). 83.Id 84.36ERC1228(1993) 85.ScottWilsdon,Note,WhenaSecurityBecomesaLiability:ClaimsAgainstLendersinHazardousWasteCleanup ,38HastingsL.J. 1261,1269(1987). 86.42U.S.C.(20)(A)(1994). 87.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 88.42U.S.C.(b)(1994). 89.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 90.42U.S.C.(a)(1994). 91.42U.S.C.(c)(1994). 92.42U.S.C.(a)-(b)(1994). 93.42U.S.C.(c)(1994). 94.42U.S.C.(1994).

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RegulationofHazardousWastesandUseofHazardousChemicalsPage1395.42U.S.C.(i)(1994). 96.WadleyandSettle,StatutoryRegulationofHazardousChemicalsontheFarm ,July1989AgriculturalLawUpdate6. 97.42U.S.C.(i)(1994). 98.Missimer,EnvironmentalAuditsofAgriculturalFacilitiesandProperties ,ProceedingsoftheThirdAnnualAgricultural EnvironmentalSeminaroftheFloridaFruitandVegetableAssociation,at3(March1990). 99.MichaelT.Olexa,LegalandEnvironmentalIssuesAffectingAgriculturalProductionandPolicy ,UniversityofFloridaDepartment ofFoodandResourceEconomics3-4(May-June1994).