Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida

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Title:
Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida
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Fact sheet
Creator:
Olson, T. A.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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Published
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"First published November 1998; reviewed February 2008, and March 2011."
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"AN055"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004246:00001


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T. A. Olson2 8 Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus (complementarity) heterosis.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 2 percentage Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicusBos taurus Individual heterosis Bos taurusBos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicusBos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurusBos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos indicusBos taurus Bos indicus Maternal heterosis Box taurus Bos taurus Bosindicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 3 all complement complementarity. entirely homozygous different

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 4Average heterosis levels for economically important traits of beef cattle. Bos taurus x Bos taurus Bos indicus x Bos taurus Birth weight2.4%11.1% Weaning weight 3.9% 12.6% Postweaning gain 2.6% 16.2% Calving rate 3.7% 13.4% Calf survival 1.5% 5.1% Birth weight 1.8% 5.8% Weaning weight 3.9% 16.0% Adapted from: L.V. Cundiff, L.D. Van Vleck, L.D. Young, K.A. Leymaster and G.E. Dickerson. 1994. Animal Breeding and Genetics. In: Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science, Vol. I. pp 49-63. Academic Press Inc. Explanation for the cause of heterosis. A/Ab/bC/Cd/de/e a/aB/Bc/cD/DE/E x (F1 crossbred) A/a B/b C/c D/d E/e Bos indicus Bos taurusBos taurus Bos taurus less Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurusBos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 5 Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus B. taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicusBos indicus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos-indicus Bos indicus Bos taurus crisscross Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 6 Bos indicus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos indicus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos indicus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 7 will breed effects relative to Angus relative to Angus Sire Summary

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 8 Bos taurus Bos taurus no Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus market demand

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 9 no less Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 10Additive genetic effects for individual and maternal components of calf growth-to-weaning, by breed. a bAngus 0 0 Brahman 6 8 Hereford 7 -21 Simmental 80 20 Charolais 80 9 aThe gI values represent the difference (lb) in weaning weight between Angus calves and specific-breed calves that is attributed to additive genetic effects.bThe gM values represent the difference (lb) in effect of maternal ability on calf weaning weight between Angus cows and specific-breed cows that is attributed to additive genetic effects. Heterotic effects for individual and maternal components of calf growth-to-weaning, by breed combination. a bAngus-Brahman 52 45 Angus-Hereford 11 10 Angus-Simmental 8 15 Angus-Charolais 8 15 Brahman-Hereford 52 45 Brahman-Simmental 42 35 Brahman-Charolais 42 35 Hereford-Simmental 5 15 Hereford-Charolais 5 15 Simmental-Charolais 0 8 a The hIvalues represent the effect on calf weaning weight (lb) attributed to F1 crossbreeding for each breed combination.b The hM values represent the effect on calf weaning weight (lb) attributed to F1 crossbreeding of the dam for each breed combination.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 11 individual Two-breed terminal cross (single cross).

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 12 Three-breed terminal cross.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 13 Bos taurus Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 14 Two-breed rotational cross using Brahman and Angus breeds.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 15 Three-breed rotational cross using Brahman, Hereford, and Angus breeds.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 16 Three-breed rotational cross using Brahman-derivative breeds.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 17 Rota-terminal cross using Simbrah, Brangus and Charolais breeds.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 18 Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 19 Four-breed composite cross using Simmental, Hereford, Brahman, and Angus breeds. Bos indicus Bos taurusBos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 20 Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos taurus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 21 Bos taurus same

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 22 between Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos indicus

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 23Across-breed EPD adjustment valuesa. Hereford 4.7 3.7 -2.4 -6.7 Angus 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Shorthorn 8.4 25.8 36.3 12.1 Brahman 15.0 32.5 -15.6 27.4 Simmental 11.3 47.2 73.8 30.4 Limousin 7.7 29.6 24.1 -3.9 Charolais 10.6 39.0 55.5 3.8 Maine-Anjou 12.4 37.7 51.0 26.3 Gelbvieh 10.0 44.4 49.0 28.4 Pinzgauer 9.1 27.0 25.9 9.7 Tarentaise 5.7 29.5 12.8 20.6 Salers 6.6 26.1 32.4 14.8 aFor breeds shown, to calculate EPD values that are comparable to known values for the Angus, subtract the adjustment value for each trait from the corresponding EPD desired for the Angus. Selection criteria for bulls chosen as sires in crossbreeding programs. < 85 lb < 80 lb, if used on heifers EPD appropriate for the breed > 500 lb +EPD above breed averagea Ration > 100 +EPDa 5 or 6 > 32 cm, by 12 months of age + EPD above breed averageb > 1.2 in2per 100 lb body weight + EPD above breed averageb EPD appropriate for the breed a Exceptions to the positive-EPD rule could be made for large breeds (such as Simmental, Charolais, Gelbvieh) when EPDs close to zero would be appropriate for Florida conditions.bIn breeds for which EPDs for scrotal circumference or rib-eye area are available, select bulls with positive EPD values for these traits.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 24 appropriate appropriate any

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 25 total dam's breed composition breed composition Sire breed % Dam breed % Calf breed % 50% Brahman+25% Brahman 2 =37.5% Brahman 0% Hereford+75% Hereford 2 =37.5% Hereford 50% Angus+0% Angus 2 =25.0% Angus dams each each dam's

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 26 Step 1. calf Step 2. cow Step 3. Step 4. dam's 1. 2. Heritability 3. 4. 5.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 27 a bAngus 0 0 Brahman 6 8 Hereford 7 -21 Simmental 80 20 Charolais 80 9 a The gI values represent the difference (lb) in weaning weight between Angus calves and specific-breed calves that is attributed to additive genetic effects.b The gMvalues represent the difference (lb) in effect of maternal ability on calf weaning weight between Angus cows and specific-breed cows that is attributed to additive genetic effects. Heterotic effects for individual and maternal components of calf growth-to-weaning. a bAngus-Brahman 52 45 Angus-Hereford 11 10 Angus-Simmental 8 15 Angus-Charolais 8 15 Brahman-Hereford 52 45 Brahman-Simmental 42 35 Brahman-Charolais 42 35 Hereford-Simmental 5 15 Hereford-Charolais 5 15 Simmental-Charolais 0 8 a The hI values represent the effect on calf weaning weight (lb) attributed to F1 crossbreeding for each breed combination.b The hM values represent the effect on calf weaning weight (lb) attributed to F1crossbreeding of the dam for each breed combination.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 28Example of method to calculate coefficients for heterosis (hI) values, using progeny of 1/2 Brahman: 1/2 Angus bulls x 3/4 Hereford: 1/4 Brahman cows. a b .50*.75=.375 (BxH).50*.25=.125 (BxB)c .50*.75=.375 (AxH).50*.25=.125 (AxB) a Sire of calf for hIcoefficients; use sire of dam for hM coefficients.b Dam of calf for hIcoefficients; use dam of dam for hM coefficients.c Not included: (BxB)=0; same-breed "combinations" yield no heterosis. Predicted weaning weight calculations. 1x Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(C) + .5gI(A) +gM(A) +hI(CxA) = 450 lb + .5(80) + .5(0) + (0) + (8) = 498 lb Calves produced by the terminal cross are 1/2 Angus: 1/2 Charolais. Each component of breed composition is multiplied by the gI value corresponding to that breed: .5(0) + .5(80). The calves are 100% Charolais x Angus, and so the total hI value for that breed combination (8 lb) is applied to their expected performance. 2This cross has two phases: the first produces Brahman x Angus replacement heifers; the second produces Charolais-sired calves from these crossbred dams. x Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(B) + .5gI(A) +hI(BxA) = 450 lb + .5(6) + .5(0) + (52) = 505 lb 3Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(C) + .25gI(B) + .25gI(A) +.5gM(B) + .5gM(A) + .5hI(CxB) + .5hI(CxA) + hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .5(80) + .25(6) + .25(0) + .5(8) + .5(0) + .5(42) + .5(8) + (45) = 565.5 lb Terminal-cross calves are 1/2 Charolais: 1/4 Angus: 1/4 Brahman, breed composition yielding gI coefficients for the four component breeds; their dams are 1/2 Angus: 1/2 Brahman, yielding gM coefficients for two breeds. Heterotic combinations for calves from a Charolais sire and Brahman x Angus F1 cows are .5(CxA) and .5(CxB); the dams express the full effect of (BxA) heterozygosity, contributing 45 lb to their calves' expected performance. 4Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(H) + .25gI(B) + .25gI(A) +.5gM(B) + .5gM(A) + .5hI(HxB) + .5hI(HxA) + hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .5(7) + .25(6) + .25(0) + .5(8) + .5(0) + .5(52) + .5(11) + (45) = 535.5 lb 5 Calf breed composition is .67 Brahman: .33 Angus; the dams are .67 Angus: .33 Brahman.

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 29Predicted weaning weight calculations. Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .67gI(B) + .33gI(A) + .67gM(A) +.33gM(B) + .67hI(BxA) + .67hM(AxB) = 450 lb + .67(6) + .33(0) + .67(0) + .33(8) + .67(52) + .67(45) = 521.7 lb Calf breed composition is .67 Angus: .33 Brahman; the dams are .67 Brahman: .33 Angus. Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .67gI(A) + .33gI(B) + .67gM(B) +.33gM(A) + .67hI(AxB) + .67hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .67(0) + .33(6) + .67(8) + .33(0) + .67(52) + .67(45) = 522.3 lb Average Performance for all Calves=522.0 lb 6 Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .57gI(A) + .29gI(H) + .14gI(B) +.57gM(H) + .29gM(B) + .14gM(A) + .57hI(AxH) + .29hI(AxB) + .57hM(HxB) + .29hM(HxA) = 450 lb + .57(0) + .29(7) + .14(6) + .57(-21) + .29(8) + .14(0) + .57(11) + .29(52) +.57(45) +.29(10) = 493.1 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .57gI(B) + .29gI(A) + .14gI(H) +.57gM(A) + .29gM(H) + .14gM(B) + .57hI(BxA) + .29hI(BxH) + .57hM(AxH) + .29hM(AxB) = 450 lb + .57(6) + .29(0) + .14(7) + .57(0) + .29(-21) + .14(8) + .57(52) + .29(52) +.57(10) +.29(45) = 512.9 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .57gI(H) + .29gI(B) + .14gI(A) +.57gM(B) + .29gM(A) + .14gM(H) + .57hI(HxB) + .29hI(HxA) + .57hM(BxA) + .29hM(BxH) = 450 lb + .57(7) + .29(6) + .14(0) + .57(8) + .29(0) + .14(-21) + .57(52) + .29(11) +.57(45) +.29(45) = 528.9 lb Average Performance for All Calves = 511.6 lb Calculation of values is based on the fact that, after the proportions have stabilized, calves will have a breed composition of 4/7:2/7:1/7 each generation. For example, the Angus-sired calves are .57 Angus: .29 Hereford: .14 Brahman; their dams are .57 Hereford: .29 Brahman: .14 Angus. The hI values for Angus-sired calves are .57hI(AxH) + .29hI(AxB) because sires were Angus and dams were .57 Hereford: .29 Brahman: .14 Angus. The hM values for Angus-sired calves are .57hM(HxB) + .29hM(HxA) because dams of these calves were produced by Hereford bulls bred to .57 Brahman: .29 Angus: .14 Hereford cows. 7 Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .37gI(B) + .36gI(A) + .18gI(H) +.09gI(S) + .37gM(B) + .36gM(H) + .18gM(S) + .09gM(A) + .225hI(AxH) + .1125hI(AxS) + .265hI(AxB) + .135hI(BxH) + .0675hI(BxS) + .225hM(HxS) + .1125hM(HxA) + .265hM(HxB) + .135hM(BxS) + .0675hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .37(6) + .36(0) + .18(7) +.09(80) + .37(8) + .36(-21) + .18(20) + .09(0) + .225(11) + .1125(8) + .265(52) + .135(52) + .0675(42) + .225(15) + .1125(10) + .265(45) + .135(35) + .0675(45) = 510.9 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .37gI(B) + .36gI(S) + .18gI(A) +.09gI(H) + .37gM(B) + .36gM(A) + .18gM(H) + .09gM(S) + .225hI(SxA) + .1125hI(SxH) + .265hI(SxB) + .135hI(BxA) + .0675hI(BxH) + .225hM(AxH) + .1125hM(AxS) + .265hM(AxB) + .135hM(BxH) + .0675hM(BxS) = 450 lb + .37(6) + .36(80) + .18(0) +.09(7) + .37(8) + .36(0) + .18(-21) + .09(20) + .225(8) + .1125(5) + .265(42) + .135(52) + .0675(52) + .225(10) + .1125(15) + .265(45) + .135(45) + .0675(35) = 531.0 lb

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 30Predicted weaning weight calculations. Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .37gI(B) + .36gI(H) + .18gI(S) +.09gI(A) + .37gM(B) + .36gM(S) + .18gM(A) + .09gM(H) + .225hI(HxS) + .1125hI(HxA) + .265hI(HxB) + .135hI(BxS) + .0675hI(BxA) + .225hM(SxA) + .1125hM(SxH) + .265hM(SxB) + .135hM(BxA) + .0675hM(BxH) = 450 lb + .37(6) + .36(7) + .18(80) +.09(0) + .37(8) + .36(20) + .18(0) + .09(-21) + .225(5) + .1125(11) + .265(52) + .135(42) + .0675(52) + .225(15) + .1125(15) + .265(35) + .135(45) + .0675(45) = 526.0 lb Average Performance for All Calves = 522.7 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .42gI(A) + .37gI(B) + .21gI(S) +.42gM(S) + .37gM(B) + .21gM(A) + .2625hI(AxS) + .31hI(BxA) + .1575hI(BxS) + .2625hM(SxA) + .31hM(BxS) + .1575hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .42(0) + .37(6) + .21(80) +.42(20) + .37(8) + .21(0) + .2625(8) + .31(52) + .1575(42) + .2625(15) + .31(35) + .1575(45) = 527.1 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .42gI(S) + .37gI(B) + .21gI(A) +.42gM(A) + .37gM(B) + .21gM(S) + .2625hI(SxA) + .31hI(BxS) + .1575hI(BxA) + .2625hM(AxS) + .31hM(BxA) + .1575hM(BxS) = 450 lb + .42(80) + .37(6) + .21(0) +.42(0) + .37(8) + .21(20) + .2625(8) + .31(42) + .1575(52) + .2625(15) + .31(45) + .1575(35) = 539.7 lb Average Performance for SimbrahxBrangus Rotational-Cross Calves = 533.4 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(C) + .21gI(S) + .19gI(B) +.1gI(A) + .42gM(S) + .37gM(B) + .21gM(A) + .42hI(CxS) + .37hI(CxB) + .21hI(CxA) + .2625hM(SxA) + .31hM(BxS) + .1575hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .5(80) + .21(80) + .19(6) +.1(0) + .42(20) + .37(8) + .21(0) + .42(0) + .37(42)+ .21(8) + .2625(15) + .31(35) + .1575(45) = 558.4 lb Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .5gI(C) + .21gI(A) + .19gI(B) +.1gI(S) + .42gM(A) + .37gM(B) + .21gM(S) + .42hI(CxA) + .37hI(CxB) + .21hI(CxS) + .2625hM(AxS) + .31hM(BxA) + .1575hM(BxS) = 450 lb + .5(80) + .21(0) + .19(6) + .1(80) + .42(0) + .37(8) + .21(20) + .37(42)+ .21(0) + .2625(15) + .31(45) + .1575(35) = 548.6 lb Average Performance for Charolais-Sired Terminal-Cross Calves = 553.5 lb xxx8Expected weaning performance = 450 lb + .25gI(S) + .21gI(H) + .25gI(B) +.25gI(A) + .25gM(S) + .25gM(H) + .25gM(B) + .2gM(A) + .125hI(SxH) + .125hI(SxB) + .125hI(SxA) + .125hI(HxB) + .125hI(HxA) + .125hI(BxA) + .125hM(SxH) + .125hM(SxB) + .125hM(SxA) + .125hM(HxB) + .125hM(HxA) + .125hM(BxA) = 450 lb + .25(80) + .25(7) + .25(6) +.25(0) + .25(20) + .25(-21) + .25(8) + .25(0) + .125(5)+ .125(42) + .125(8) + .125(52) + .125(11) + .125(52) + .125(15) + .125(35) + .125(15) + .125(45) + .125(10) + .125(45) = 516.9 lb

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Crossbreeding Programs for Beef Cattle in Florida 31Predicted weaning weight calculations. 1. Charolais bulls x Angus cows. 2. Charolais bulls x (Brahman x Angus) cows. 3. Terminal-cross calves, progeny of the Brahman x Angus cows. 4. Yearling Brahman x Angus heifers should be bred to Hereford bulls, note that this result would predict the weaning weight of mature B x A cows mated to Hereford bulls. 5. Angus x Brahman, after proportions have stabilized following several generations of crossbreeding. 6. Angus x Brahman x Hereford, after the proportions have stabilized following several generations of crossbreeding. 7. Brangus x Simbrah x Braford. 8. Fifth generation.