Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot
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Fact sheet
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Peacock, F.M.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"Original publication date December 1959. Reviewed June 2003."
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"BUL616"

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BUL616 Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 1 Fentress M. Peacock and W. G. Kirk2 1. This document is BUL616, one of a series of the Animal Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 1959. Reviewed June 2003. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Fentress M. Peacock, Associate Animal Husbandman; and W. G. Kirk, Animal Scientist; Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry R. Arrington, Interim Dean The value of any fattening feed for beef cattle depends upon nutritive composition, price and availability. Cattle fattening operations in Florida require large quantities of feed which must be produced in the state or shipped in from other areas. Shipping costs increase the price, which in turn narrows the margin a feeder receives from the finished animal. The main energy feeds used in Florida are corn and by-products from the citrus industry. Corn, the standard used for evaluating energy feeds, is grown in limited amounts, causing most feeders to depend upon out-of-state sources for shelled corn and ground snapped corn. By-products of the citrus industry are citrus pulp, citrus molasses and a limited amount of citrus meal, with citrus pulp being the most important. Large quantities of citrus pulp are available each year for beef cattle feeding, and on a laboratory analysis basis, it compares favorably with ground snapped corn with respect to TDN (total digestible nutrients). The large supply of citrus pulp (see Figure 1 and Figure 2 ), along with its potential nutritive value as a feed ( 7 ) [italic figures in parenthese refer to Literature Cited], warrants its being compared with corn feed meal (see Figure 3 ) and ground snapped corn (see Figure 4 ) on a pound-for-pound basis in the fattening ration. Figure 1. Figure 2.

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 2 Figure 3. Figure 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE A study to determine the comparative feeding value of citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn in a steer fattening ration was initiated in the spring of 1953. The rations, which were full fed, consisted of 70 parts of either citrus pulp, corn feed meal or ground snapped corn plus 25 parts cottonseed meal (41 percent) and 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa. In addition, steers on all rations were fed an average of 4 pounds of pangola hay daily and 2 ounces of cod liver oil weekly. Adequate protein was provided in all rations. The average composition and TDN of the feeds used are given in Table 1 Steers selected for the 3 140-day feeding trials were all from the same herd of 60 grade cows kept on native pasture. Animals for the first 2 trials were sired by purebred Brahman bulls and for the third trial by a crossbred Shorthorn-Brahman bull. The breeding of the steers is representative of the majority of steers produced in central and south Florida where Brahman bulls are used extensively. Steer calves after weaning in September and October were wintered on a limited amount of concentrate feed and sufficient roughage, consisting of hay and pasture. They were placed on feed the following March when approximately 1 year of age. All animals were thrifty but in thin flesh at the start of the different trials. Steers were hand fed twice daily at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., receiving limited amounts of hay and citrus molasses and a full feed of their particular concentrate ration. All animals were exercised twice each week and weighed every 14 days. The cattle were sprayed with DDT at each weighing to control hornflies. Animals had access to fresh water and Range Station mineral at all times. The mineral mixture ( 4 ) consisted of 29 pounds steamed bonemeal, 29 pounds defluorinated phosphate, 33.89 pounds common salt, 3.39 pounds red oxide of iron, 0.68 pound copper sulfate and 0.04 pound cobalt chloride or sulfate, 2.00 pounds cane molasses and 2.00 pounds cottonseed meal. A preliminary period of 7 to 10 days was used to get cattle on feed. This study was conducted for 3 years, using a total of 11 steers for Lot 1 and 12 steers each for Lots 2 and 3. In 1953 only 3 steers were available for Lot 1, while each of the other lots had 4 steers. In 1954 and 1955 all lots had 4 steers each. Feeder and initial slaughter grades and weights were the criteria used in selecting steers for the lots in each trial. At the completion of each 140-day feeding trial the steers were hauled 85 miles to Tampa and were slaughtered the following day. A federal beef grader for the area graded the carcasses after 48 hours in the cooler. The least squares solution for disproportionate frequency distribution was employed for these data. The method of analysis was the abbreviated Doolittle method from which estimates of treatment effects were obtained and analyses of variance for the treatment effects were determined (Anderson and Bancroft, 1952) ( 1 ). EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Average results for each of the 3 feeding trials are given in Table 2 Table 3 and Table 4 and a summary of all trials in Table 5 A summary of the analysis of variance is given in Table 6 The adjusted mean square for gain of steers was non-significant. The estimated effect, together with adjusted means for steer gains on different rations, is given in Table 7

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 3 TDN PER 100 POUNDS GAIN The estimated effect of TDN per 100 pounds gain, together with adjusted means, is shown in Table 8 The adjusted mean square was non-significant when tested against year x ration interaction for error. Sums of squares for individuals were not calculated due to steers being group fed. INCREASE IN CARCASS GRADE The adjusted mean square for increase in grade was non-significant when tested against year x ration interaction. The year x ration interaction was significant at the .05 level of probability. The estimated effect of increase in grade, together with adjusted means, is shown in Table 9 DRESSING PERCENT The adjusted mean square for dressing percent was non-significant when tested against year x ration interaction. The adjusted effect of dressing percent, together with adjusted means, is shown in Table 10 DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Average results of the 3 feeding trials comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn are given in Table 5 Differences between gain, TDN, improvement in slaughter grade and dressing percent were non-significant. Daily feed intake for all groups was approximately the same with ground snapped corn consumption being highest. Physical characteristics, such as bulkiness of the ration, apparently had no effect upon the amount of feed consumed by the steers. The fecal discharge of the corn-fed cattle was firm, indicating good digestive action. Cattle fed citrus pulp had loose feces, but there was no scouring. Grade Brahman steers 1 year of age are in a growing state (8). A 140-day feeding period for this type and age of steer is relatively short because the feed required for rapid growth reduces the nutrients available for fattening. However, slaughter grade improved from U. S. Cutter to U. S. Good during the 140-day trial. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Three drylot feeding trials, using grade Brahman short-yearling steers, comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn for 140 days, have been completed. The data from these trials show that there were no significant differences in gain, TDN per 100 pounds gain, improvement in grade or dressing percent between steers fed citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn when combined with adequate protein and other essential nutrients in a ration for young growing steers. LITERATURE CITED 1. Anderson, R. L., and T. A. Bancroft. Statistical theory in research lst Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1952. 2. Baker, F. S., Jr. Steer fattening trials in north Florida Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-89. 1955. 3. Baker, F. S., Jr. Citrus molasses, dried citrus pulp, citrus meal and blackstrap molasses in steer fattening rations N. Fla. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Rept. 55-3. 1953. 4. Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis and R. W. Kidder. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 513R. 1957. 5. Chapman, H. L., Jr., R. W. Kidder and S. W. Plank. Comparative feeding value of citrus molasses, cane molasses, ground snapped corn and dried citrus pulp for fattening steers on pasture Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 531. 1953. 6. Kirk, W. G., E. R. Felton, H. J. Fulford and E. M. Hodges. Citrus products for fattening cattle Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 454. l949. 7. Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Citrus products for beef cattle Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954. 8. Peacock, F. M., and W. G. Kirk. Feed lot performance and carcass grades of Brahman

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 4 and Brahman-Shorthorn steers Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 597. 1958. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors appreciate the assistance of the following individuals in gathering and preparing data for this bulletin: Eugene Mansolo, Sidney Albritton, Ralph Durrance, W. C. Hines and O.C. Coker in feeding and caring for steers; Elver M. Hodges in taking pictures; Mrs. Richard Roberts, Alice Faye Evers and Mrs. Zula Mercer in tabulating results and typing manuscript.

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 5 Table 1. Table 1. Average Composition and Total Digestible Nutrients of Feeds Feeds Dry Matter Crude Protein Ash Crude Fat Crude Fiber NFE1 TDN Pangola hay 89.51 7.23 4.89 2.36 30.38 44.65 42 Dried citrus pulp2 90.63 16.67 5.20 3.82 11.46 53.49 70 Corn feed meal2 89.08 19.64 3.05 2.91 5.75 57.75 76 Ground snapped corn2 89.06 17.46 3.63 3.07 9.69 55.38 68 Citrus molasses 64.68 4.26 3.88 0.17 -39.78 50 1 Nitrogen-free extract. 2 Consisted of either 70 parts dried citrus pulp, corn feed meal or ground snapped corn, plus 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa.

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 6 Table 2. Table 2. Results of feeding trial comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn-1953. Citrus Pulp Corn Feed Meal Ground Snapped Corn Feeding period, days 140 140 140 Number of animals 3 4 4 Av. initial weight 428 379 398 Av. Final weight 773 720 744 Av. Daily gain 2.46 2.44 2.47 Av. TDN/100 pounds gain 446 465 426 Av. initial grade1 2 2 2 Av. final grade1 10 9 9 Av. dressing percent 57.44 58.89 56.59 1 U.S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2; Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9, 10 and 11. Table 3. Table 3. Results of feeding trial comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn-1954. Citrus Pulp Corn Feed Meal Ground Snapped Corn

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 7 Table 3. Feeding period, days 140 140 140 Number of animals 4 4 4 Av. initial weight 480 495 474 Av. Final weight 828 845 802 Av. Daily gain 2.49 2.50 2.34 Av. TDN/100 pounds gain 440 469 473 Av. initial grade1 4 4 4 Av. final grade1 9 11 11 Av. dressing percent 57.80 59.10 59.04 1 U.S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2; Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9, 10 and 11. Table 4. Table 4. Results of feeding trial comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn-1955. Citrus Pulp Corn Feed Meal Ground Snapped Corn Feeding period, days 140 140 140 Number of animals 4 4 4 Av. initial weight 449 428 433

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 8 Table 4. Av. Final weight 758 741 773 Av. Daily gain 2.21 2.24 2.43 Av. TDN/100 pounds gain 457 482 437 Av. initial grade1 2+ 2+ 2+ Av. final grade1 9 10 9 Av. dressing percent 59.54 59.63 59.68 1 U.S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2; Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9, 10 and 11. Table 5. TABLE 5. Summary of value of citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn in steer fattening ration for three years, 1953-55. Citrus Pulp Corn Feed Meal Ground Snapped Corn Feeding period, days 140 140 140 Number of animals 11 12 12 Age, years 1 1 1 Av. weight, pounds: Initial 455 434 434 Final 788 769 773 Gain 333 335 339

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 9 Table 5. Daily gain 2.38 2.39 2.42 Av. daily ration, pounds: Hay 3.83 3.78 3.61 Concentrate feed 11.44 11.43 12.18 Citrus molasses 2.00 2.00 2.00 Cod liver oil, ounces1 0.29 0.29 0.29 Range mineral 0.14 0.19 0.19 Total 17.41 17.40 17.98 Feed required for 100 pounds gain, pounds: 160 157 149 Concentrate feed 481 478 503 Citrus molasses 88 82 83 Cod liver oil, ounces1 12 11.9 11.8 Range mineral 6 8 8 Total 735 725 743 TDN/100 pounds gain 448 472 446 Av. grades:2 Feeder 9 10 10 Initial slaughter 2 2 2 Final slaughter 9 10 10

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 10 Table 5. Carcass 9.2 9.7 9.5 Av. dressing percent 58.33 59.31 58.44 1 Cod liver oil not included in total ration and feed per 100 pounds gain. 2 U. S. grades: See Tables 2, 3 and 4.

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 11 Table 6. Table 6. Mean squares and significant levels for the various measures of comparative feeding value of dried citrus pulp, corn feed meal and group snapped corn in steer fattening ration. Source of Variablility D.F. Gain TDN/100 Pounds Gain1 Increase Carcass Grade Dressing Percent Mn.Sq. SL Mn.Sq. SL Mn.Sq. SL Year 2 661.00 NS 755.20 NS 3.25 NS 11.05 NS Ration 2 58.50 NS 2650.10 NS 1.65 NS 1.80 NS Year x Ration 4 1466.50 NS 1100.60 -3.05 .05 2.83 NS Within (error) 26 1499.30 ---.77 -1.62 -1 Individual sums of squares could not be calculated due to each lot being group fed.

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 12 Table 7. Table 7. Effect of ration on gain of steers in a 140-day feeding period, corrected for years. Ration Number of Steers Adjusted mean Deviation from the Mean Citrus pulp 11 333.6 -1.7 Corn feed meal 12 334.5 -.8 Ground snapped corn 12 337.8 +2.5 Table 8. Table 8. Effect of ration on TDN per 100 pounds gain on steers, corrected for years. Ration Number of Steers Adjusted mean Deviation from the Mean Citrus pulp 11 447.5 -7.8 Corn feed meal 12 472.5 +17.2 Ground snapped corn 12 445.9 -9.4 Table 9. Table 9. Effect of ration on increase in carcass grade of steers, corrected for years. Ration Number of Steers Adjusted mean Deviation from the Mean Citrus pulp 11 6.4 -.6

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Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn.... 13 Table 9. Corn feed meal 12 7.5 +.5 Ground snapped corn 12 7.1 +.1 Table 10. Table 10. Effect of ration on dressing percent of steers, corrected for years. Ration Number of Steers Adjusted mean Deviation from the Mean Citrus pulp 11 58.28 -.39 Corn feed meal 12 59.25 +.58 Ground snapped corn 12 58.48 -.19