Rye Grain In Swine Diets

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Rye Grain In Swine Diets
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Myer, Robert O.
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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"First printed April 1985. Reviewed May 1997. Revised and formatted for the World Wide Web April 2000."

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AS36 Rye Grain in Swine Diets 1 R.O. Myer2 1. This document is AS36, one of a series of the Department of Animal Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed April 1985. Reviewed May 1997. Revised and formatted for the World Wide Web April 2000. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. R.O. Myer, professor of Animal Science, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna; Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. Rye is not as palatable to swine as other grains and seems to have a growth-depressing effect when fed at high levels. For best results, rye should be mixed with other grains and should not compose more than 25% of the diet. Still, rye is considerably higher in both protein and lysine than corn, which can result in some savings of protein supplement. Table 1 shows example diets formulated with rye. Table 2 compares nutrient composition of rye and corn. Rye should be ground for use in swine diets. A medium to coarse grind is preferred. Research conducted at the University of Florida indicates that rye ('Wesser') grown in the Southeast has about 90% of the enegy content of corn for growing-finishing swine fed from 50 lb to market weight. Interestingly, this research found that growing-finishing swine that were fed diets containing rye demonstrated better response to dietary antibiotic supplementation than pigs fed corn-based diets. Producers who wish to feed rye at high dietary levels (>25%) might consider the inclusion of an antibiotic premix in the diet. Rye is highly susceptible to contamination by a fungus called ergot. Ergot can reduce feed consumption and cause reproductive problems in sows. Ergot infestation is not usually a problem in the Southeast because it primarily affects rye grown in cool, wet regions.


Rye Grain in Swine Diets 2 Table 1. Example swine diets using rye.a Grower (50 to 120 lb) Finisher (120 lb to Market) Ingredient, lb/ton Ground corn or grain sorghum 1100 1255 Ground rye 500 500 Soybean meal (44%)b 350 200 Base mixc: Dicalcium phosphated 22.5 15 Ground limestone 17.5 20 Salt 5 5 Vitamin-trace mineral premixe 5 5 Total 2000 2000 Calculated composition (as-fed basis): Crude protein, % 15.6 13.0 Lysine, % .77 .57 Calcium, % .65 .60 Phosphorus, % .55 .45 Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb 1415 30 aNote: When using a commercially available complete protein-vitamin-mineral supplement, assume rye to be equal to corn in protein (or lysine) content; decreasing the amount of complete supplement to take advantage of the higher lysine or protein content of rye would reduce the essential minerals and vitamins that these supplements provide in the diet. bCan replace 10 lb of 44% soybean meal with 9 lb of 48% soybean meal and 1 lb of grain. cA complete mineral-vitamin premix or a complete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix can be substituted for the suggested base mix. Follow manufacturer's guidelines. dDefluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate, if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate. However, if a substitution is made the diets need to be reformulated, since these products contain calcium and phoshorus levels different than dicalcium phosphate. eAmounts shown are typical for many commercial products. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines. Table 2. Comparative nutrient composition of rye and corn (as-fed basis). Nutrient Rye Corn Crude protein, % 11.88.3 Lysine, % .38.26 Crude fiber, % 2.82.5 Calcium, % .06.03 Phosphorus, % .33.28 Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb13901550