Tobacco Varieties for 2004

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Title:
Tobacco Varieties for 2004
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Whitty, E.B.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Revised January 2004."
General Note:
"SS-AGR-29"

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00004427:00001


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SS-AGR-29 Tobacco Varieties for 20041 E. B. Whitty2 1. This document is SS-AGR-29, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Revised January 2004. Please visit the EDIS Website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. E. B. Whitty, professor, Agronomy Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry R. Arrington, Interim Dean All tobacco varieties undergo rigorous testing before being released for commercial production. This testing includes small plot trials on experiment stations, warehouse evaluations, determination of chemical and physical properties, and finally on-farm testing to evaluate how the potential variety performs in a commercial situation. A variety must meet certain quality standards before being released. Thus, farmers can be assured that any variety that is released has been thoroughly evaluated before seed are made available for commercial planting. Each farmer may have different requirements for the variety or varieties to be grown on his farm. Ease of growing and curing, disease and nematode resistance and market acceptance should be taken into account when selecting a variety. Since disease and nematode infestations on a farm can seriously limit variety selection, farmers should attempt to keep their fields free of these problems. Crop rotation is necessary on most farms to reduce losses to soil-borne diseases and nematodes. Information on tobacco varieties is given in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3. Resistance levels and ratings of several varieties to black shank, southern root-knot nematodes, and brown spot are given in Table 1. In addition to these three major problems, resistance data also is available for bacterial or Granville wilt, Fusarium wilt, and tobacco mosaic virus in some varieties. Table 2 presents estimates of which varieties are grown in Florida. For the past several years most of Florida's tobacco varieties have been resistant to the southern root-knot nematode and tolerant to brown spot. Results of the 2003 tobacco variety test at Live Oak are shown in Table 3. Remember that this is only a one-year trial at one location and the results may not be indicative of what might be obtained on your farm. Where available, averages that include 2002 and 2001 data also are given. Varieties other than those listed also are available. Quality tobacco should be the goal of every grower. In recent years, fully ripe tobacco has been in much greater demand than unripe tobacco. If you select a slow-ripening variety, be sure to let the leaves mature before harvesting them. Varieties that were popular in Florida in recent years will probably be widely planted in 2004, but

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Tobacco Varieties for 2004 2 some of the newer varieties may become more accepted by farmers. Almost all varieties that have been popular in Florida have resistance to certain races of the southern root-knot nematode and are tolerant of brown spot. These varieties generally "hold well" in the field, which provides the grower more flexibility in harvesting schedules. Varietal resistance to some races of the southern root-knot nematode is not adequate as the only means of nematode control, as other races and species of the root-knot nematode also can damage tobacco. K326 became popular because of high yields, good quality and resistance to some of the major diseases found in Florida. However, K326 has only low resistance to black shank, which means that crop rotation and pesticides would be needed if K 326 is planted on farms where black shank is a problem. Several varieties have better black shank resistance than K 326. Coker 371-Gold, K 346, NC 71, NC 72, NC 102, NC 291, NC 297, and Speight 168 have high black shank resistance. Other varieties have lower levels of black shank resistance and also tend to produce good yields. There are two rcognized races of black shank, designated as Race 0 and Race 1. Many of the newer varieties have high resistance to Race 0, but not to Race 1. Race 1 is present in Florida, but is not believed to be as widespread as Race 0. Your own or your neighbor's experience with different varieties plus information such as that presented in Table 1 and Table 3 should be used to help guide you in the selection of a variety that most closely meets your needs. Some varieties will be available only as pelleted seed. Also, many of the new varieties are hybrids. Hybrid varieties and/or pelleted seed will be more expensive than conventional varieties or raw seed. For several years, potato virus-Y (PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) have been problems on Florida tobacco. NC 55 and NC 291 have good resistance to PVY and TEV. NC 102 is resistant to some strains. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has become established as a major disease in Florida. No commercial varieties have resistance to this virus. A variety resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) will not necessarily have resistance to any other viruses. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) appears to have become more prevalent and while no varieties are resistant, it is expected that NC 102 may be stunted less than other varieties. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been present on a number of Florida farms in recent years. Sanitation practices should reduce the likelihood of TMV being a problem, but if varietal resistance is desired, NC 297, NC 102 or other new varieties would be good choices. Target spot has been prevalent in many tobacco fields in the past. While there appear to be differences among varieties in tolerance to the disease, observations have not been adequate to make recommendations. Due to quota reductions over the past few years, barn capacity has become adequate to cure most grower's crops. Even with the requirement for retrofitting barns with heat exchangers, there may be a tendency to retrofit too few barns. To ease this potential problem of not having enough barn space, growers could plant some of their acreage in the earlier maturing varieties, such as K 394 or Coker 371-Gold, and the remainder in later maturing varieties. Since plans for extending the harvest season by planting such a mix of varieties may be disrupted by late-season disease and nematode problems, it would be a good idea to retrofit enough barns to cure the entire crop produced under normal production practices. Growers should not depend solely on varietal resistance to prevent losses to diseases and nematodes. Crop rotations and the use of nematicides should be a part of every tobacco program, no matter which variety is grown. On severely infested fields, there will usually be some loss to black shank with any variety. While chemicals are available to combat black shank damage, crop rotation is a proven means of reducing black shank losses. Nematode-resistant varieties have resistance only to certain races of the southern root-knot nematodes. Losses to the peanut and Javanese root-knot nematodes have been increased by short-term rotations and growing varieties resistant only to the southern root-knot nematode. Rotating tobacco with nematode-resistant crops and effective use of nematicides are essential to preventing losses to nematodes.

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Tobacco Varieties for 2004 3 Brown spot has been severe in Florida in some years. Wet and hot weather are favorable for the development of this disease, especially if leaves are thinner than normal. Nematode damage to the root system or excessive sucker growth can accelerate the losses to brown spot, even in a brown spot tolerant variety. Thus, a farmer needs to consider his nematode control program if he wants to reduce possible losses to brown spot. Lower plant populations and lower topping will tend to improve tolerance to brown spot. Varietal tolerance is an important means of controlling losses to brown spot, but unfortunately most of the newer varieties have not been evaluated as to their tolerance level. Varieties vary in their tolerance to blue mold, but it appears that fungicides are a far more effective means of preventing losses to this disease than relying on varietal tolerance. Several agronomic characteristics may assist in the selection of a variety. Yield, quality, suckering habits, height, leaf spacing, leaf size and maturity characteristics are available in various research reports but not presented here. Some of these characteristics may be more affected by cultural practices than by varietal differences. Table 1. Level of resistance of several tobacco varieties. Variety Level of Resistance Blackshank 1 Southern Root-Knot Nematodes 2 Reaction to Brown spot 3 Coker 371-Gold H S S K 326 L R T NC 55 L R -NC 71 H R -NC 72 H R -NC 102 H R -NC 291 H R -NC 297 H R -Speight 168 H R MT 1 L = low; M = moderate; H = high. 2 S = susceptible; R = resistant. 3 VS = very sensitive; S = sensitive; MT = moderately tolerant; T = tolerant.

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Tobacco Varieties for 2004 4 Table 2. Tobacco varieties grown in Florida 1998-2003. Variety ----------------------------------------%------------------------------------------2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 K 326 30 40 45 50 60 70 NC 72 10 15 10 5 4 -NC 55 5 8 10 15 10 2 NC 71 30 20 25 15 8 8 NC 297 20 10 ----Other 5 2 5 6 6 8 Table 3. Yield and Value of Tobacco Varieties in Florida. Variety Yield (lb/A) Price ($/Cwt) Value ($/A) 2003 2002-03 2001-03 2003 2002-03 2001-03 2003 2002-03 2001-03 Coker 371-Gold 2693 2585 2952 171 173 169 4604 4461 4983 CU 748 2689 --136 --3643 --GL 737 2045 --147 --3017 --GL 939 2527 2673 3058 163 172 170 4104 4615 5212 GL 973 2273 2193 2630 162 166 163 3680 3646 4279 K 149 2793 --168 --4689 --K 326 3308 3048 3299 166 173 171 5501 5264 5664 K 346 2900 2786 2914 161 166 165 4640 4604 4803 K 358 2538 2755 3111 166 169 165 4238 4678 5151 K 394 2515 2719 3080 154 167 164 3914 4593 5093 K 399 2623 --165 --4300 --K 730 2804 --167 --4655 --NC 55 2899 --162 --4693 --NC 71 2829 2839 3326 166 172 167 4715 4985 5546 NC 72 2695 2916 3289 163 169 166 4356 4920 5461 NC 291 3318 2859 -176 170 -5819 4867 -NC 297 2513 2727 3054 160 168 166 4099 4635 5109 NC 606 2420 --161 --3883 --NC 810 2516 2621 2831 167 171 167 4210 4479 4739 OX 207 2313 2742 3151 156 168 164 3613 4669 5193 PVH 03 2657 2685 3019 161 171 168 4310 4627 5115 PVH 09 3065 2848 3092 162 168 164 4965 4771 5074 PVH 2040 2664 --158 --4199 --RGH 4 2815 2777 3205 148 159 159 4189 4440 5118 RGH 51 2625 2850 3333 163 173 170 4260 4957 5680 RG 17 2993 --163 --4885 --RG 81 3269 --160 --5239 --RS 1410 2739 2748 -171 173 -4666 4761 -Speight H-6 2731 --140 --3892 --Speight H-20 2543 2574 2938 160 156 159 4100 4026 4683 Speight NF-3 2428 2622 2946 159 170 166 3849 4471 4924 Speight 168 2782 2696 2889 167 170 168 4664 4613 4871 Speight 179 2379 2618 2806 146 162 161 3504 4280 4555

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Tobacco Varieties for 2004 5 Table 3. Yield and Value of Tobacco Varieties in Florida. Variety Yield (lb/A) Price ($/Cwt) Value ($/A) 2003 2002-03 2001-03 2003 2002-03 2001-03 2003 2002-03 2001-03 Speight 190 1929 2181 2579 163 171 166 3135 3748 4286 Speight 196 2460 2485 -156 164 -3815 4049 -Speight 200A 2836 2728 -151 163 -4296 4445 -Speight 210 2361 2782 2956 159 162 166 3777 4512 4922 Speight 218 2415 2717 -157 168 -3824 4602 -Speight 220 2925 --157 --4636 --VA 119 2192 --175 --3849 ---