Author''s Guide To Electronic Publishing

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Title:
Author''s Guide To Electronic Publishing
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Fact sheet
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Cilley, Mary L.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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"Publication date: June 1994."
General Note:
"Circular 1103"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Circular1103 June1994Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing1 MaryL.Cilley,DennisG.Watson,HowardW.Beck,PierceH.Jones,andJeffreyS.Nelson2CONTENTS Abstract ............................... 1 NewDirectionsinPublishing ................ 1 TheFAIRSCD-ROMSeries ................. 2 DesigningInformationforElectronicDistribution. 3 HeadingsGuidetheWay .................. 5 TheRoleofTagsinElectronicPublishing ...... 6 PreparingtheMasterDocumentFilewithFAST-WP 7 AddingTables .......................... 7 AddingGraphics ........................ 8 TransmittingDocumentsforCD-ROM ......... 8 FurtherInformationonDocumentPreparation... 9ABSTRACTThisdocumentfirstprovidesanoverviewof electronicpublishingwithinIFASasimplementedby theFAIRSCD-ROMseries.(FAIRSistheFlorida AgriculturalInformationRetrievalSystem,and CDROMstandsforcompactdisc,read-only memory.)Thepublicationthenaddressesissuesof informationdesignthatauthorsencounterwhen writingformultipledeliverymodes,bothhardcopy (printedpages)andsoftcopy(videodisplayfroma computermonitor).Inaddition,thiscircularexplains theimportanceofgenericmarkupcodesandgives basicguidelinesforpreparingandsubmitting electronicdocuments.NEWDIRECTIONSINPUBLISHINGComputer-basedsystemsaremakingitpossibleto distributeinformationwithpowerfulanddiversenew techniques.Inthepast,theExtensionServicerelied predominantlyonprintedpublicationsfordeliveryof educationalinformation.Currently,theFlorida CooperativeExtensionServiceisplacingemphasison publishingelectronically,whichofferspotentialcost savingsaswellasotheradvantagesininformation delivery.ElectronicPublishingSystemsElectronicpublishingsystemsusecomputersto disseminateinformationinadigitalformat.The informationmaybesavedonfloppydisk,harddisk, CD-ROM,orothermedia.Thearchivedinformation canthenbetranslatedintoformssuitableforoutput todifferentdevices,suchasthecomputermonitor,a laserprinter,ortypesettingequipment. Electronicpublishingallowsmoreefficient distributionofinformation.Insteadofprintinghard copyatonelocationandshippingprinteddocuments toanotherlocation,pagescanbeprintedatthepoint 1.ThisdocumentisCircular1103,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida. Publicationdate:June1994. 2.MaryL.Cilley,associateprofessor,AgriculturalEducationandCommunicationDepartment;DennisG.Watson,associateprofessor, AgriculturalEngineeringDepartment;HowardW.Beck,assistantprofessor,AgriculturalEngineeringDepartment;PierceH.Jones,associate professor,AgriculturalEngineeringDepartment;JeffreyS.Nelson,coordinatorofcomputerapplications,AgriculturalEngineeringDepartment; CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. Theuseoftradenamesinthispublicationissolelyforthepurposeofprovidingspecificinformation.Itisnotaguaranteeorwarrantyofthe productsnamed,anddoesnotsignifythattheyareapprovedtotheexclusionofothersofsuitablecomposition. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,Dean

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page2ofdemand.Also,thenumberofcopiesprintedcan betailoredtoimmediateneeds,becauseitiseasyto printadditionalcopiesasneeded. Onceadocumenthasbeenkeyedintoaword processor,updatingofinformationcanbeperformed fasterandlessexpensivelythanwouldbethecaseif theentiredocumenthadtoberekeyed.Amass storagedevicesuchasCD-ROMcanprovidea convenientarchiveofthelatestversionofdocuments, andauthorscanretrievedocumentsfromthisarchive forupdating.TheIFASPublishingSystemIntheIFASelectronicpublishingsystem, Figure1. Thewatertowerconceptofelectronicinformationdistribution.documentsaresubmittedasenhancedWordPerfect files,fromwhichversionsofthedocumentcanbe generatedasneededfordeliverythroughdifferent media.Electronicinformationisstoredinanarchive thathasbecomemetaphoricallyknowninIFASasthe ``water-tower.''Informationdeliverycanbemade throughdifferent``pipelines''ormedia(Figure1). Themediacurrentlybeingusedaretraditionalprint publications;theFAIRSCD-ROMseries;andon-line electronictextfilesavailablefromtheIFASVAX network.Textfilesmayalsobemadeavailable throughInternet. TheCD-ROM,designedforuseonstand-alone personalcomputers,itselfoffersmultipledelivery modes.First,fromtheFAIRSCD-ROM,userscan readtextfilesandviewgraphics,includingnearphotographic-qualitycolorimages,displayedonthe computermonitor.Second,copiesofcomplete documentsorexcerptscanbeprintedonaHewlett PackardLaserJetII-compatibleprinter.Third, WordPerfectfilesofdocumentscanberetrievedfor furtheruse.CountyExtensionagentscanusepartsof documentsinlocalnewslettersandcanassemble groupsofdocumentsintohandoutsforworkshops. Also,ashasbeennoted,authorscanusethearchived filesasthebasisforreviseddocuments. Whileelectronicdeliverysystemsoffersome powerfulnewpossibilities,thereisalsoapotential drawback:specialistscanfindthemselvespreparing iterationsofthesamebasicworkforavarietyof outlets.Acorollaryproblemistheupdatingof materials.Whenthesameorsimilarinformationis locatedinavarietyofformats,itbecomesdifficultto keepallversionscurrent. Tohelpsolvetheseproblems,theFAIRS researchanddevelopmentteamshavedesigneda systemthatallowsasingleversionofadocumentto serveasinputintoallsubsequentdeliveryforms.In ordertostreamlinetheelectronicpublishingsystem asmuchaspossible,allelectronicdocumentsentering thesystemneedtobepreparedtocertainstandards. Iftheinformationiscorrectlypreparedattheoutset, theconversionprocessescanbeautomated,allowing theauthortoobtainmultipleformsofapublication withlittleadditionaleffort.THEFAIRSCD-ROMSERIESWithinthepastfewyears, CDROMpublishingwithinIFAS hasgrownfromafaculty-initiated researchefforttoaninstitutionalized processforinformation dissemination.TheIFASCD-ROM seriesbeganinthelate1980sasa researcheffortintheAgricultural EngineeringDepartment,wherean ad-hocCD-ROMImplementation Teambegandevelopinga comprehensivesystemofprocessing documentsandotherdatabasesfor electronicdelivery.Whena prototypediskwasproducedfor evaluation,countyExtensionagents askedforpublicationstobemade availableonCD-ROM.Once

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page3printedpublicationsbecameapriorityforCD-ROM delivery,amemberoftheformerEditorial Departmentjoinedtheresearcheffort.In1990the CD-ROMprojectwasmergedwithFAIRS,whichhad untilthenhadfocusedondeliveryofelectronic informationovertheIFAScomputernetwork,andin 1992anadministrativedecisionwasmadetoplaceall newExtensionpublicationsonCD-ROM.Production ofdiscsiscurrentlybeingmanagedbyFAIRSwith thecooperationofpublicationproductionspecialists inIFASEducationalMediaandServicesinpreparing electronicfiles.Researchanddevelopmentteams composedoffacultyandstaffoftheAgricultural EngineeringDepartmentandtheAgricultural EducationandCommunicationDepartmentare concurrentlyworkingtoenhancetheinfrastructurefor informationdisseminationbyCD-ROM.AdvantagesofCD-ROMACD-ROMisaneasilyportablestoragedevice forlargequantitiesofelectronicinformation.A majoradvantageofCD-ROMsistheirlargestorage capacitymorethan600megabytesofinformation perdisc.Storedinformationcanbedeliveredastext, graphics,andsound,providinganelectroniclibraryof multi-mediainformation. ThetechnologyusedforcreatingaCD-ROMis thesameasthatusedformakinganaudiocompact disc.Bothstoredigitizedinformationonthedisc surfaceasmicroscopicpits.Theinformationisthen detectedbyalaserlightinaspecializedCD-ROM player.ACD-ROMdiffersfromanaudioCDinthat itcontainsinformationtobeaccessedonapersonal computerequippedwithaCD-ROMdrive.Sincethe CD-ROMisreadbyacomputer,thepowerofthe computercanbeappliedtolocateinformationonthe disc. Theuseofopticaltechnologydistinguishes CDROMsfromfloppydisksorharddisks,whichuse magneticsignalstostoreinformation.Theoptical technologyaffordsseveraladvantages,inadditionto thehigh-densitystoragecapability.ACD-ROMhas generallyhasalowerrateofbiterrorthanamagnetic disk,andaCD-ROMislessfragile.CD-ROMsare notcorruptedbymagneticfields,andtheirsurfaces arenotvulnerabletobeingscratchedbyareadhead inthecomputer. Afinaldifferencebetweenamagneticdiskanda CD-ROMisthataCD-ROMis``read-only.''Thatis, usersdonotwriterevisedinformationbacktothe disc.WhilethisisalimitingfactoroftheCD-ROM mediumforsomeuses,itcanbeanadvantagefor informationdelivery.TheinformationonaCDROMisstoredinastableform,protectedfrom overwritingandfilecorruption.ALibraryontheDesktopTheFAIRSCD-ROMseriesprovides microcomputeruserswithdirectaccesstolargeand diversedatabasesdevelopedbyIFAS,puttingavirtual electroniclibraryontheuser'sdesktop.Eachnew discintheseriesprovidesamorecomprehensive archiveofIFASpublicationsandrelatedinformation. WiththereleaseofDisc8,theFAIRSCD-ROM seriesdeliversmorethan2400Extensionpublications inadditiontoagriculturalbuildingplans,adirectory ofExtensionservicesandresources,andseveral interactiveprograms.TheCitrusSelectorprovides informationforcommercialgrowers,whilethePlant SelectorandLandscapeSelectorprogramsareuseful tohomeowners,nurseries,andlandscaping companies.ArecentadditiontotheCD-ROMseries isRediscoverVegetables,amulti-mediapresentation ofthehistoryofvegetablesintheNewWorld. Theinformationretrievalsoftwaresuppliedwith theFAIRSCD-ROMprovidesdifferentwaysto locateinformation.Theusercansearchtextfor specificwords,browsethroughmenus,andusespecial connectorscalledhyperlinkstoaccessrelated information.Effectiveaidstoinformationretrieval becomeincreasinglyimportantasthesizeofthe electroniclibrarygrows.DESIGNINGINFORMATIONFOR ELECTRONICDISTRIBUTIONElectronicpublishingbringsnewconsiderationsto documentpreparation.Authorsneedtothinknot justintermsofaprintedpagebutalsointermsof on-screenpresentationofinformation.Thissection exploressomeofthedifferencesbetweentraditional printeddocumentsandelectronicdocuments.PreparingforMultipleDisplayFormatsThelaser-printedpageandthecomputerscreen arethemajorinformationdeliverymodesavailable fromCD-ROM.Anobviousdifferencebetweenthe twoistheaspectratio(height-to-width)ofthedisplay area.Authorsneedtoconsiderthelimitsofboth mediawhendesigninginformation.

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page4PrintedPagesDocumentscanbeprintedondemandfromthe FAIRSCD-ROMstoaHewlettPackardLaserJetIIcompatibleprinter,usingstandard8tx11inch paper.Textisprintedinatwo-columnformat,the sameformatusedfortraditionalprinteddocuments producedbyIFAS.Laser-printedpagesformattedfor CD-ROMcanbeusedalsoascamera-readymaster copyforduplication.VideoDisplayInpreparingaFAIRSCD-ROM,acopyofeach documentisreformattedfordisplayonacomputer screen.Textandtablesappearonthecomputer screeninboxescalledwindows,whichtypicallydisplay afewparagraphsoftextatatime.Althoughsections oftextcanbescrolledverticallythroughthewindow, scrollingthroughlongsectionsisinconvenientfor users.Therefore,documentsarebrokenintotopical segmentsforon-screenviewingfromtheCD-ROM. FirstLooks. Theinitialwindowfordisplayinga CD-ROMdocumentcontainsthedocumenttitle, authors'names,andtheintroductorytext,followedby alistoftop-levelheadingsfortheremainderofthe document.Thefirstparagraph(s)ofthedocument willgivethecomputeruserafirstlookatthe document,andtheseparagraphsshouldprovidean informativeoverviewofthedocument.Thissection shouldfunctionasanabstract,introduction,or summarythathelpsusersdecidewhethertheywantto readfurtherinthedocument.Thelistofheadings providesaccesstoothersectionsofthedocument,as eachsectiontitleisahyperlinkthatmakesthe contentsofthatsectionavailable.BuildingInformationNetworksElectroniclibrariesofferanunprecedented capabilityforconnectingandintegratingknowledge. Inahypermediadatabase,suchasisusedonthe FAIRSCD-ROM,informationisorganizedasa networkofnodesandlinks.Eachdocumentonthe CD-ROMcanbecomepartofavastwebof information.Linkscanbeusedtomakeconnections notonlywithotherpartsofthesamedocumentbut alsowithotherdatabasesthatareavailableonthe CD-ROM,suchasagalleryofdigitizedcolor photographs.Tobuildappropriatelinksbetween nodes,authorsneedtoflagpotentialconnectionsto relatedinformation,bothwithintheirowndocuments andtodocumentsfromotherauthors.Thisisdone bymarking``hyperlinks''phrasestobehighlightedon thecomputerscreentoformlinkstoother information.ProvidingInformationModules: NodesintheHypermediaNetworkWithhypertextretrievalsystems,traditional rhetoricalconventionsaboutlinearorderingoftext becomelessimportant.Whenuserssearchdocument databasesforon-screendeliveryofinformation,they typicallyareseekinginformationthatwillanswera specificquestion.Accordingly,theywanttogo directlytothepartofadocumentthatseemsmost likelytoanswertheirquestion.WhatWilliamK. Hortonhaswrittenaboutonlinehelpistrueofother documentsalso: Traditionalrhetoricdecreesthataworkhave abeginning,middle,andend.Butanonline...documentcanhavemanybeginnings, anditendsassoonastheuserissatisfiedor givesup(DesigningandWritingOnline Documentation,JohnWileyandSons,New York,1990,p.216). Thisinformation-seekingstrategyposesnew challengesforthedesignofinformationdeliveredin electronicformats.Authorsneedtoconsiderusers whoare``readingtodo''(lookingforjustenough informationtosuccessfullycompleteatask)aswellas thosewhoare``readingtolearn''(seekingtobroaden theirknowledgeinamoregeneralway).When informationisprovidedinmodulesshortsegments ofself-containedinformationwithappropriate headingsusershavethebestchanceoffindingwhat theywantbeforetheygiveupintheirsearchfor information.ApplyingModularThinking toEntireDocumentsInformationmodulescomeinvarioussizes:for example,sentences,paragraphs,topicalsectionsof documents,andentiredocuments.Justaslengthy sectionsofdocumentscanbebrokenupinto subsectionsforeasierlocationoftopics,solong documentscanoftenbedividedintosmallermodules. Longbulletinsandmanualscanbedividedinto chaptersorbrokenupintoaseriesoffactsheetsfor electronicdeliveryandprintingondemand. Conversely,asetoffactsheetsorothermaterialson asubjectcanbegroupedtogethertoforman electronichandbooktofacilitateinformationretrieval.

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page5Shortdocumentsarebettersuitedtotheprint-ondemandoptionofferedbytheFAIRSCD-ROMs thanarelongdocuments.WithFAIRSDisc8,when theprintoptionischosen,acompletedocumentis printedonalaserprinter.Theprintcommandona FAIRSCD-ROMcopiesabinaryprinterfileofthe documenttotheprinter,sothattheentiredocument isprinted,notjusttheportionvisibleonthescreen. Countyagentsareaskingfortheabilitytoprintjust apertinentsegmentofinformationratherthanhaving toprintentiredocuments.Thiscapabilitywillbe availableonfuturediscs,butthefactthatsucha requestwasmadehighlightsthedesirabilityof keepingdocumentsbriefandfocusedonrelatively narrowsubjects.Manyuserswantinformationthatis conciseandtothepoint,andofcourseprintingcosts arelowerwhenonlytheneededpagesareprinted.AvoidingSpatialReferencesSpatially-orientedreferences(suchas``asshown below''or``asexplainedpreviously'')havelittle meaningtoareaderwhoisnotfollowingastrict linearorderfortext.Thesolutionistoreplace spatially-orientedphraseswithreferencestospecific subsectionsofthedocument,whichwillmakesense inhypertext. Forexample,insteadofwriting : Reviewtheheadingsinaccordancewiththe guidelinesgivenabove. write: Reviewtheheadingsinaccordancewiththe guidelinesgiveninthesection,``The ImportanceofGoodOutlining.'' Thereferencetothesectiontitlewillthenbeusedas ahypertextlink.ProvidingDefinitionsInprintdocuments,anabbreviationoratechnical termmaybeexplainedthefirsttimeitisused.With electronicdelivery,therecanbenoassumptionthat thereaderhasalreadyseenthedefinitionfora particularterm.Therefore,definitionsneedtobe availableeverytimeatermrequiringexplanationis used.Thiscanbedonebycreatinghypertextlinksfor abbreviations,wordsdefinedinaglossary,andother termsrequiringexpansion.Definitionsorother informationneededtomakethesegmentof informationcompletecanthenappearinpop-up windowsintheon-screenversionofthedocument.UsingaStandardVocabularyUseofastandardizedvocabularybothinheadings andinthetextmayfacilitateelectronicinformation retrieval,inthatuserswillbeabletoconductafulltextsearchwithfewerentries.Standardterminology alsobenefitstranslatorsandreaderswhosefirst languageisnotEnglish,andwhomaythinkthata synonymsignalsavarianceinmeaning.Thereisno needtocollapseallreferencestoasubjecttoasingle term;forexample,thereisnoneedtoreplaceall referencesto``lawns''withreferencesto``turfgrasses.'' However,donotseeksynonymstousejusttoavoid repeatingcommonterminology.Themostcommon termistheonethatinformationseekersaremost likelytouseinasearchprocedure.HEADINGSGUIDETHEWAYTheheadingsinadocumentarelikeroadsigns, guidingreadersthroughinformation,callingattention topointsofinterest,andingeneral,helpingreaders getwheretheywanttogo.Threestrategieswillhelp youwriteeffectiveheadlines: 1.Useinformativewording; 2.Provideenoughheadingstokeepthereader oriented;and 3.Observetherulesforheadingsgiveninthis publication.UseInformativeWordingDocumentheadingsthatarestraightforwardand informativewillfacilitatecomputerizedinformation retrieval.Thebestheadingscontainkeywords pertainingtothesectionthatfollows.Headingsthat containkeywordswillbeespeciallyimportantif computerizedsearchesprioritizetargetedwordswhen foundintitlesoverthesamewordsfoundinthetext ofadocument. Wishingtoaddhumaninteresttodocuments, authorsaresometimestemptedtousehumorous phrasesindocumenttitlesandsectionheadings. Unfortunately,computersearchescannotinterpret punsandotherhumorousreferencesinahelpfulway. Authorsshouldthereforerefrainfromattemptsat cutenessanduseofcrypticphrasesintendedtopique thereader'scuriosity.Headingsshouldprovide information,notraisequestions.Humaninterestcan

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page6beaddedtoheadingsbyusingverbphrasesrather Incorrect Correct Correct FleasinFlorida FleasinFlorida FleasinFlorida 1.Introduction 1.Introduction 1.Introduction 2.BiologyofthePest 2.BiologyofthePest 2.BiologyofthePest 3.ControlMethods 3.ControlwithPesticides 3.ControlMethods a.Pesticides 4.Conclusions a.Pesticides 4.Conclusions b.Othermethods 4.ConclusionsFigure2. Incorrectandcorrectwaystostructurethehierarchyofheadings.thannounlabels.ProvideEnoughHeadsForvideodisplay,itisimportanttoprovide enoughheadstoidentifytopicchanges.Thevideo displayholdsmuchlesstextthanprintedpage,and readersneedfrequentheadingstoenablethemto maintainasenseoforientationinthestreamof information.Whenadocumentisconstructedasa seriesofrelativelyshortsectionswithfrequent headings,readerscanmoveeasilyfromonetopicto another. TheinitialwindowfordisplayingaCD-ROM documentwillcontainthetitle,authors'names,and abstractorintroductorytext,followedbyalistoftoplevelheadings.Thelistofheadingsservesasanonscreentableofcontentsforthedocument,andit needstobecomprehensiveenoughtoguidethe readertoappropriatesectionsofthedocument. Authorsshouldalsokeepinmindthatheadings determinewheretextwillbedividedintosectionsfor on-screendisplay.Segmentingofdocumentsis performedbysoftwarethatstartsanewtextsegment witheachnewheadinginadocument.Intheonscreendisplay,anewwindowwillbeopenedto displaythepertinentsegmentaseachnewheading levelisselected.ObservetheRulesThefollowingrulesgoverntheconstructionof headingsinIFASdocuments. Rule1:Thereshouldbeaheadingatthebeginning ofthetext,followingtheauthors'names. Theinitialtext shouldbeanintroductionorabstract,andshouldbe labeledassuch.(Thetitle``Introduction''willbe omittedfromtheon-screendisplay,butwillappearin theprint-on-demanddocument.) Rule2:Textshouldimmediatelyfolloweachheading. Ifoneheadingappearsdirectlybeneathanother,a shortparagraphshouldbewrittentofollowthefirst heading.Atwo-sentenceoverviewofthesectionwill suffice.Ifaheadingisfollowedbyalistwithno interveningtext,theauthorshouldeitheradda sentenceintroducingthelist,orshouldconvertboth headingandlistintoachart(atypeoffigurecreated withtext)oratable. Rule3:Wheneverasectionisdividedinto subsections,atleasttwosubheadingsofthesamelevel shouldbeused. Therearetwowaystorepaira constructionthatviolatesthisrule. Eliminateaheadincorporatealonesubhead intothehigherlevelheading. Addaheadbreakthesectionintomore subsectionsandaddatleastoneadditional subhead. Figure2showsanexampleofanincorrecthierarchy fordocumentheadingswiththesolutions implemented. NOTE: Paragraphheadscanbeexemptedfrom Rule3.Paragraphheads,whichputaboldlabelon textatthebeginningofaparagraph,canbeused withoutregardforparallelconstruction.THEROLEOFTAGSIN ELECTRONICPUBLISHINGWhentextispreparedformodernpublishing systems,codesforformattingthetextareinserted intoanelectronictextfile.Codesareused,for example,tosignalspecificfontchangesandtoenter

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page7commandssuchas``centeraline''or``justifyleft.'' Differentsetsofcodesareneededfordifferentkinds ofoutputdevices,suchasdesktoplaserprintersor commercialtypesettingsystems. Acommonprobleminelectronicpublishingis thatformattingcodesmaybemeaningfulonlyto certainhardwareandsoftwaresystems.Suchcodes becomeobsoletewhenofficesupgradesoftware and/orhardware,andthecodesmaybeuselesswhen documentfilesaresharedwithotheragenciesusing differentequipment.Ontheotherhand,ifgeneric codesareused,electronicpublishingsoftwarecan translatethesecodesintoavarietyofsystem-specific codes.Genericcodesarethereforebecoming prevalentinelectronicpublishingsystemstofacilitate publishingacrossdifferentplatforms. Manygovernmentagenciesandprivatecompanies haveadoptedtheinternationalstandardsetby StandardGeneralizedMarkupLanguage(SGML).In anSGMLsystem,genericcodesareinsertedinto electronicdocumentfilesastagsthatis, informationaboutdocumentstructurethatis separatedfromthedocumentcontentbysomekind ofdelimiter. Tagsidentifydocumentelementsspecifiedina documenttypedefinition(DTD).TheDTD describeselementsthatmayappearinadocument (forexample,title,author'sname,publishingagency, sectiontitle,figure,table,orfootnote).TheDTD alsospecifieshowelementsmayrelatetoeachother. Forexample,aLevelTwosubheadcanbeanoptional elementunderaLevelOnesubhead,butaLevelOne subheadisnotapermissibleelementunderaLevel Twosubhead. TheIFASstandardwordprocessor,WordPerfect, doesnotyetdirectlysupportSGML.However,itis possibletousetheWordPerfectStylesfeatureto entercodesthatserveasprecursorstoSGMLtags. WordPerfectstylesserveatwofoldpurposein IFASdocumentpreparation.First,theyreferencea specificsetofWordPerfectcodesforproducingpages fromalaserprinter.Butmoreimportantly,thestyle codesidentifyelementsspecifiedintheIFASDTD. Thestylecodestherebyserveasawaytointroduce genericmarkupcodesintoadocument.The WordPerfectstylecodesareconvertedtoSGML codeswhich,inturn,areusedtoprocessthetextfor deliverytodifferentmedia(CD-ROM,typesetting equipment,orcomputernetworkssuchasprovidedby theIFASVAXandInternet).PREPARINGTHEMASTER DOCUMENTFILEWITHFAST-WPThemasterdocumentfileintheIFASsystemis aWordPerfectfilecontainingstandardizedstyle codes.Theprint-on-demanddocumentisonlyone wayinwhichtheinformationcanbedelivered.Itis notsufficient,therefore,thatthepagesconformtoa certainformatdescription.Rather,theformatmust becreatedthroughuseofpredefinedtagsthat identifydocumentelements.Thesetagsareessential forautomaticprocessinganddistributionofthe documentthroughothermedia. Toassurethatstandardizedcodesareused,and tomakeiteasytoenterthesecodes,anelectronic toolkithasbeendevelopedforuseinIFASdocument preparation.Thissetofsoftwaretoolsiscalled FAST-WP(Florida'sAuthoringSystemToolsfor WordPerfect).FAST-WPconsistsofastandardset offonts,WordPerfectstyles,macros,andacustom menutorunthemacros. FAST-WPisdistributedbytheIFASSoftware Supportoffice,(904)392-7853.Thecurrentrelease ofFAST-WPisversion3.1forusewithWordPerfect 5.1.FAST-WPdoesnotchangetheoperationof WordPerfect;itjustmakesiteasiertoaddvarious WordPerfectcodestoadocument.Withaminimum ofkeystrokes,userscanenterthecodesneededto formatpagesandtagdocumentelements.ADDINGTABLESIndesigningtables,authorsneedtoconsiderthe limitsbothofthelaser-printedpageandofthe computerscreen,thetwomajorinformationdelivery modesavailablefromCD-ROM.TheIFAS stylesheetforprintedpagesincludescertainstandards fortablesize,anddisplayoftablesonacomputer screenintroducesadditionallimitingfactors. Laser-printeddocumentsuseastandard8.5x11inchpage.Recommendedtablewidthsare3.3inches (onecolumn),4.5inches(1.3columns),or7inches (twofullcolumns).Ifnecessary,tablescanbeprinted inlandscapepageorientationwithawidthof9.5 inches.Lengthisnotalimitingfactorforprinted pages,astablescancontinueacrosspagesif necessary.

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page8WheninformationfromtheFAIRSCD-ROMsis displayedonacomputerscreen,largercharactersare used,andlessinformationcanbedisplayedatone time.Also,thewidth-to-heightratioofavideo displaywindowisdifferentfromthatoftheprinted page.Avideodisplaywindowisnotaslongasa printedpage,anditswidthislimitedtoabout75 characters.Tableslongerthanawindowcanbe scrolledverticallythroughthewindow.TheFAIRS informationretrievalsoftwarealsoprovidesa horizontalscrolloption,sothattableswiderthan75 characterscanbeviewedlikespreadsheets. Nevertheless,itisgenerallylesssatisfactorytoview partofatableinawindowthantoseesmall, completeunitsofinformation.Authorsneedto considertherelativeadvantagesanddisadvantagesof usinglargetableswiththoseofbreakingtablesinto smallerunitsofinformation. Insomecases,informationcontainedinlong tablesisbestpresentedonCD-ROMbyusinga record-orienteddatabase,suchasdBASEorParadox. Forexample,certainIFASdocumentscontainlengthy tablesofplantssuitableforparticulartemperature zones,soils,shadeconditions,andotherconditions. WiththeFAIRSCD-ROMs,suchinformationcanbe presentedmoredynamically,aswasdonewiththe PlantSelectoronFAIRSDisc4.ThePlantSelector databaseandretrievalprogramallowstheuserto conductsearchesforplantsthatmeetspecified criteria,readdescriptivetextaboutplantsmeetingthe criteria,andviewcolorphotographsoftheplants. FAIRSdatabaseexpertscanadviseonconverting otherlengthytablestointeractivedatabases.(Call 904-392-3196toarrangeaconsultation.) Tablesforelectronicpublishingmustbe structuredinWordPerfect'sColumns/Tablemode. Theprocessofconstructingtablesisexplainedinthe ExtensionCircular1069, FAST-WP:Florida's AuthoringSystemToolsforWordPerfect andCircular 1099, PreparingTablesforElectronicPublishing TablescanbecreatedeitherinWordPerfect,using FASTWPtoassurecorrecttagging,orcreatedin spreadsheetssuchasLotus1andQuattro,after whichtablescanbeimportedintotheword processingfile,againusingFAST-WP.ADDINGGRAPHICSVariouskindsofgraphicsmaybeincludedin electronicdocuments:graphsandotherdrawings producedincomputergraphicsprograms;scanned artwork;digitizedphotographs,includingcolorphotos orslides;complexequationscreatedinWordPerfect's EquationEditor;andtextchartstreatedasfigures. Detailsofpreparinggraphicsforuseinelectronic publicationsaregivenintheExtensionCircular1100, PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing .The followinginformationisanoverviewofthe requirementsforgraphics. IllustrationsinIFASdocumentsshouldconform tooneofthefollowingwidthsforfigureboxes:3.3 inches(onecolumn),4.5inches(1.3columns),or7 inches(twocolumns).Iftextlabelsaretobeusedas partofagraphicsfile,thesizeofletteringused shouldbeappropriateforthefinalsizeofthe illustration. Graphicsthatwerenotcreatedelectronicallymust bedigitized,typicallybyscanning.Handdrawingsor printedillustrationsshouldbescannedat300dpiinto thePCXfileformat.Iffiguresarescannedfrom printedpublications,permissionmustbeobtainedto usecopyrightedmaterials. BeforefiguresareimportedintoWordPerfect,it isadvisabletoconvertPCXfilestoWPGformat throughtheWordPerfectGRAPHCNVutility. ConvertinggraphicsfilestotheWPGformatreduces theirsize,whichinturnreducesdocumentsizeand alleviatesmemorymanagementproblems. NOTE: AlthoughtheWPGfiles(oracopyofthe PCXfiles)areincorporatedintoWordPerfect documents,authorsshouldreserveacopyofthePCX filesforuseinthevideoscreendisplayfrom CDROM.ThesePCXfilesareneededalongwith thewordprocessingfileforCD-ROMpublication.TRANSMITTINGDOCUMENTS FORCD-ROMExtensionServicepublicationsthatcanbeplaced onCD-ROMincludeExtensionServiceFactSheets, Bulletins,Circulars,theSPseries,andtheSSseries. ResearchBulletins,Circulars,andMonographsmay alsobepreparedforCD-ROM. Extensiondocumentsforelectronicpublication aresubmittedtotheofficeoftheappropriate programareadeanwiththeExtensiontransmittal formforplanofworkprojects(IFASForm2840). Researchdocumentsforelectronicpublicationare submittedtotheOfficeoftheDeanforResearch, usingformAES-2132.Thedeansforwardapproved

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Author'sGuidetoElectronicPublishing Page9materialstothePublicationsCoordinatorinIFAS EducationalMediaandServices. Thefollowingmaterialsshouldbesubmittedfor CD-ROMpublication:(1)ahardcopyofthe document;(2)theWordPerfectfile,formattedin accordancewiththeguidelinesprovidedinthe FASTWPuser'sguide;and(3)separateelectronic filesofanygraphicsfilesusedinthedocument(e.g., scannedartworkandequations).Graphicsfilesfor on-screendisplaymustbepreparedinaccordance withdetailedguidelinesprovidedintheExtension Circular1100, PreparingGraphicsforElectronic Publishing.Ifcolorslidesaretobedigitizedforonscreendisplay,original35-mmslides,notduplicates, shouldbeprovided.FURTHERINFORMATIONON DOCUMENTPREPARATIONThefollowingpublicationsprovidefurther informationonelectronicdocumentpreparation. Thesepublicationsgivedetailedinstructionson enteringcodesinwordprocessingfiles,preparing graphicsandtablesintherequiredformats,and updatingdocumentstyles. Cilley,MaryL.,andDennisG.Watson. FAST-WP: Florida'sAuthoringSystemToolsforWordPerfect Circular1069,FloridaCooperativeExtension Service,InstituteofFoodandAgricultural Sciences(IFAS),UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville,Florida.Revisededition:inpress. Cilley,MaryL.,DennisG.Watson,andDuaneD. Bray. PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing. Circular1100,FloridaCooperativeExtension Service,IFAS,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville, Florida.April1994. Cilley,MaryL.,andDennisG.Watson. Preparing TablesforElectronicPublishing .Circular1099, FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,IFAS, UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida.In press. Cilley,MaryL.,andDennisG.Watson. Updating ElectronicDocumentswithFAST-WP.Circular 1101,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService, IFAS,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida. April1994.