Laws Governing Use And Impact Of Agricultural Chemicals: Agricultural Chemicals And Water Pollution

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Laws Governing Use And Impact Of Agricultural Chemicals: Agricultural Chemicals And Water Pollution
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Fact sheet
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Olexa, Michael T.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"First published: November 1991. Date revised: September 1995."
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"FRE-77"

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FactSheetFRE-77 September1995LawsGoverningUseandImpactofAgriculturalChemicals: AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution1 MichaelT.Olexa2THECLEANWATERACTThroughtheFederalWaterControlAmendments of1972,1commonlyknownastheCleanWaterAct, Congressestablishedanationalstrategytoreduce waterpollution.TheobjectiveoftheActistorestore andmaintainthechemical,physical,andbiological integrityofthenation'swaterandtoeventually eliminatethedischargeofpollutantsaltogether.2TheCleanWaterActfunctionsprimarilyby requiringthatpersonsengagedinpollutingactivities obtainapermitfromtheEPAcontainingdetailed limitationsonthetypeandamountofpolluting substancesthatmaybedischarged,andthemannerin whichpollutantsaretobedischarged.3Ifthepermit conditionsareviolated,thepermitholderissubjectto civil,orinextremecases,criminalpenalties.4The Actauthorizesthestatestoimplementandenforceits provisions,andmoststateshavedoneso.5Inthese states,permitsareobtainedfromthestate's environmentalregulatoryagency.6TheCleanWaterActestablishesthreecategories ofpollutionsources:pointsources,non-point sources,anddredgeandfilloperations.PointSourcesofWaterPollutionTheactdefinesapointsourceasanydiscernable, confined,anddiscreteconveyancefromwhicha pollutantmaybedischarged.7Forexample,apipe oraditchcarryingpollutantswhichdischargesintoa riverisapointsourceofwaterpollution.8Apointsourcemayalsobeacontainerwhichis emptiedintowater.9Anoperatorofanypoint sourcewhichdischargespollutantsintothenation's watersmustobtainapermitorotherwisebesubject topenalties.10ThetermsoftheActarebroadlydefinedtobring alargenumberofactivitieswithinitsrequirements. "Pollutant"isdefinedbytheEPAas"dredgedspoil, solidwaste,incineratorresidue,sewage,garbage, sewagesludge,munitions,chemicalwastes,biological materials,radioactivematerials,heat,wreckedor 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetFRE-77,aseriesoftheFoodandResourceEconomics,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Firstpublished:November1991.Daterevised:September1995. 2.MichaelT.Olexa,ProfessorandAgriculturalLawSpecialist,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences, UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. Thisdocumentisdesignedtoprovideaccurate,currentandauthoritativeinformationonthesubject.However,sincethelaws,administrativerulings, andcourtdecisionsonwhichitisbasedaresubjecttoconstantrevision,portionsofthispublicationcouldbecomeoutdatedatanytime.This publicationisdistributedwiththeunderstandingthattheauthorsarenotengagedinrenderinglegalorotherprofessionaladvice,andtheinformation containedhereinshouldnotberegardedasasubstituteforprofessionaladvice.Forthesereasons,theutilizationofthesematerialsbyanyperson constitutesanagreementtoholdharmlesstheauthors,theInstituteofFoodanAgriculturalSciences,andtheUniversityofFloridaforanyliability claims,damages,orexpensesthatmaybeincurredbyanypersonasaresultofreferencetoorrelianceontheinformationcontainedinthis publication. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page2discardedequipment,sand,cellardirt,andindustrial, municipal,andagriculturalwastesdischargedinto water.11Theterm"watersoftheUnitedStates"as referredtointheActextendsnotonlytoopenbodies ofwatersuchasharbors,lakes,andstreams,butalso towetlandsandevendryspillwaysthatflowonly duringheavyrainfalls.12TheActspecificallyexemptsagriculturalirrigation returnflowandagriculturalstormwaterrunofffrom thedefinitionofpointsource,andthusfromthe NationalPollutionDischargeEliminationSystem (NPDES)permitrequirements.13Howeverif pollutantsarepurposelypouredintoastormdraina courtmayfindthatpointsourcepollutionexists.For instance,InUnitedStatesv.Gratz 14,a pharmaceuticalcompanydisposedofchemicalsby pouringthemdownastormdrain.Thecompany claimedthatitwasexemptfromthepermitting requirementsundertheCleanWaterActbecausethe stromdrainwasnotapointsource.However,the courtruledthatpollutantsintentionallydumpedinto astormdrainthatleadtoanavigablewater constitutedapointsourcedischarge. Althoughnotnecessarily"pointsources,"several typesofagriculturaloperationshavebeenmade subjecttotheNPDESpermitrequirements.These areoperationsthatbytheirnaturearelikelyto pollutewater.Theyincludefishfarms,most agriculturalprocessingfacilities,includingfeedlots andpackinghouses,sawmills,sugarmills,grainmills, fruitandvegetableprocessingorcanningfacilities, andfertilizermanufacturingplants.15TheNPDESpermitsystemisbasedonwater qualitystandardsdevelopedbytheEPAorbythe states.16Underthissystem,allwaterbodiesinthe UnitedStatesareclassifiedaccordingtotheusesor planneduses.17Awaterqualitystandardcontaining limitsonpollutantsisthendevelopedtoprotectthose uses.18Allpermitsissuedmustthencontain limitationsondischargessufficienttoprotectthe waterqualitystandardfortheparticularwater body.19Tosimplifytheprocessforpermitapplicants,the EPAhasdevelopedstandardsforpermitsbasedon theindustryforwhichitisissued,availablepollution controltechnology,andwaterqualitystandardstobe met.20Stricterstandardsareplacedonindustries whichdischargetoxicpollutants.21Therequired pollutioncontroldevicesandotherconditions governingpollutiondischargearecontainedinthe permitandmustbefollowedclosely.Whenapermit expires,stricterconditionsmaybeimposed. Enforcement: Ownersoroperatorsofpoint sourcesarerequiredtomaintainoperationalrecords, makereports,install,use,andmaintaincertain monitoringequipmentormethods,andtake samples.22Officialsresponsibleforenforcingtheact havetherighttoenterandinspectanypointsource operationandmaybringcivilsuitagainstaviolatoror issueanordertoseekcompliance.23Civilfinescanrangeupto$25,000perdayfora willfulornegligentviolation.24Criminalfinesfor negligentorknowingviolationsrangefrom$2,500to $100,000,twotosixyearsimprisonment,orboth.25Themaximumpunishmentforknowingendangerment isafineof$500,000,thirtyyearsimprisonment,or both.26TheAdministrator(oftheEPA)hasthe righttocommenceacivilaction,includinga permanentortemporaryinjunctionagainstany operationswhichillegallydischargepollutants.27TheCleanWaterActalsocontainsacitizen'ssuit provision,authorizinganyperson"havinganinterest whichisormaybeadverselyaffected"byaviolation oftheacttosueeithertheviolatordirectlyorthe EPAtocompelenforcement.28Non-PointSourcesNon-pointsourcesofpollutionareallsourcesof pollutionotherthanpointsourcesorpollutionfrom dredgeandfillactivities.29The1987amendmentsto theCleanWaterActrequirestatestodevelop"nonpointsourcemanagementprograms."30Theseamendmentsareofgreatimportanceto farmersbecausetheyimposerestrictiononpollutants inagriculturalrunofforothernon-pointsource dischargesofagriculturalchemicals.Althoughmany statesalreadyhadnon-pointsourcewaterpollution regulations,thenewfederallawrequiresthatmanyof theseregulationsbestrengthened. Thestatenon-pointsourcemanagementprograms mustincludeassessmentreportswhich: identifywatersinthestatewhichrequirecontrol ofnon-pointsourcesofpollutioninorderto attainormaintainapplicablewaterquality standardsorthegoalsandrequirementsofthe CleanWaterAct;

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page3 identifycategoriesandsubcategoriesofnon-point sourcesofpollutionwhichaddsignificant pollutiontostatewaters(includingindividual polluters); describetheprocessesthestateintendstofollow toidentifyBestManagementPractices(BMPs) andothermeasurestocontrolandreducenonpointsourcepollution; identifyanddescribestateandlocalprogramsfor controllingpollutionfromnon-pointsources.31Inadditiontoanassessmentreport,eachstate mustsubmittotheAdministratoroftheEPAa managementprogramforcontrolofnon-pointsource pollution.Eachprogramisrequiredto: identifymeasurestobetakenbythestateto reducenon-pointsourcepollution; identifytheprogramsthestateintendstoutilize toimplementnon-pointpollutioncontrol measures; containaschedulegoverningimplementationof stateprograms; identifyallsourcesoffunding,includingfederal funding,availabletothestate.32ThissectionoftheCleanWaterActalsoprovides forafederalgrantprogramforimplementingnonpointwatersourcepollutioncontrolprograms.33Becauserunoffandleachingoffertilizersand pesticidesisamajorsourceofnon-pointsourcewater pollution,thestatemanagementprogramsclosely regulatefarmersandpesticideapplicators. Familiaritywiththestateprogramsistherefore mandatorytoavoidstatepenalties.Fordetailsabout stateprograms,farmersandagriculturalchemical applicatorsshouldcontacttheirstatedepartmentsof agricultureandenvironmentalregulation.DredgeandFillPermitsTheArmyCorpsofEngineersisresponsiblefor enforcingthedredgeandfillprovisionsoftheClean WaterAct.34Activitiesthatresultinthedischarge ofdredgeorfillmaterialintothewatersofthe UnitedStatesisprohibitedunlessapermitis obtainedfromtheCorps.35Theconstructionor maintenanceoffarmorstockponds,irrigationand drainageditches,aswellas"normal"agricultural activitiesareexemptedfromthedredgeandfill permitrequirements.36Normalagriculturalactivities forthepurposesoftheActincludeplowing,planting, harvesting,minordrainage,anduplandsoilandwater conservationpractices.37THERURALCLEANWATERPROGRAMTheRuralCleanWaterProgram(RCWP)isa federalprogramdesignedtoassistfarmersin implementingerosioncontrolpractices.Thegoalof theprogramistoimprovewaterqualityinrural areasbyreducingnon-pointsourcepollutionfrom agriculturaloperations.Programparticipationis voluntary.38Ruralareaswithwaterpollutionproblemsare identifiedbythestates.Eligibilityforfederalfundsis limitedtothoseareasdeterminedtohavethemost criticalwaterpollutionproblemsbasedontype, amount,andextentofpollution.Eligibilityisalso basedontheimpactofthepollutiononhumanhealth andontheenvironment,theusestowhichthe pollutedwatersareput,andthefeasibilityof correctingthepollutionthroughtheuseofBest ManagementPractices(BMPs).39BMPsareerosion andrunoffcontrolmeasuresrecommendedforthe variousareasofthecountrybytheEPAandthe UnitedStatesSoilConservationService.Anareais morelikelytobeselectedifstateandlocalofficials arecommittedtoassistingtheprojectthroughcostsharingortechnicalassistance.40Onceanareaisdeemedeligible,landowners contributingtothepollutionareofferedlongterm contractsforfinancialandtechnicalassistancein installingappropriateBMPsontheirproperty. Privatelandownersareeligibleforupto$50,000in assistance,41whilepubliccorporations(corporations withpubliclytradedstock)areeligibleiftheycan demonstratethatinstallingBMPswithoutfederal assistancewouldconstitutean"inappropriateburden" onthecorporation.42However,federalassistanceis limitedtofiftypercentofthetotalcostofinstalling theBMPsunlessavarianceisgranted.43Variances aremorelikelytobegrantedwherethelackof erosionorrunoffcontrolresultsinseriouspollution atalocationremovedfromthesite.44THECOASTALZONEMANAGEMENTACTTheCoastalZoneManagementAct45(CZMA) mayalsoaffectthefarmer'suseofpesticides.Under theAct,thefederalgovernmentencouragesthestates todevelopwateruseprogramsforthecoastal zone.46Thisencouragementtakestheformof grantstocoastalstateswhichcomplywiththe

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page4CZMA'scoastalresourceimprovementprogram.47TheDepartmentofCommercegovernstheCZMA. TheSecretaryofCommercehastheauthorityto makegrantstoanycoastalstate,includinggrantsfor upto80%oftheadministrativecostofthe programs.48TheCZMAdefinescoastalstatesarethosestates oftheUnitedStatesin,orborderingon,theAtlantic, Pacific,orArcticOceans,theGulfofMexico,Long IslandSound,oroneormoreoftheGreatLakes.49CoastalwatersaretheGreatLakesarea,andinother areas,thosewatersadjacenttoshorelineswhich containameasurablequantityofseawater.50In1990,theCZMAwasmodifiedbytheCoastal ZoneActReauthorizationAmendments.51The ReauthorizationAmendmentsmandateeachcoastal zonestatetoimplementaCoastalZoneNon-point PollutionControlProgramasapartofeachstate's coastalzonemanagementprogram.52Consequently, farmerswhousepesticidesandliveincoastalstates shouldfindoutwhethertheirlandispartthecoastal zone,oriftheirpesticideapplicationviolatestheir states'applicablecoastalzonemanagementprograms. UndertheCoastalZoneNonpointPollutionControl Program,pesticideapplicationissubjecttoregulation underCZMAifpesticiderunofffromnon-point sourcesreachescoastalwaters.53THESAFEDRINKINGWATERACTTheSafeDrinkingWaterAct54mayalsoaffect afarmer'suseofpesticides.UndertheAct,theEPA establishesnationaldrinkingwaterstandards,called maximumcontaminantlevels(MCLs).55Public watersystemsmaynotdeliverwaterexceedingthe MCLs.TheActalsoautorizestheEPAtoset maximumcontaminantlevelgoals(MCLGs).56MCLGisanunenforceblegoalsetatalevelwhichno knownoranticipatedadverseeffectsonthehealthof personsoccur.MCLsaresetasclosetotheMCLG aspossible.57Whilethelawisintendedtocontrol theoperationofthepublicwatersystemsandnotthe activitiesofpotentialpolluters,itcanandhasbeenso applied.58Forinstance,inInternationalFabricarev. EPA ,59thecourtupheldtheEPA'sdecisionto establishMCLsandMCLGsforseveralcontaminants usedbychemicalanddrycleaningcompanies.The EPA'sdecisionessentiallyhadtheeffectoflowering theamountofpollutantsthatthecompaniescould discharge. Inparticular,statesmustcontrolandmonitor activitiesposingathreattopublicdrinkingwater sources.60Anyactivitythatintroducespollutants intoasourceofdrinkingwater,notnecessarilyjust intoawell,iswithinthescopeoftheSafeDrinking WaterAct.61Thismeansthatapplyingpesticides mayfallwithinthepurviewofstatecontrolifdrinking watersourcesarethreatened. Anirrigationback-flowmayconstitute undergroundinjectionandthusfallwithintheActif itresultsinthesubsurfaceintroductionofpesticides orotherpollutants.62Ifwaterpollutantsback-flow intothewatersourceandsubsequentlyposeathreat toapublicdrinkingwatersources,theirrigation operationmaybeshutdown.Thiswouldbetrue eveniftheSafeDrinkingWaterActdidnotapplyto back-flow.Authoritytohaltanyoperationposinga dangertopublichealthandsafetylieswitheachstate andtheEPA.EnforcementCivilfinescanbeashighas$25,000perdayfor anon-willfulorwillfulviolation.63Administrative penaltiescanbeashighas$125,000.64Willful violatorscanbesubjecttoasmuchasthreeyears imprisonment.65Whenacourtdecidestheamount ofafinethatshouldbeimposedforviolatingtheAct itmayconsidertheseriousnessoftheinfraction,the populationexposedtorisk,andotherrelevantfactors. InU.S.v.CityofNorthAdams 66thecourtimposed acivilpenaltyonthecityofNorthAdamswhenit exceededtheestablishedMCLsforcoliformbacteria. Thecourtfirstevaluatedtheseriousnessofthe infraction.Itdecidedthatthepresenceofcoliform bacteriainthecity'sdrinkingwaterwasanindication ofthepotentialexistenceofsalmonellaandcertain typesofviruses.ThereforetheMCLviolationsfor coliformbacteriaenhancedtheriskofdiseaseand wereconsideredverygrave.Thecourtalsofound thatthecity'sviolationplacedapopulationinexcess of16,000personsatrisk.Thecourttookother factorsintoaccountsuchasthecity'seffortsto complywiththeSafeDrinkingWaterActandits abilitytopayapenalty.Thecityhadattemptedto improveitschlorinationsystems.Furthermore,the citywasunabletopayanexcessivefine.Therefore, thecourtimposedacivilpenaltyof$67,200.00(or $15.00aday)onthecityforexceedingtheMCLsfor coliformbacteria. Citizensuitsareanotherremedy.Anyperson maycommenceacivilactionagainstanotherwho

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page5violatesanyrequirementimposedbytheActorby enforcementofficials.67However,beforeviolators maybesued,theymustbegivensixtydaysinwhich tocorrecttheviolation.Iftheviolationiscorrected withinthisperiod,nocourtactionbyprivatecitizens isallowed.68Thestate,however,canstillimpose civilfinesforeachdaytheviolationremainsor remaineduncorrected.69CHEMIGATIONChemigationreferstotheapplicationoffertilizers orpesticidesthroughirrigationsystems.Ifsuch systemsarenotcarefullydesignedandsafely managed,theprocesscanresultinserious groundwatercontaminationandlegalconsequencesof significantmagnitude. Safetyequipmentisavailablethat,whenproperly installed,canpreventback-flowandsubsequent groundwatercontamination.Farmersshouldconsult statelawsandlocalordinanceswhichmaymandate theinstallationofequipmentforback-flow prevention.Farmersseekinginformationonthe installationandmaintenanceofback-flowpreventers shouldcontacttheirirrigationequipmentdealeror stateextensionagents. Althoughthefarmercannotbecompletely shieldedagainstexposuretolegalliability,the installationofsafetyequipmentwillreduceexposure. Additionalliabilityreducingsafeguardsmayinclude therequirementthatemployeesobtainandmaintain certifiedapplicatorstatus;prechemigationwater analysisatthewatersourceandlocationsnearthe watersource;considerationofrun-offdirection; knowledgeofpotentialplanttoxicityinthe preparationofchemicalapplicationschedulesand dosagerate;judiceousadherencetorecommended applicationrates;soundsoilconservationtechniques; periodicequipmentcalibration;consultationwithlegal counselontheadvisabilityofpurchasingworker's compensationinsurancecoverageandpurchaseof chemicalliabilityinsurance.70TheEPAhasestablishedchemigationlabeling requirementsforallpesticidesreleasedforshipment byaregistrantafterApril30,1988.Iftheregistrant intendsthatapesticidebeusedthroughirrigation systems,theregistrantmustprovidespecific instructionsforsuchuseonthepesticidelabel.Ifthe registrantdoesnotintendforthepesticidetobeused throughirrigationsystems,thepesticidelabelmust prohibitsuchuse.71WETLANDREGULATION FederalRegulationAtthefederallevelthedevelopmentand preservationofwetlandsisregulatedbyboththe UnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineers72andthe EPA73.TheCorpshasbroadauthoritytoregulate activitiesaffectingthecourse,location,orcapacityof navigablewaters74,nonnavigableriversandstreams andadjacentwetlands.Becauseactualconnectionto navigablewatersisnotrequired,theCorps' jurisdictionextendstovirtuallyanybodyofwater, plusadjacentwetlands,intheUnitedStates.75Activitiesinvolvingthedischargeofdredgedor fillmaterialrequireapermitfromtheCorps.The criteriaforpermittinginvolvestheapplicationofa publicinteresttestadoptedbytheCorps76andaset ofguidelinesadoptedbytheEPA77inconsultation withtheCorps.Thepublicinteresttestinvolves balancingthevariousfactorsaffectingthepublic interest,suchasthepreservationofwetlandsand associatedwildlife. TheguidelinesadoptedbytheEPAareusedto evaluatedischargesofdredgeorfillmaterials.The EPAcanenforcetheseguidelinesby"vetoing"Corps issuedpermits.Thisisveryrare.78TheEPA's guidelinesprohibitthedischargeofdredgedorfill materialunlesstheeffectsonthewaterquality, wildlifeandotherresourcevaluesassociatedwith wetlandsarenotadverse.Ifthereisapractical alternativethatwouldbelessdamaging,thedischarge isprohibited.Iftheactivityisnotwaterdependent, practicalalternativesarepresumedtobeavailable.SwampBusterProvisionAnothermethodofregulatingthedevelopment andpreservationofwetlandsatthefederallevelis throughtheSwampBusterProvision.79TheSwamp BusterProvisionwasenactedbytheFoodSecurity Actof1985.80ThisProvisionisimplementedbythe USDAthroughtheNaturalResourcesConservation ServiceandtheAgriculturalStabilizationand ConservationService.TheProvisiondetersthe destructionofwetlandsbynotgrantingagricultural subsidiestoproducerswhogrowagricultural commoditiesonconvertedwetlands.81TheProvision alsowillnotgrantagriculturalsubsidiestoproducers whoconvertwetlandsbydraining,dredging,orfilling, forthepurposeofagriculturalproduction.82For example,inDownerv.UnitedStates ,83thecourt

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page6upheldUSDA'sdecisiontowithholdsubsidization fromafarmerwhofilledinwetlandsinordertogrow rye. UndertheSwampBusterProvisionapersonwho producesanagriculturalcommodityonaconverted wetlandinagivencropyearwillnotbeeligiblefor subsidizationforany commodityproducedbythat personduringthatcropyear.84Thereforeifa producergrowscornonaconvertedwetlandina givencropyear,butgrowswheatonlandotherthan aconvertedwetland,thatproducerwillgetno subsidiesforeitherthecornorthewheatinthatcrop year.TheProvisionfurthermakesanypersonwho convertsawetlandbydraining,dredging,orfilling, forthepurposeofproducinganagricultural commodity,ineligibleforsubsidiesforboththecrop yearthattheconversiontakesplaceandforall subsequentcropyears.Therefore,ifinagivencrop yearaproducerconvertsawetlandbydraining, dredgingorfillinginordertoproducecornthe producerwillnotreceivesubsidizationforthatcrop yearoranyfuturecropyears.Ineligibilityinthis instancecanonlybeovercomeifthefarmerfully restorestheconvertedwetlandtoitspreviousstate.85ProducerswhodonotcomplywiththeSwamp BusterProvisionmaystillbeabletoreceive agriculturalsubsidiesiftheproducersfallunderan exemptcategory.Althoughthereareseveral exemptions,threewillbementionedhere.Producers willnotbeineligibleforagriculturalsubsidiesif: 1.CommencedDeterminations:wetlandconversion wascommencedbeforeDecember23,1985;or 2.GoodFaithReliance:Producerenteredintoan agreementwiththeSecretaryofAgricultureto fullyrestoretheconvertedwetlandtoitsprior condition.Providedthattheproducerhas committednootherviolationoftheSwamp BusterProvisionwithintheprevioustenyear periodandtheproducergrewthecommodityon theconvertedwetlandwithouttheintentto violatetheProvision;or 3.MinimalEffects:draining,dredging,orfillingwill haveaminimaleffectonthefunctionalvaluesof thewetlandandtheeffectsofsuchactionare mitigatedbytheproducerthroughrestoringthe wetland.86TheSwampBusterProvisionhasproven beneficialtothedevelopmentandpreservationof wetlands.TheProvisiononlyappliestoproducers whorelyonsubsidization.WetlandReserveProgramAthirdsourceofwetlanddevelopmentand preservationatthefederallevelistheWetland ReserveProgram.87Thisprogramassistswetland ownersintheprotectionandrestorationof wetlands.88TheSecretaryofAgriculturein conjunctionwiththeSecretaryoftheInterior determineswhichwetlandsareeligiblefor enrollment.89Thisdeterminationisbasedon whetherthewetlandisfarmedorconvertedandthe likelihoodofsuccessfulrestoration.90Afteritis determinedthatawetlandiseligible,thewetland ownermustgrantaneasementonthelandtothe SecretaryofAgricultureandagreetoimplementa WetlandEasementConservationPlan.91ThePlanmustpermit: 1.repairs,improvements,andinspectionsthatare necessarytomaintainexistingpublicdrainage systemswhenthewetlandisrestoredtoits normalcondition;and 2.landownercontroloverpublicaccessoneasement areaswhileidentifyingaccessroutestobeused forwetlandrestorationactivities;and 3.provisionsforefficientandeffectiverestorationof wetlandfunctionalvalues. ThePlanmustprohibit: 1.thealterationofwildlifehabitat,unless specificallypermittedbytheplan;and 2.sprayingthelandwithchemicalsormowingthe landexceptwheresprayingormowingis necessarytocomplywithfederalorstatenoxious weedcontrollawsoremergencypesttreatment programs.92Whenthewetlandownergrantstheeasement,the Secretary,inreturn,willsharethecostof implementingtheWetlandEasementConservation Planandprovidetechnicalassistancetothewetland ownerincomplyingwiththeconditionsofthe Plan.93StateRegulationManystateshaveenactedlegislationtocontrol theuseanddevelopmentofwetlands.InFlorida,for example,thereisavastamountoflegislation

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page7governingwetlands.Florida'slegislationappliesto construction,dredge,orfillactivitiesconductedin watersofthestate.Inallinstances,waterquality standardsmustbemaintained.94Generally,apermit willbeissuedifitis"notcontrarytothepublic interest."Thepublicinterestdeterminationconsists ofabalancingoffactorsincludingtheproject'seffects onthegeneralhealth,safety,andwelfare,the propertyofothers,fishandwildlife,navigation,the flowofwater,erosion,shoaling,fishing,recreation, marineproductivity,andsignificanthistoricaland archaeologicalresources.Cumulativeimpactsmust alsobeconsidered.95Iftheapplicantisunableto otherwisemeetthepublicinteresttest,proposalsto mitigatetheadverseeffectsoftheprojectmustbe considered.96Stricterpermittingcriteriamaybe adoptedforcertainsensitiveareassuchas OutstandingFloridaWatersofCriticalStateConcern. Minnesotawetlandlegislationisanotherexample ofthestates'effortstoprotectwetlands.In Minnesotaapermittodrainawetlandwillnotbe issuedunlessthewetlandisreplaced.97Before obtainingapermittodrainawetlandtheapplicant mustcomplywitharestorationplan.Therestoration plancallsforreplacingdrainedwetlandswith wetlandsthatwillhaveequalorgreaterpublicvalue. Furthermore,therestorationplanmustbecompleted priortoorconcurrentwiththeactualdrainingofa wetland.98Wisconsinhasalsoenactedwetlandlegislation. Wisconsinstatutesgiveeachcitybroaddiscretionin enactingzoningordinancestofurtherwetland protectionandconservation.99Theseordinances enumerateproceduresthatmustbefollowedbefore activitiesonwetlandscancommence.Eachcity withinthestatemustenactawetlandzoning ordinanceonceitisdeterminedthatwetlandsare locatedwithinitsboundaries.100Manyofthe ordinancesprotectwetlandsbyrequiringapermitto beissuedbeforewetlandscanbemodified.DEFINITIONS,ABBREVIATIONS ANDACRONYMS CitationDefinitionsEtseq. :andthefollowing Id :thesame;usedtoindicateareference previouslymade. Infra :within;usedtoindicateareferencemade inalaterpartofthepaper. Supra :above;usedtoindicateareferencemade inapreviouspartofthepaper.DefinitionsActualDamages --Theamountawardedtoa plaintiffincompensationoftheplaintiff'sactual andreallossorinjury. CommonLaw --Itisabodyoflawthatdevelops andderivesthroughjudicialdecisions,as distinguishedfromlegislativeenactments. Enjoin --Torequireaperson,bywritof injunction,toperform,ortoabstainordesist from,someact. Injunctions --Acourtorderprohibitingsomeone fromdoingsomespecifiedactorcommanding someonetoundosomewrongorinjury. Inherentlydangerous --Dangerinheringinan instrumentalityorconditionitselfatalltimes,so astorequirespecialprecautionstopreventinjury; notdangerarisingfrommerecasualorcollateral negligenceofotherswithrespecttounder particularcircumstances. NominalDamages --Thetriflingsumawardedto aplaintiffinanaction,wherethereisno substantiallossorinjurytobecompensated,but stillthelawrecognizesatechnicalinvasionofhis rightsorabreachofthedefendant'sduty. PunitiveDamages --Damagesthatareaboveand beyondthatwhichwouldcompensatetheplaintiff forhisloss.Theyarebasedonthepublicpolicy ofpunishingadefendantwhoactedwillfully, maliciously,orfraudulently. StatutoryLaw --Thebodyoflawcreatedbyacts ofthelegislatureincontrasttoconstitutionaland commonlaw. Definitionsaretakenfrom Black'sLawDictionary 1990edition.AbbreviationsC.F.R.:CodeofFederalRegulations U.S.C.:UnitedStatesCode

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page8AcronymListBMP-BestManagementPractices CERCLA-ComprehensiveEnvironmental Response,Compensation,andLiabilityAct CZMA-CoastalZoneManagementAct DOT-DepartmentofTransportation EPA-EnvironmentalProtectionAgency ESA-EndangeredSpeciesAct FAA-FederalAviationAdministration FACT-Food,Agriculture,Conservation,and TradeAct FDA-FoodandDrugAdministration FFDCA-FederalFood,Drug,andCosmeticAct FIFRA-FederalInsecticide,Fungicide,and RodenticideAct IPM-IntegratedPestManagement MCL-MaximumContaminantLevel MCLG-MaximumContaminantLevelGoals NPDES-NationalPollutionDischarge EliminationSystem OSHA-OccupationalSafetyandHealthAct PPE-PersonalProtectiveEquipment RCRA-ResourceConservationandRecovery Act RCWP-RuralCleanWaterProgram REI-Restricted-EntryInterval SARA-SuperfundAmendmentsand ReauthorizationAct TPQ-ThresholdPlanningQuantity USDA-UnitedStatesDepartmentofAgriculture WPS-WorkerProtectionStandardACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheauthorisindebtedtolegalresearchersSusan Kubar,ToniCunninghamandPatrickMeriwetherof theUniversityofFloridaCollegeofLawandthose stateandfederalagencypersonnelwhogaveoftheir timeandadviceinthepreparationofthispublication. Thispublicationissupportedinpartbyagrant fromtheNationalAgriculturalPesticideImpact AssessmentProgram(NAPIAP)oftheUnitedStates DepartmentofAgriculture.1.33U.S.C.etseq.(1994). 2.Id .at(a)(1994). 3.33U.S.C.-1345(1994). 4.33U.S.C.(1994). 5.See NeilE.Harl,AgriculturalLaw ,(1982). 6.StatewaterpollutionmanagementinstitutedpursuanttotheCleanWaterActmaybemorestringentthantheActitself.This chapteraddressesfederallaw.Thepossibilityoftheexistenceofadditionallocalandstatelawsregulatingwaterpollutionshould alwaysbekeptinmind.Tokeepabreastofthelawsintheirareas,reasonsshouldcontacttheirstatedepartmentofagriculture, appropriatestateenvironmentalregulatoryagency,oranattorney,beforeundertakinganyactivitylikelytopollutewater. 7.33U.S.C.(14)(1994). 8.Id 9.Id 10.33U.S.C.(a)(1)(1994). 11.33U.S.C.(6)(1994). 12.33U.S.C.(7)(1994);40C.F.R..2(1993). 13.33U.S.C.(14)(1994). 14.1993WL19733(E.D.Pa.)(1993) 15.FortheEPAregulationsgoverningtheseandotherfacilitiessee 40C.F.R.parts400-471(1993). 16.33U.S.C.-1345(1994).

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page917.40C.F.R..10(1993). 18.40C.F.R..11(1993). 19.Id 20.40C.F.R..1etseq.(1993). 21.Id .at.3(a)(1)(1993). 22.33U.S.C.(1994). 23.33U.S.C.(a)(1994). 24.33U.S.C.(d)(1994). 25.33U.S.C.(c)(1)-(2)(1994). 26.33U.S.C.(c)(3)(1994). 27.33U.S.C.(b)(1994). 28.33U.S.C.(1994). 29.See 2WilliamH.Rogers,Jr.,EnvironmentalLaw:AirandWater 124(1986);2JacksonB.Battle,EnvironmentalLaw 213 (1986)(citingexamplesofnon-pointsourcepollution). 30.33U.S.C.(1994). 31.33U.S.C.(a)(1)(1994).See also Rodgers,supra note156,at324-330.See generally ,EdwinH.Clark,II,TheConservation Foundation,EstimatedEffectsofNon-PointSourcePollution (1984). 32.33U.S.C.(b)(2)(1994). 33.33U.S.C.(h)(1)(1994). 34.33U.S.C.(d)(1994). 35.33U.S.C.(f)(1994). 36.Id 37.33U.S.C.(f)(A)(1994). 38.33U.S.C.j(1994);7C.F.R..14(1993). 39.7C.F.R..14(1993). 40.Id 41.7C.F.R..27(b)(1993). 42.7C.F.R..20(1993). 43.7C.F.R..24(1993). 44.Id 45.16U.S.C.etseq.(1994). 46.Id .at(i)(1994).

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page1047.16U.S.C.(a)(1994). 48.Id .at(a),1455(a)(1994). 49.Id .at(4)(1994).UnderCZMA,thecoastalzoneisdefinedas"thecoastalwatersandtheadjacentshorelandsstrongly influencedbyeachotherandinproximitytotheshorelinesoftheseveralcoastalstates."Id .at(1)(1994). 50.Id .at(2)(1994). 51.Pub.L.No.101-508,104Stat.1388-299(1990)codifiedas16U.S.C.b(1994). 52.Id .atb(a)(1994). 53.Id 54.42U.S.C.fetseq.(1994). 55.Id .atg-1 56.Id .atg 57.Id .atg-1 58.NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncilv.UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,824F.2d1258(1stCir.1987). 59.972F.2d384 60.42U.S.C.g-2(1994). 61.42U.S.C.g(1994). 62.42U.S.C.h(d)(1994). 63.42U.S.C.h-2(b)(1)(1994). 64.42U.S.C.h-2(c)(1)-(2)(1994). 65.42U.S.C.h-2(b)(2)(1994). 66.35ERC1679(1992) 67.42U.S.C.j-8(1994). 68.42U.S.C.j-8(b)(2)(1994). 69.42U.S.C.j-8(e)(1994). 70.C.L.Davis,NationalSymposiumonChemigation,LiabilityConsiderationsinChemigation 117(1981). 71.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,OfficeofPesticidePrograms,RegistrationDivision,PesticideRegistrationNotice87-1 (1987). 72.33C.F.R..2(1993). 73.40C.F.R.part230(1993). 74.33C.F.R..2(b)(1993). 75.4PatrickJ.Rohan,ZoningandLandUseControls ,Aat16-17(1978). 76.33C.F.R..4(1993).

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AgriculturalChemicalsandWaterPollution Page1177.40C.F.R.part230(1993). 78.Rohan,supra note189,Aat9. 79.16U.S.C.etseq.(1995) 80.99Stat.1504(1985) 81.16U.S.C.(a)(1995) 82.Id .at(b) 83.1995WL455815(D.S.D) 84.16U.S.C.(a)(1995) 85.Id .at 86.Id .at(b) 87.Id .at 88.Id .at(a) 89.Id .at(c) 90.Id 91.Id .ata 92.Id .ata(b) 93.Id .atc 94. Fla.Stat.Ann. .414(1)(1995) 95.Id .at.414(1)(a) 96.Id .at.414(b) 97.MNSTG.221(1995) 98.Id 99.WIST.26(1995) 100.WIST.231(3)