Biological Control with Insects: The Hydrilla Leaf-mining Flies

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Title:
Biological Control with Insects: The Hydrilla Leaf-mining Flies
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Center, Ted D.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Revised: May 2002."
General Note:
"SS AGR 136"

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004565:00001


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SS-AGR-136 Biological Control with Insects: The Hydrilla Leaf-mining Flies 1 Ted D. Center, F. Allen Dray, and Vernon V. Vandiver2 1. This document is SS AGR 136, one of a series of the Department of Agronomy, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Revised: May 2002. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Ted D. Center, Research Entomologist, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314; F. Allen Dray, Ecologist, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314; and Vernon V. Vandiver, Associate Professor and Extension Aquatic Weeds Specialist, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. ( Hydrellia bilobifera Cresson, H. pakistanae Deonier H. balciunasi Bock Diptera: Ephydridae: Notiphilinae: Hydrellini) Host : Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae) At present 140 Hydrellia species have been described worldwide, about 16 of which are known from Florida. Larvae of members of this genus are aquatic and mine in the leaves of hydrophytes. Adults are not aquatic. Hydrellia bilobifera larvae feed in leaves and stems of hydrilla and pondweeds. Hydrellia balciunasi and H. pakistanae larvae mine only in hydrilla leaves. Hydrellia bilobifera is native to Florida. Hydrellia balciunasi was imported from Australia. It has been established in two sites in Texas, but is not yet established in Florida. Hydrellia pakistanae was imported from India, and is now established in Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, and Texas. In Florida it is found from the Tallahassee area southward throughout the peninsula. Hydrellia balciunasi and H. pakistanae are small (1 to 2mm in length) flies with light yellow or golden faces. H. bilobifera is a slightly larger (1.6 to 2.3 mm long) fly; the males can be readily distinguished by two prominent lobes at the end of the abdomen. Females of these two species deposit one to several white or pale yellowish gray, cigar-shaped (about 0.5 mm long) eggs on hydrilla that is exposed at the water surface. The eggs hatch in 3 to 4 days. The larval stage lasts 9 to 16 days in H. pakistanae 8 to 17 days in Hydrellia balciunasi and 14 to 31 days in H. bilobifera Larvae of H. bilobifera damage about 20 leaves, H. pakistanae damage about 12, and Hydrellia balciunasi damage 7 to 8 leaves prior to pupation. This mining activity produces transparent windows in the leaves. Larvae usually mine all leaves in a whorl before moving to another whorl. Pupae are formed at the bases of mined leaves. Adults emerge from the puparia 6 to 15 days following pupation and float to the water surface in a bubble. Adults live on the water surface where they feed.