Preparing Graphics For Electronic Publishing

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Title:
Preparing Graphics For Electronic Publishing
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Cill
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Notes

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Publication date: March 1994."
General Note:
"Circular 1100"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004502:00001


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Circular1100 March1994PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing1 MaryL.Cilley,DennisG.Watson,andDuaneD.Bray2ThispublicationexplainstheprotocolsforpreparinggraphicsforelectronicpublishinginIFAS.Types ofgraphicsthatcanbeusedinelectronicdocuments includedigitizedphotographs,scannedartwork, equationsproducedinWordPerfect'sEquation Editor,graphsandotherdrawingsproducedin computergraphicsprograms,andtextchartsthatare treatedasfigures.Allgraphicsmustbeindigitized formtobeusedinelectronicdocuments.Therefore, graphicseithermustbecreatedelectronicallyormust beconvertedtoelectronicversionsbyscanning. Authorswhosedepartmentshavetheequipmentand personneltopreparedigitizedgraphicsfilesmaywish tohandlepreparationofelectronicgraphicfiles withintheirdepartment.Authorswhodonothave directaccesstoneededhardwareandsoftwarecan getassistancefromtheFAIRSofficeorfromIFAS EducationalMediaandServices.SIZESOFGRAPHICSUSEDElectronicdocumentsforpublicationinIFAS needtobepreparedinWordPerfect,usingtheadd-on electronictoolkitFAST-WP(Florida'sAuthoring SystemToolsforWordPerfect).Toimportagraphics fileintothedocument,firstaWordPerfectfigurebox iscreated,usingtheFAST-WPmenu,thenthe graphicsfileisretrievedintothefigurebox.The FAST-WPmenuallowsboxestobecreatedinthree widths:onecolumnwide(3.3 ),1.3columnswide (4.5),ortwocolumnswide(7 ).Illustrationsshould beplannedtofitoneofthesestandardwidths.Iftext labelsaretobeusedaspartofagraphicsfile,the sizeofletteringusedshouldbeappropriateforthe finalsizeoftheillustration.GRAPHICFILEFORMATSDocumentsontheCD-ROMcanbedisplayedonscreenandalsoprintedtoaLaserJetIIorcompatible printer.Thesetwodeliverymodesusedifferent resolutionsforgraphics.Therefore,whenadocument usesgraphics,twosetsofgraphicsfilesareneeded, oneforincorporationintotheWordPerfectdocument andoneforon-screendisplay.TheWPGgraphics format(*.WPG)isrecommendedforfilesimported intotheWordPerfectdocument.ThePCXformat (*.PCX)isrequiredforfilestobedisplayedonthe monitor.PHOTOGRAPHSTheFAIRSCD-ROMsprovidehighquality reproductionofcolorslidesandphotographsonthe videodisplayscreen.Atpresent,colorphotographs arelimitedtoon-screendisplay,andthese illustrationsarenotincludedindocumentsprinted fromtheCD-ROMtoalaserprinter.Blackand whitephotographscanbedigitizedforprintingona laserprinter,buttheresultsmaynotbesatisfactory. 1.ThisdocumentisCircular1100,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida. Publicationdate:March1994. 2.MaryL.Cilley,associateprofessor,AgriculturalEducationandCommunicationDepartment;DennisG.Watson,associateprofessor, AgriculturalEngineeringDepartment;DuaneD.Bray,graduateassistant,FAIRS,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodand AgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. Theuseoftradenamesinthispublicationissolelyforthepurposeofprovidingspecificinformation.Itisnotaguaranteeorwarrantyofthe productsnamed,anddoesnotsignifythattheyareapprovedtotheexclusionofothersofsuitablecomposition. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,Dean

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PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing Page2ColorPhotographsColorslides,colorphotographs,andprintedcolor illustrationscanbedigitizedintheFAIRSofficefor useontheFAIRSCD-ROM.Thedigitizedcolor illustrationswillbeavailablefordisplayona computermonitorbutwillnotappearonthepages producedonalaserprinter.(Aslaserprinterswith colorprintingcapabilitycomeintomorecommonuse, itmaybefeasibletoprintthecolorillustrations.) If35-mmslidesaresubmitted,theoriginalslide notaduplicate,isneededforscanning.Colorphotographscanalsobescanned.Printedcolorillustrations,suchasthosefoundinmagazines,canbe scannedbyFAIRSpersonnel,andresultingmoire patternscanberemoved.However,ifillustrations aretakenfrompreviouslyprintedsources,theauthor shouldobtainpermissiontousecopyrightedmaterial.BlackandWhitePhotographsBlackandwhitephotographscanbescannedfor inclusioninelectronicdocuments.Theseillustrations willdisplaysatisfactorilyonthecomputerscreen.For printreproduction,however,scannedphotographsdo notreproducewellwithcurrentlaserprintingtechnology.Itmaybepreferabletosubstitutelinedrawingsforphotographsinthewordprocessingfile. Forblackandwhitephotostobescanned,itis besttostartwithphotographsthatwereshotwith blackandwhitefilm.Blackandwhiteprintsmade fromcolornegativesorcolorslidestendtolosethe middletonesofgray.GRAPHSANDCHARTSGraphsarepreferabletotableswhentheemphasisisnotsomuchonindividualdataentriesasonthe interpretationofthedata.Graphshelptoshow trendsandcomparisonsataglance.Computer-GeneratedGraphicsComputer-generatedgraphsproducedinother computerprogramscanoftenbeimportedintoWordPerfectdocumentfiles.Forexample,graphsproducedinHarvardGraphics,Lotus1-2-3,andLotus FreelancePluscanbeimportedintoWordPerfect,as cangraphicsinComputerGraphicsMetafileformat (*.CGM).TheWordPerfectGraphicsConversion Program(autilityprogramthatcomeswithWordPerfect)canbeusedtoconvertfilesfromcertainformats suchasAutoCADDXFtoaformatcompatiblewith WordPerfect. TheWordPerfectGRAButilitycanbeusedwith somegraphicsprogramstocaptureanimagefromthe screen.Forexample,graphicscreatedinMicrosoft ExcelandQuattrocanbecapturedinWPGformatby GRAB. TheWordPerfectmanuallistsgraphicsformats thataresupportedbyWordPerfect,formatsthat requireconversion,andformatsthatcanbeusedwith theGRAButility.Hand-drawnGraphsGraphswhicharenotinelectronicform,suchas graphsdrawnforphotographicreproduction,needto bescanned.(Seethefollowingsectionofthis documentonScannedArtwork.)TextChartsCreatedinWordPerfectChartsareappropriatelytreatedasfiguresina WordPerfectdocument.Textcanbeenteredwithin aWordPerfectfigureboxtocreateachart.An alternativeistocreatethechartasaseparateWordPerfectdocument,thenimportthedocumentfileinto afigurebox.SCANNEDARTWORKLinedrawingsandsimilarartworkcreatedfor photographicreproductionneedtobescannedto convertthedrawingtoelectronicformat.Drawings shouldbescannedat300dpiintothePCXfile format.Ifasizeissetforsavingthefile,itshouldbe approximatelythefinalsizeofthefigureasitwillbe usedinthelaser-printeddocument.Standardwidths areonecolumn(3.3 ),1.3columns(4.5 ),ortwo columns(7)wide,withalimitonlengthof9.5 .(If precisemeasurementsareneeded,thewidthsinside thesegraphicsboxestohundredthsofaninchare 3.31,4.48,and6.98,assumingnoinsideborder spaceisused.)Scannedartworkshouldbeclosely cropped,andbordersthatarenotanintrinsicpartof thefigureshouldbeomitted. BeforethefigureisimportedintoWordPerfect, itisrecommendedthatthePCXfilebeconvertedto WPGformatbyuseoftheWordPerfect GRAPHCNVutility.Convertinggraphicsfilestothe WPGformatreducesthesizeofgraphicsfiles,which willreducethesizeofdocumentsandalleviate

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PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing Page3memorymanagementproblems.Incorporatethe WPGorPCXfileintotheWordPerfectdocument, but reserveacopyofthePCXfile tosubmitasa separatefileforuseintheon-screenversionofthe document. Iftexthasbeenusedonartworkthatisscanned, itmaybeadvisabletouseagraphicsprogramsuchas Publisher'sPaintbrushtoerasethescannedtextand re-entertextinthefile.Asans-seriffontsuchas Helveticaisrecommended.COMPLEXEQUATIONSComplexequationsshouldbecreatedasagraphicscomponentofadocumentbyusingtheWordPerfectEquationEditor.Whenequationsarecreatedin theEquationEditor,theyareembeddedinthe documentfileandwillappearinthedocumentwhen ahardcopyofthefileisprinted.Foron-screen displayofdocumentsegmentsfromCD-ROM,a separatefileoftheequationneedstobesaved.The equationneedstobecreatedonlyonce;however,it needstobesavedasaseparategraphicsfilebyuseof theWordPerfectGRAButilityoranotherscreen captureprogram.Theresultinggraphicsfileswillbe usedforon-screendisplayofequations.USINGGRAPHCNVTOCONVERTFILES TOWPGFORMATTheWordPerfectgraphicsconversionprogram, GRAPHCNV,canbeusedtoconvertgraphicsfiles fromanumberofunsupportedformatstoasupportedformat.EvenifthenativeformatofagraphicsfileissupportedbyWordPerfect,asisthecase withPCX,HPGL,andTIFFfiles,itisrecommended thatthefilebeconvertedtotheWPGformatinorder tomakethefilesizesmaller.Reducingthefilesize willalleviatememorymanagementproblemswhen workingwithlongdocumentsandwillsavespaceon theCD-ROM.Toconvertfilesfromotherformats (PCX,HPGL,TIFF,etc.)toWPGformat,useWordPerfect'sGraphicsConversionprogram,GRAPHCNV.EXE. TheGraphicsConversionprogram,GRAPHCNV, ispartoftheWordPerfectutilities.Ifyouhavenot installedtheutilityprogramsincludedwithWordPerfect,youneedtodosobeforeyoucanusethe GraphicsConversionprogram. TheconversionprogramrunsoutsideofWordPerfect.TouseGRAPHCNV,enterthecommand graphcnv fromaDOSprompt.IfthePATH statementinyourAUTOEXEC.BATfiledoesnot includetheWordPerfectdirectory,youneedto changetothedirectorywheretheWordPerfectutility programsareinstalledbeforeyouenterthenameof theprogram.Forexample,ifWordPerfectisinstalled inadirectoryWP51ondriveC:,thecommands wouldlooklikethis: C:> cdwp51 C:\WP51> graphcnv Theprogramwillpromptforthenameofthefile tobeconverted.Enterthefullpathname.Thenthe programwillsuggestafilenamefortheoutputfile. Youcanacceptoreditthisentry.Whentheconversioniscomplete,anOKmessagewilldisplay. Youneedtoenterthecommand graphcnv each timeyoumakeaconversion.WhenGRAPHCNVis running,youcanconvertmultiplefilesatonetimeif yourfilenamesaresuchthatyoucanuseawildcard. Forexample,youcouldconvertaseriesoffiles namedGRAPH1.PCX,GRAPH2.PCX,etc.,byentering graph*.pcx or graph?.pcx astheinputfilename. (Theasteriskreplacesmultiplecharacters;the questionmarkreplacesasinglecharacter.Usethe asteriskifthenumbersrunintotwodigits.)USINGGRABGRABisWordPerfect'sscreencaptureprogram. TheprogramGRAB.COMispartoftheWordPerfect utilities.IfyouhavenotinstalledtheWordPerfect utilityprograms,youneedtodosobeforeyoucan useGRAB. TheGRAButilitycanbeusedwithvarious graphicsprogramstocaptureanimagefromthe screen.(RefertotheWordPerfectmanualforalist ofgraphicsprogramsthatcanbeusedwithGRAB.) TheGRAButilitycanalsobeusedtocopydisplays ofWordPerfectgraphicsscreenssuchastheEquation EditorandtheViewDocumentscreen.Theexample ofusingGRABthatfollowsassumesthatyouare capturingagraphicviewofanequationcreatedin WordPerfect. Example:CapturinganEquation 1.LoadtheGrabprogramintomemory.Todo this,exitanyprogramsthatarerunningandgo toDOS.FromtheDOSprompt,enterthe nameoftheprogram, grab.IftheWordPerfect

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PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing Page4directoryisnotinthepathstatementofyour AUTOEXEC.BATfile,youneedtochangeto thedirectorywheretheWordPerfectutility programsareinstalledbeforeyourungrab.For example,ifWordPerfectisinstalledina directoryWP51ondriveC:,thecommands wouldlooklikethis: C:> cdwp51 C:\WP51> grab 2.StartWordPerfect. 3.Changeyourscreencolorssothatthebackgroundiswhiteandthecharacterdisplayis black.Todothis,usetheWordPerfectSetup menutoeditthescreendisplay(Shift-F1, 2, 1). Ifyoufailtosetthescreencolorsbefore capturingthescreendisplay,thegraphicsfile willprobablyhavetobeeditedlaterina graphicsprogram. 4.RetrievetheWordPerfectdocumentthat containstheequation(s)youwanttocapture. 5.Displaythegraphicsimageyouwanttocapture onthescreen.Forasingleequation,usethe GraphicsmenuandchooseEquation,Edit.For agroupofequationsthatyouwanttoappear together,positiontheequationsanduseView Documenttodisplaytheimage. 6.Press Alt-Shift-F9 toactivatethescreencapture program.Atwo-tonechimewillindicatethat thescreencaptureprogramisreadyforuse. 7.Aboxwillappearonthescreen.Positionthe boxtooutlinetheportionofthescreentobe captured.Usethearrowkeystomovethebox onthescreen,useShift-arrowkeystoresizethe box,andusetheInsertkey(Ins)toswitch betweenfineandcoarseincrementsinmoving andsizingthebox. 8.Press Enter tocapturethecontentsoftheboxas agraphicsfile. TheGRAButilitywillnamefilesitcreatesin sequence:GRAB.WPG,GRAB1.WPG,etc.Fileswill besavedtothedefaultdirectory. Buzz.Ifyouhearalow-pitchedbuzzinsteadofa two-tonechimewhenyoupress Alt-Shift-F9,thisisa signalthatthescreencaptureprogramcannotperform.Possibleproblemsincludethefollowing: Youarenotingraphicsmode. Youhaveavideoadapterthatisnotsupported bythescreencaptureprogram. YourgraphicsprogramorsomeotherTSR (terminateandstayresident)programisincompatiblewiththescreencaptureprogram.HANDLINGGRABBEDFILESThefilescapturedbyGRAB.COMwillbein WPGformat.ThesefilesaresuitableforincorporationintotheWordPerfectdocument.However,for on-screendisplayfromtheFAIRSCD-ROM,the PCXgraphicsformatisrequired.Variousgraphics programswillallowyoutomaketheconversion.For example,ifyouhaveMicrosoftWindows,youcanuse thePaintshopapplicationtoconverttheWPGfileto aPCXfile.OpenthefileandsaveitasaPCXfilein the16-colorpalette.IfyouhaveWordPerfectPresentations,youcanretrievetheWPGfileintoPresentationsandexportitinthePCXformat. Ifyoudonothaveaconversionprogramavailable toconvertWPGfilestoPCXfiles,publicationsproductionspecialistsinEducationalMediaandServices orspecialistsinFAIRScanmaketheneededconversion.Indicateonthematerialssubmittedforpublicationthatthisserviceisneeded.NAMINGCONVENTIONSFOR GRAPHICSFILESGraphicsfilessubmittedwithdocumentsshould benamedinsuchawayastoidentifyboththepublicationandthefigurenumber.Toachievethis,itis recommendedthattheCD-ROMpublicationnumber beusedasthefirstfivelettersofthefilename. WhendocumentsareplacedontheFAIRS CD-ROM,theyreceiveafive-charactercodenamein additiontotheExtensionpublicationnumber.The firsttwocharactersoftheCD-ROMpublication numberindicatethehandbookinwhichthedocument isfound.Thenextthreecharactersrepresentthe documentnumberwithinthehandbook.For example,theCD-ROMpublicationnumberMG056 indicatesdocument56intheMasterGardenerHandbook,andtheCD-ROMpublicationnumberHE110

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PreparingGraphicsforElectronicPublishing Page5indicatesdocumentnumber110intheHomeEconomicsHandbook. TherecommendednamingconventionforgraphicsfilesistousetheCD-ROMpublicationnumber followedbythefigurenumber.Thefigurenumberis expressedintheformF01,F02,etc.,wherethe F standsfor Figure,andthelasttwocharactersarethe sameasthefigurenumberusedinthedocument, withazeroplacedbeforeaone-digitnumber.This namingconventiongeneratesauniqueeight-character filenamesuchasMG056F01,assuringthatgraphics fileswillbeassociatedwiththecorrectdocument. Itisnotnecessarytouseanextensionsuchas PCXwiththefilename.The F inthefilenamedesignatesafigure,andmakesanextensionunnecessary. CD-ROMnumbersforpreviouslyprinteddocumentscanbeobtainedfromtheindexofdocuments ontheFAIRSCD-ROMsorfromtheFAIRSoffice.NewdocumentscanbeassignedaCD-ROM numberbyphone.CalltheFAIRSofficeat(904) 392-3196. IftheCD-ROMpublicationnumberisnot known,graphicsfilescanbenamedaccordingto anotherplan,butitisimportantthatthefilenamesbe unique.Iftwofileshavethesamename,onefilewill overwritetheotherincentralizeddocumentprocessingwithinFAIRS.Therefore,filenamessuchas FIGURE1cannotbeused.Evenfilenamessuchas TREESF01maybetoogeneral.Thebestpracticeis touseacodename.Suchanamecouldbeformedby theauthor'sinitialsplusatemporarydocument number.Departmentssubmittingalargenumberof newdocumentsmaywishtosetupanamingconventionwithinthedepartmenttomakesurethat filenamesareunique.ASSISTANCEWITHGRAPHICSForquestionsaboutrequirementsforgraphics filesforCD-ROMpublishingandforrecommendationsonfilenames,calltheFAIRSoffice,(904) 392-3196.Assistancewithscanningandwithformat conversionsisavailablebothfromtheFAIRSoffice andfromIFASEducationalMediaandServices, (904)392-2411.ForquestionsaboutusingFASTWP,seeExtensionCircular1069, FAST-WP:Florida's AuthoringSystemToolsforWordPerfect. Forquestions aboutusingWordPerfectgraphicsfeaturesorthe WordPerfectutilitiesGRABandGRAPHCNV,refer totheWordPerfectmanual.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThankstoCherylAlexanderoftheFAIRSstaff forassistanceindescribingrequirementsfortheuse ofGRAB.COM.