Florida Springs Land Use Information Tool

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Title:
Florida Springs Land Use Information Tool
Physical Description:
Fact sheet
Creator:
Obreza, Thomas
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"Original publication date: April 2004. Reviewed February 2011"
General Note:
"CIR 1448"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00004236:00001


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CIR 1448 Florida Springs Land Use Information Tool1 Thomas Obreza2 Blue Springs, Gilchrist County, Florida Photo taken by Greg Means, UF Soil and Water Science Dept. 1.This document is CIR 1448, a circular of the Soil and Water Science Department,FloridaCooperative ExtensionService, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date: April 2004. ite at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu 2.Thomas Obreza, Professor, Soiland Water Science Department,Florida CooperativeExtension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Universityof Florida, Gainesville, 32611-0290. The Instituteof Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative actionemployer authorized to provide researc h, educational information and other services only to individualsand institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handi cap,or national origin. For informationon obtaining otherextension publications, contact your county CooperativeExtension Serviceoffice. Florida Cooper ative Extension Service/Institute of Foodand Agricultural Sci ences/University of Florida/

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Florida Springs Land Use Information Tool Table of Contents Introduction Guidelines for Using the Information Data Sources Section 1: Nitrogen Section 2a: Water Consumption Agriculture and Horticulture Section 2b: Groundwater Consumption Residential Section 3: Nitrogen Measured in Runoff Section 4: Simulated Nitrogen Loading to Groundwater Section 5: Simulated Effect of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on Nitrogen Loading to Groundwater Section 6: Relative Pesticide Use Section 7: Availability of Best Management Practices Section 8: Glossary Appendix: Land Uses Found Within the Florida Springs Study Area 2

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Land Use Information ToolIntroductionPurpose of this publication : To provide information about how land use influences the amount of nitrogen that may be imported as fertilizers or soilamendments, the amount of nitrogen that may be exported in the harvested portion of a crop, the amount of water that may be consumed, and the relative pesticide loading. Intended audiences: State and local governments, land use planners, policymakers, consultants, land owners, and educators. Scope: The information presented here applies to the springs area of north Florida. Floridassprings are classified by their average output (Table 1). Forty-one of Floridas 67 counties contain at least one 4thmagnitude or greater spring. First magnitude springs are found in 20 north and north-central counties (Fig. 1). The defined study area for this project was comprised of the 35 countieslisted in Table 2 and illustrated in Fig. 2. Table 1. Classification system for springs according to average discharge. MagnitudeAverageflow cubic ft per secondmillion gallons per day 1 100 65 2 10 100 6.5 65 3 1 10 0.65 6.5 4 < 1 < 0.65 Table 2. Florida counties defining the project study area. AlachuaDixieJacksonMadisonSuwannee Bay GadsdenJeffersonMarion Taylor BradfordGilchrist Lake Orange Union CalhounGulf LafayettePasco Volusia Citrus HamiltonLeon Putnam Wakulla Clay HernandoLevy SeminoleWalton ColumbiaHolmes Liberty Sumter Washington Land uses within the study area were acquired using GIS coverages obtained from the Florida Geographic Data Library. Individual land use data files were generated by the Northwest, Suwannee River, and St. Johns Water Management Districts. Most data were acquired between 1995 and 1999, with the Suwannee River Water Management District counties updated in 2002. A summary of land uses found is shown in the Appendix.3

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Fig. 1. Locations of Floridas springs. Fig. 2. The defined study area for this publication (35 counties). 4

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Land Use Information ToolGuidelines for Using the Information Please review these guidelines before using the information.Intent of the Tool The intent of this tool is to provide information about how land use influences: The rate of nitrogen that may be applied to the land as fertilizers or soil amendments (nitrogen imports). The rate or amount of nitrogen that may be removed from the land in the harvested portion of a crop (nitrogen exports). The amount of water that may be consumed. The relative pesticide loading. Nitrogen movement to groundwater is site-specific (Sections 1 and 2) Knowingonly nitrogen imports/exports and water consumption does not allow one to make valid comparisons between different land uses regarding contamination of groundwater by nitrate. Although these factors are important, they are only two components of natures highly complex nitrogen cycle (Fig. 3). What else can happen to nitrogen besides leaching to groundwater? Plants can absorb it. It can go off into the atmosphere as a gas. It can become part of the soil organic matter (humus). Soil microorganisms can use it. Assuming that a site in question is within a springshed, other questions must be asked in order to use the information in this tool to help make decisions about it, such as: How much of the total land area receives nitrogen imports? For example, in residential areas only a portion of the lawns and landscapes may receive fertilizers. What level of management does the site receive? For example, manicured lawns and landscapesmay receive high nitrogen fertilizer rates, while more natural landscapes may receive little or none. In the case of areas with septic tanks, what is the population density? Does the site receive supplemental irrigation? If yes, what type of irrigation system is used? Nitrogen fertilizer rates may differ depending on irrigation capacity. In the case of animal feeding operations, how many animals are there, and is manure exported off site or disposed of on site? If disposed of on site, how much area is available for land application? Use of Best Management Practices (Section 7) The key to preventing nitrogen from reaching groundwater lies with land use management. Where nitrogen imports are involved, best management practices (BMPs) have been developed that minimize the potential for groundwater contamination while maintaining economic viability. These BMPs were produced through the cooperative efforts of the Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, the Univ of Florida, 5

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Floridas Water Management Districts, and the industries involved. Perhaps the most important function of this tool is to identify the many different land uses for which BMPs exist. Fig. 3. A much-simplified version of the complex nitrogen cycle. Nimports as discussed in this tool are represented by the black circles. Nexport as discussed in this tool is represented by the grey circle. Nleaching to groundwater is represented by the white circle. 6

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Land Use Information ToolData Sources Arnold, C.E. and T.E. Crocker. 1998. Pecan production in Florida. Horticultural Sciences Dept. Circular 280D. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Augustin, B.J. 2000. Water requirements for Florida turfgrasses. Dept. of Environmental HorticultureBulletin 200. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Blevins, D., H., L. Allen, S. Colbett, and W. Gardner. 1996.Nutrition management for longleaf pinestraw.Woodland Owner Notes No. 30. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC. Crocker, T. E. 1997. Alternative Opportunities for Small Farms: Muscadine Grape Production Review. Horticultural Sciences Dept. fact sheetRFAC 016 (EDIS DLN AC016), Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL Florida Geographic Data Library, University of Florida Geoplan Center. Florida Dept. of Transportation. 1999. Florida land use, cover and forms classification system handbook, 3rd edition. Surveying and Mapping, Geographic Mapping Section, Florida Dept. of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL. Harper, H. H. 1994. Stormwater loading rate parameters for central and south Florida. Environmental Research & Design, Inc. Orlando, FL. Hochmuth, G.L., and D.N. Maynard. 2000. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. IFAS PublicationSP 170. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Hochmuth, G.J., and E.A. Hanlon. 2000. IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops. Horticultural Sciences Dept. Circular 1152. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Jokela, E.J., and A.L. Long. 2000.Using soils to guide fertilizer recommendations for southern pines. School of Forest Resourcesand Conservation Circular 1230. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Kidder, G., C.G. Chambliss, and R. Mylavarapu. 2001. UF/IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for agronomic crops. Soil and Water Science Dept. Fact Sheet SL 129. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Knox, G., T. Broschat, G. Kidder, E. Gilman, L. Trenholm, R. Black, T. Wichman, D. Palmer, R. Zerba, C. White, A. Hunsberger, G. Israel, J. Cisar, K. Ruppert, D. Culbert, C. Kelly-Begazo and S.P. Brown. 2002. Fertilizer recommendations for landscape plants. Environmental HorticultureDept. Publication ENH 858. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. May, J.T. 1984. Nutrients and fertilization. In C. W. Lantz (ed.). Southern Pine Nursery Handbook. USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, GA. 7

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Sartain, J.B. 1998. Fertility considerations for sod production. Soil and Water Science Dept. Fact Sheet SL 52. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Sartain, J.B. 2000. General recommendations for fertilization of turfgrasses on Florida soils. Soil and Water Science Dept. Fact Sheet SL 21. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Sartain, J.B., and G.L. Miller. 2002.Recommendations for N, P, K and Mg for golf course and athletic fieldfertilizationbased on Mehlich 1 extractant. Soil and Water Science Dept. Fact Sheet SL 191. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Soil and Water Engineering Technology, Inc. (SWET). 1998. GIS watershed assessment final report. Part A SR-WAM technical reference manual. Soil and Water Engineering Technology, Inc., Gainesville, FL. United States Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL. Van Horn, H.H., D.R. Bray, R.A. Nordstedt, R.A. Bucklin, A.B. Bottcher, R.N. Gallaher, C.G. Chambliss, and G. Kidder. 1993.Water budgets for Florida dairy farms. Dairy Science Dept. Circular 1091. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Van Horn, H. H., G. L. Newton, R. A. Nordstedt, E. C. French, G. Kidder, D. A. Graetz, and C. G. Chambliss. 1998. Dairy manure management: Strategies for recycling nutrients to recover fertilizer value and avoid environmental pollution. Dairy and Poultry Sciences Dept. Circular 1016. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Whitty, E.B., and C.G. Chambliss. 2002. Water use and irrigation management of agronomic crops. AgronomyDept. Publication SS-AGR-155. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Williamson,J. G., and P. Lyrene. Commercial blueberry production in Florida. IFAS Publication SP 179, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Williamson,J. G., and T.E. Crocker. 2000. Peaches and nectarines for Florida. Horticultural Sciences Dept. Circular 299D. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL.8

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Land Use Information ToolSection 1: Nitrogen Imports and Exports General comments 1.Imports refer to nitrogen applied as commercial fertilizers, animal manures, biosolids, or wastewater. 2.Import rates are shown inlbs per acre on a treated area basis. 3.Exports refer to nitrogen removed from a site in the harvested portion of a crop. Land use Nitrogen imports Nitrogen exports Residential and Commercial lbs N per acre per year lbs N per acre per year Residential,low and medium density Lawns: 0 220 Landscape Plants: 0 264 Septic Tanks : 5 14 lbs N per person per year 0 Residential, high density Commercial Lawns: 0 220 Landscape Plants: 0 264 0 Comments on residential and commercial: 1.Low density residential is less than one dwelling unit per acre. Medium density residential is one to five dwelling units per acre. High density residential is greater than five dwelling units per acre. 2.Nitrogen is imported primarily as fertilizer used in landscape maintenance, plus nitrogen discharged from septic tanks if present. 3.The range of nitrogen fertilization rates for lawns and landscapes represents low to high maintenance. Recreation and Golf Courses lbs N per acre per year lbs N per acre per year Parks and other recreation areas Lawns and Landscapes: See Residential Athletic Field: 87 220 0 Golf Courses Greens: 174 348 Tees: 131 261 Fairways: 174 218 Rough: 87 0 Comments on parks and golf courses: 1.As the quality of a golf course increases, the nitrogen fertilizer rates applied tend to increase. 9

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Land use Nitrogen imports Nitrogen exports Pasture and Range lbs N per acre per year See unit below Improved Perennial Grass 120 160 10 41 lbs N per ton hay Bahiagrass Pasture 50 180 8 27 lbs N per ton hay Unimproved Pasture 0 0 lbs N per acre Native Range 0 0 lbs N per acre Comments on pasture: 1.Manure deposition by animals is not included inthe nitrogen imports column. 2.The range of nitrogen fertilization rates for pasture represents low to high maintenance. 3.Hayyield must be known before a nitrogen export rate can be estimated. Field Crops lbs N per acre per cropping season See yield unit below Corn 210 0.8 lbs N per 56-lb bu Sorghum 150 1.7 lbs N per cwt Cotton 60 0.03 lbs N per lb of seed+lint Wheat 80 1.2 lbs N per 60-lb bu Tobacco 80 1.7 lbs N per cwt Peanuts, Soybeans 0 Peanuts: 80 lbs N per ton Soybeans: 3.5 lbs N per 60-lb bu Tomato, potato, pepper 200 4 lbs N per ton Beans 60 100 0.1 lbs N per 28-lb bu Cucumbers, Watermelons 150 0.026 lbs N per cwt Comments on field crops: 1.Cropping seasons usually range from 3 to 6 months. 2.Nitrogen imports listedare the maximum recommended fertilizer rates. The actual rate applied by a grower could be more or less. 3.Crop yield must be known before nitrogen export can be estimated. 4.Yield unit abbreviations:bu = bushel; cwt = hundredweight. Fruit Crops lbs N per acre per year See yield unit below Citrus 50 240 0.13 lbs N per 90-lb box Peaches 80 100 2.4 lbs N per ton Comments on fruit crops: 1.Nitrogen imports listedare the maximum recommended fertilizer rates. The actual rate applied by a grower could be more or less. 2.Crop yield must be known before nitrogen export can be estimated. 10

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Land use Nitrogen imports Nitrogen exports Animal Feeding Operations See unit below ----Cattle Feedlots 124 lbs N per 1000 lb animal per yearUnknown Dairy 234 273 lbs N per 1400 lb cow per year Unknown Laying Hens 1.0 lbs N per 4 lb animal per year Unknown Broiler Chickens 0.9 lbs N per 2 lb animal per year Unknown Comments on animal feeding operations: 1.The imports in this section represent nitrogen in animal manure production. 2.The number of animals must be known before the total quantity of manure nitrogen imported can be estimated. 3.More information about the feeding operation, particularly where the manure is being applied, must be known before nitrogen export can be estimated. Horticulture lbs N per acre per year See unit below St. Augustine grass sod 260 Unknown Bahiagrass sod 180 Unknown Leatherleaf ferns 100 350 52 164 lbs N per acre per year Vineyards 100 2.2 lbs per ton Comments on horticulture: 1.Nitrogen imports listedare the maximum recommended fertilizer rates. The actual rate applied by a grower could be more or less. 2.For vineyards, crop yield must be known before nitrogen export can be estimated. Forestry lbs N per acre per growing cycle See yield unit below Pine Tree Nursery 200 125 lbs N per acre Pine Tree Plantations 40 50 (Young stands) 150 200 (Established stands) Whole tree harvesting: 19 lbs per N acre per year Pine straw harvesting: 2 6 lbs N per 1000 lbs of pine straw Comments on forestry: 1.Establishedpine tree stands receive the above nitrogen imports once every 6 to 8 years 11

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12Land Use Information Tool Section 2a: Water Consumption Agriculture and Horticulture General comments 1. Water consumption is comprised of water obtained from a surface or groundwater source; it does not include rainfall. 2. Water consumption data (columns 2, 3, and 4) are from the year 2000, and represent volumes consumed for specific land uses within the Northwest Florida, Suwannee River, St. Johns River, and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts. 3. If a wide range in water consumption for a particular land use is shown, it is likely due to a large difference in irrigation system efficiency, e.g. seepage irrigation vs. drip irrigation. 4. Typical water use (right-hand column) is the projected amount of irrigation needed for an average growing season. Water consumption Land UseLowest observed Highest observed AverageTypical water use gallons per acre per day Soybeans 423 677 5507 in/season Sorghum 585 621 6036 in/season Cotton 5211156839 Peanuts 60214059477 in/season Corn 8031685113512in/season Tobacco 1065130811877 in/season Wheat 102914201225 All field crops 5841261946 Watermelon 6491919110410in/season Tomato 7574574266610in/season All vegetables 66828931463 Peaches 200020002000 Citrus 13493515241515 in/year All fruit crops 97735051710 Pasture hay 73018341309 Field-grown ornamentals 129829652230 Sod 100246752474 Container-grown ornamentals 229996384912 Greenhouse-grown ornamentals 214394445794 All ornamentals/grasses 138624791875 Other grass and landscape 131219961654 Golf courses 184543742506 All golf course and landscape 148625751916 Dairy 175 400 gal per animal per day

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13Land Use Information Tool Section 2b: Groundwater Consumption ResidentialGeneral comments 1. Water consumption is comprised of water obtained from groundwater sources only. 2. Data were reported by the US Geological Survey in January, 2003. Groundwater use PopulationTotal used Per capita County Total Public supply Self supply Public supply Self supply Public supply Self supply Total groundwater use milliongal/day gal/day mgd Alachua217,955179,11838,83728.264.12158106 32.38 Bay 148,217129,30018,9176.282.0149106 8.29 Bradford26,0888,33817,7501.381.89166106 3.27 Calhoun13,0174,2248,7930.750.93178106 1.68 Citrus118,08566,23451,85113.977.20211139 21.17 Clay 140,814100,78540,02914.774.24147106 19.01 Columbia56,51321,23535,2783.673.74173106 7.41 Dixie 13,8274,6229,2050.670.98145106 1.65 Gadsden45,08727,63217,4553.061.85111106 4.91 Gilchrist14,4371,85012,5870.271.33146106 1.60 Gulf 13,33210,3382,9941.470.32142107 1.79 Hamilton13,3276,3666,9610.950.74149106 1.69 Hernando130,802116,02514,77720.261.4117595 21.67 Holmes18,5645,86012,7041.381.35235106 2.73 Jackson46,75516,34830,4072.463.22150106 5.68 Jefferson12,9025,0107,8920.720.84144106 1.56 Lafayette7,0221,2645,7580.200.61158106 0.81 Lake210,528171,13739,39139.924.29233109 44.21 Leon239,452198,93740,51535.704.29179106 39.99 Levy 34,45011,06623,3842.163.95195169 6.11 Liberty 7,0212,7644,2570.390.45141106 0.84 Madison18,7337,16611,5671.651.23230106 2.88 Marion258,916136,842122,07427.9916.42205135 44.41 Orange896,344813,15283,192186.158.82229106 194.97 Pasco344,765275,80068,96535.234.5012865 39.73 Putnam70,42323,31147,1123.204.99137106 8.19 Seminole365,196339,40325,79366.902.73197106 69.63 Sumter53,34528,24325,1024.444.57157182 9.01 Suwannee34,8449,39325,4511.402.70149106 4.10 Taylor19,25610,2898,9671.730.95168106 2.68 Union 13,4423,15510,2870.361.10114107 1.46 Volusia443,343414,85128,49254.903.02132106 57.92 Wakulla22,8639,28513,5782.191.44236106 3.63 Walton40,60139,0241,5777.350.17188108 7.52 Washington 20,9737,56513,4081.161.42153106 2.58 Totals4,131,2393,205,932925,307573.34103.82 677.16 Average 166110

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Land Use Information Tool Section 3: Nitrogen Measured in Runoff Comment In the 1990s, Environmental Research & Design, Inc. of Orlando compiled results of an extensive literature search and analysis of measured nitrogen loading rates during runoff events from various land uses in central and south Florida (Harper, 1994). The values in this table representrunoff nitrogen (i.e. surface water movement to streams and lakes), not leached nitrogen. However, nitrogen loss from different land uses can still be compared. Note that land uses with greater amounts of impervious surfaces lose more nitrogen to runoff than land uses where water infiltration dominates.Land use Mass loading of total N lbs per acre per year Recreation/Open Space 2.4 Wetlands 4.0 Mining/Extractive 4.9 Agriculture Row Crops 6.2 Residential,Low Density 6.4 Agriculture Citrus 6.4 Open Water/Lakes 7.1 Agriculture General 7.9 Agriculture Pasture 9.9 Residential, Single Family 10.4 Commercial, Low-Intensity 11.5 Highway 14.8 Industrial 16.1 Residential, Multi-Family 18.8 Commercial, High Intensity 28.7 14

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Land Use Information Tool Section 4: Simulated Nitrogen Loading to Groundwater Comment In the late 1990s, Soil and Water Engineering Technology, Inc. performed a watershed assessment with respect to water quality for the Suwannee River Water Management District (SWET, 1998). They used mathematical modeling to simulate the relative impacts of different land uses on nitrogen loading to groundwater. The values in this table should be interpreted with caution since they do not represent measured values. However, it is easy to see that some land uses have more of a predicted impact than others.Land Use Nitrogen Loading to Groundwaterlbs per acre per year Managed landscapes 11 Agriculture Sod farm 16 Residential,low density 19 Agriculture Peach orchard 36 Agriculture Pecan orchard 36 Agriculture Row crops 38 Agriculture Poultry feeding operation 43 Horse farm 46 Agriculture Blueberries 54 Agriculture Dairy 62 Animal race tracks 64 Residential,medium density 66 Nursery Trees 157 Zoo 158 Nursery Ornamentals 188 15

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Land Use Information Tool Section 5: Simulated Effect of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on Nitrogen Loading to Groundwater Comment In this exercise, SWET used their simulation model to predict nitrogen loading to groundwater for several land uses in their current condition, and then re-ran the simulation after implementing recommended BMPs (SWET, 1998). The model predicted that by implementing BMPs, the nitrogen loading would be reduced from 17 to 72% compared with the current condition.Nitrogen Loading to Groundwater Land Use Existing condition After implementation of BMPs Reduction due to BMP implementation lbs per acre per year % Horsefarms 39 11 72 Agriculture Peach and pecan orchards 42 29 31 Agriculture Row crops 46 19 59 Agriculture Poultry feeding operations46 20 57 AgricultureBlueberries 59 40 32 AgricultureDairy 62 29 53 Residential Medium density 66 55 17 Nursery Ornamentals 200 131 35 16

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Land Use Information Tool Section 6: Relative Pesticide Use Pesticides include insecticides, miticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Comment Pesticides are expensive, so they are used sparingly where the value of the crop or plant production is low. They tend to be applied more where crop value is high or visual aesthetics are important. In general, the more highly-valued the product or plant, the more likely that pesticides will be used. Rating Scale None: Pesticides not likely used. Low : Pesticides applied less than once per month. Medium : Pesticides applied one to four times per month. High: Pesticides applied more than once per week. Land Use Relative Pesticide Use Comments Residential and Commercial None to Medium Pesticide application depends on maintenance level desired by landscape manager. Parks and Recreation None to Medium Pesticidesmore likely to be applied to high maintenance turf situations like athletic fields. Golf Courses Medium As the quality of a golf course increases, the amount of pesticides applied tends to increase. Pasture and Range None to Low Difficult to justify pesticide applications to low value crops. Field Crops Low to Medium Pesticide application depends on crop value and pest pressure. Fruit Crops Low Pesticide application depends on crop value and pest pressure. Animal Feeding Operations None to Low Horticulture Medium to High Pesticide application depends on crop value and pest pressure. Forestry None to Low Difficult to justify pesticide applications to low value crops. 17

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Land Use Information Tool Section 7: Availability of Best Management Practices (BMPs) Comment BMPs are available for most of the land uses found in the Florida Springs project study area. Land Use Applicable BMP manual or publication Residential and Commercial Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection. 2002. Florida Green Industries Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources in Florida Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL. Parks and Recreation Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection. 2002. Florida Green Industries Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources in Florida Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL. Golf Courses Elliott, M. L., and J. B. Unruh. 1998. Best Management Practices for Florida Golf Courses. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Pasture and Range Florida Cattlemens Association. 1999. Water QualityBest Management Practices for Cow/Calf Operations in Florida Florida Cattlemens Association, Kissimmee, FL. Field Crops Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office of Agricultural Water Policy. 2003. Florida Vegetable and Agronomic Crop Water Quality and Quantity Best Management Practices Manual Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL. (In development.) Fruit Crops Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office of Agricultural Water Policy. 2002. Nitrogen Best Management Practices (BMPs) forFlorida Citrus Florida Dept. of Agricultureand Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL. Animal Feeding Operations Van Horn, H. H., G. L. Newton, R. A. Nordstedt, E. C. French, G. Kidder, D. A. Graetz, and C. G. Chambliss. 1998. Dairy manure management: Strategies for recycling nutrients to recover fertilizer value and avoid environmental pollution Dairy and Poultry Sciences Dept. Circular 1016. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Horticulture Stamps, R. H. 1995. Irrigation and Nutrient Management Practices for Commercial Leatherleaf Fern Production in Florida Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Gainesville, FL. Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office of Agricultural Water Policy. 2003. Interim Measure for Florida Producers of Container-Grown Plants Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL. Forestry Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry. 2000. Silviculture Best Management Practices Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL. 18

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Land Use Information Tool Section 8: Glossary Abbreviations o bu bushel. o cwt hundredweight (a 100-lb unit). Animal Waste Manure and urine produced by farm animals. Crop Uptake Nutrients taken up from the soil by roots and incorporated into plant tissues. Denitrification Biological conversion of soil nitrate (NO3 -) to gaseous forms of N. This reactionoccurs only in the absence of oxygen. Fertilizer Any substance containing one or more recognized plant nutrients that is applied for its plant nutrient content. Land Use Categories o Low-Density Residential A rural area with lot sizes greater than 1 acre or less than one dwelling unit per acre. Another term for this category is Rural Residential. o Medium-Density Residential A density of one to five dwellings per acre. Another term for this category is Suburban Residential. o High-Density Residential A density of greater than five dwellings per acre. Another term for this category is Urban Residential. o Single-Family Residential Typical detached home community with lot sizes generally less than 1 acre and dwelling densities greater than one dwelling unit per acre; duplexes constructed on onethird to one-half acre lots are also included in this category. o Multi-Family Residential Residential land use consisting primarily of apartments, condominiums, and cluster homes. o Low-Intensity Commercial Areas that receive only a moderate amount of traffic volume in areas where cars are parked during the day for extended periods of time. These areas include universities,schools, professional office sites, and small shopping centers. o High-Intensity Commercial Land use consisting of commercial areas with high traffic volume with constant traffic moving in and out of the area. These areas include downtown areas, commercial office sites,regional malls, and associated parking lots. o Industrial Land uses include manufacturing, shipping and transportation services, sewage treatment facilities, water supply plants, and solid waste disposal.19

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o Highway Includes major road systems such as interstate highways and major arteries and thoroughfares. Roadway areas associated with residential,commercial, and industrial land uses are included with those particular categories. o Agriculture Activities include animal production, grazing, row crops, citrus, and related activities. o Recreation/Open Space Includes recreational land such as parks and ball fields, open space, barren land, undeveloped land that may be occupied by native vegetation, rangeland, and power lines. This land does not include golfcourse areas that are heavily fertilized and managed; golf course areas have runoff characteristics similar to single-family residential areas o Mining/Extractive A wide variety of mining activities for resources likephosphate,sand, gravel, clay, and shell. o Wetlands A wide range of diverse wetland types such ashardwood wetlands, cypress stands, grassed wetlands, freshwater marsh, and mixed wetland associations. o Open Water/Lakes Open water and lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and other open water bodies. Nitrogen Export Nitrogen that may be removed from the land in the harvested portion of a crop. Nitrogen Fixation Biological conversion of atmospheric N2 gas to plant-available N by Rhizobia associatedwith the root system of leguminous plants. Nitrogen Import Nitrogen that may be applied to the land as fertilizers or soil amendments. Pesticides Includes herbicides (weed killers),insecticides(bug killers), nematicides, and fungicides. Soil Amendment A material applied to improve or enhance soil characteristics for plant growth. A soil amendment may also contain required plant nutrients. Volatilization Conversion of ammonium (NH4 +)from manure, fertilizer,or the soil to gaseous ammonia (NH3), which enters the atmosphere.20

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AppendixLand uses found within the Florida springs study area. Urban and Built-Up Residential, LowDensityOil and GasStorage Other Light Industry Governmental Ranchettes Fixed (>5 AC/DU)Mixed Commercial and ServicesPlastic Pipe Plant Correctional Low Density Residential MobileCemeteries Cement Plant Municipal Prison Mobile Home UnitsCommercialUnder ConstructionChemical Processing State Prison Ranchettes MobileIndustrial OtherHeavyIndustrial Other Institutional Facility Low Density Residential MixedFood Processing Pre-StressedConcrete PlantsInstitutionalunderConstruction Ranchettes MixedGrain and Legume ProcessingExtractive Recreational Residential, Medium DensityMeat Packing Facility HeavyMineral Mine Swimming Beach Mobile Home Units, Medium DensityPoultry and/or Egg Proces singPeatGolf Courses Medium Density Residential Mixed Seafood Processing Strip Mines AutomobileRacing Track Residential, High DensityLog Home Prefabrication Sand and Gravel Pits DogRacing Track High Density Residential MobilePlywood and Veneer Mill Dolomite Quarry HorseRacing Track Mobile Home Units, High DensityPulp and Paper Mill Inactive Strip Mine/Rock QuarryRaceTracks Multiple DU LowRise (<= 2 Stories) Saw Mill Limerock Quarry Marinas andFish Camps Multiple DU High Rise (>= 3 Stories)Timber Processing Phosphate Mine City Park High Density Residential MixedWood Yard Rock Quarries Parks and Zoos Commercial and Services Clays Oil and GasFields Zoo Commercial, Retail Sales and Serv. Limerock Processing Old Field Community Recreational Facilities Shopping CenterMineral Processing Reclaimed land Stadium Junk Yards Phosphate Processing Holding Ponds Historic Sites Wholesale Sales and ServicesAsphalt Plant Institutional OtherRecreational Cultural and EntertainmentOil and GasProcessing Educational Facilities Open Land Open Air TheaterAircraft Building and RepairReligious Open Land (Urban) CampgroundBoat Building and Repair Military Undeveloped Urban Land MotelContainer Manufacturer National Guard InstallationInactive Development Land Tourist Services Electronics Hospital Urban Land in Transition Travel TrailerParkMaintenance Yard Medical and HealthCare Other Open Lands Liquified Gases Mobile Home ManufacturerNursing Home 21

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Agriculture Improved Pasture Fruit Orchard Nurseries and Vineyards Horse Farm Unimproved Pasture Peaches OrnamentalNursery Dairy Woodland Pasture Other Groves TreeNursery Kennel Blueberries Pecans SodFarm Aquaculture Corn Abandoned Tree Crops Ornamentals Other Open Lands (Rural) Row Crops Feeding Operations Vineyards Field Crops Cattle Feeding OperationsFloriculture TreeCrops Poultry Feeding OperationOther Specialty Farm Citrus Groves Swine Feeding OperationsSpecialty Farms Rangeland Herbaceous Shrub and Brushland Coastal Scrub Mixed Rangeland Other Shrubs and Brush Palmetto Prairie Upland Forest Upland Coniferous ForestsOther Pine Upland ForestsHardwood-Coniferous MixedTree Plantation Pine Flatwoods Upland Hardwood ForestsDead Trees Coniferous Plantations Longleaf Pine Xeric OaksOakPine Hickory Oak Scrub Forest Regeneration Areas Longleaf Sandhill Temperate Hardwood Sand Pine Scrub Mesic Flatwoods BeechMagnolia Sand Pines Pine MesicOaks Oak Sandhill Australian Pine Water Streams and Waterways Bays and Estuaries Major Springs Lakes EmbaymentsOpening Directly into the Gulf Slough Waters Reservoirs Embayments not Opening Directly into the Gulf Oceans, Seas, and Gulfs Wetlands Wetland Hardwood ForestsInland Pondsand SloughsWetland Forested Mixed Emergent Aquatic Vegetation Bay Swamps Mixed Wetland HardwoodsMixed Scrub-ShrubWetlandSubmerged Aquatic Vegetation Mangrove Swamps Wetland Coniferous ForestsShrub Swamp Non-Vegetated Gum Swamp Cypress Wetland Shrub Tidal Flats Titi Swamps Pond Pine Vegetated Non-forested WetlandsIntermittent Ponds Bottomland Hardwood SwampAtlantic White Cedar Freshwater Marshes Oyster Bar River/Lake Swamp(Bottomland)Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm Saltwater Marshes 22

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Stream and Lake SwampsWet Flatwoods Wet Prairies Barren Land Beaches Disturbed Land Borrow Areas Sand other than Beaches Rural Land in Transition Spoil Area Transportation, Communication, and Utilities Transportation Truck Terminal Oil, Water, or Gas Lines Electrical Power Facilities Transportation Corridor DividedHighway (Federal State)Auto Parking Facilities Electrical Power Substation Airports Highways Highway Rest Area Gas TurbinePower Plant Commercial Airport LimitedAccess Highway Facilitiesunder ConstructionThermal Electrical PowerPlant General Aviation Roads and Highways Communications Electric Power Transmission Lines Private Airport Two Lane Highway Transmission Towers Water Supply Plant Railroads Port Facilities Communications FacilitiesSewage Treatment Bus Terminal Canals and Locks Utilities Solid Waste Disposal 23