Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands

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Title:
Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands
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Fact Sheet
Creator:
Gilbert, Robert A.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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"Published August 2007. Reviewed November 2010."
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"SS AGR 270"

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00003800:00001


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R.A. Gilbert, J.D. Miller, J.C. Comstock, B. Glaz, and S.J. Edme2 1. This document is SS AGR 270, a publication of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published August 2007. Reviewed November 2010. This publication is also part of the Florida Sugarcane Handbook, an electronic publication of the Agronomy Department. For more information, contact the editor of the Sugarcane Handbook, Ronald W. Rice (rwr@ufl.edu). Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. R.A. Gilbert, associate professor, Agronomy Department, Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL: J.D. Miller (formerly) Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL: J.C. Comstock, Research Plant Pathologist, USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL: B. Glaz, Research Agronomist, USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL: S. J. Edme, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. This article was first published in the 2007 Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. In Florida, sugarcane is grown on both organic (78%) and mineral sandland soils (22%). The Canal Point (CP) breeding program has been very successful in producing sugarcane cultivars for organic soils in Florida (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SC083) However, the CP program has been less successful in increasing sandland yields, and growers on sandland soils have expressed interest in testing germplasm (foreign cane) released from programs specifically targeting mineral soils. This EDIS document summarizes field studies established to test foreign cane on Florida sandlands. A set of three experiments was established to evaluate 50 foreign cane genotypes from 11 countries for yield and disease resistance. In experiment 1, 50 clones were planted on a sandy soil at Hilliard Brothers Farms (Table 1). This experiment included 21 clones from the USA (CP, TCP, LCP, US, L), ten clones from China (Yuetang, CGS), five from Colombia (CC, EPC) three from New Guinea (NG), three from Taiwan (ROC), two from the Dominican Republic (CR), two from India (IND, Green German) and one each from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the Philippines. In all experiments, sugarcane yields were recorded 12 months after planting by established methods (Gilbert et al., 2006). Field observations of disease were recorded in the spring of each year. Following plant-cane harvest in experiment 1, 23 high-yielding clones were selected to advance to experiment 2 (Table 2). These clones were planted in single-replicate plots at three mineral soil locations. Field disease observations were recorded in May,

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 2 1999 and final plant-cane yield data were recorded in November, 1999. Following plant cane harvest of experiment 2, eight high-yielding clones were selected to replant at the same three mineral soil locations in experiment 3 in November, 1999 (Table 3). Field disease and yield data were collected for both the plant-cane (P) and first-ratoon (R) crops in experiment 3. In all experiments, the economic index used by the CP breeding program (Deren et al., 1995) was calculated to rank clones. In experiment 3 clones were ranked based on the sum of plant-cane and first-ratoon economic indices (Table 3). The Yuetang clones in experiment 1 (Table 1) were notable for their large stalk weight and low plant population. Yields of Yuetang 85-1253 were 15 tons/acre of cane more than the second-ranked cultivar. Six Yuetang clones were in the top 13 for cane yield. The large stalk size recorded for the Chinese clones may be indicative of their selection for ease of manual harvesting in China. Economic indices of 11 of 13 clones with CP parentage were in the upper half, with none ranking lower than number 32. LCP 86-454 was notable for high plant population and low stalk weight. Clones originating from the USA tended to have high sucrose concentrations, with 12 of the top 14 sucrose concentration values recorded for these clones. Based on economic index and phenotype, 23 clones (italicized in Table 1) were selected for further evaluation in experiment 2. These included 14 clones from the USA, five from China and one each from Argentina, Colombia, India and New Guinea. The six most profitable clones in experiment 2 all had at least one CP parent (Table 2). Brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd.) was observed in 14 of 23 clones in the field. Rust is a disease with economic impact on sugarcane in Florida and is of particular concern for growers on mineral soils. LCP 85-384 and LCP 86-454 were notable for their high plant populations and low stalk weight, while the Yuetang clones exhibited the opposite growth pattern. Clones with USA origin again had the highest sucrose contents on Florida mineral soils. The top ten sucrose concentration values were recorded for these clones. Four of the Yuetang clones were in the top ten in terms of cane yield: however, their low sucrose content reduced their economic index relative to CP clones. The seven clones selected for inclusion with commercial check CP 78-1628 in experiment 3 are italicized in Table 2. Genotypes included in experiment 3 (Table 3) were CP 68-350 (used in Texas and Argentina), CP 78-1628 (check, #1 Florida cultivar on sand), CP 73-1547 (check, previous #2 Florida cultivar on sand), LCP 85-384 (#1 cultivar in Louisiana), LCP 86-454 (Louisiana cultivar), TCP 88-3461 (promising genotype in Texas), US 90-0026 (borer-resistant) and TCP 87-3388 (early-sugar cultivar). CP 68-350 produced significantly greater tonnage than the LCP, TCP and US clones in both plantand first-ratoon crops. TCP 87-3388 was notable for poor tonnage in both crops. The three CP clones selected in Florida ranked higher in tonnage, sucrose yield and economic index than the five foreign canes in both the plant and first-ratoon crops. Rust was observed in the field on the three CP clones as well as on US 90-0026 and TCP 87-3388. The foreign cane cultivars tested were inferior to the CP clones when grown on mineral soils of Florida. One possible explanation is that Florida mineral soils cropped to sugarcane are generally classified as Entisols or Spodosols Entisols or Spodosols with extremely high sand contents (> 90% sand), whereas the foreign canes tested were selected in mineral soils with higher clay contents. Thus, increased selection efforts of CP germplasm on sandy soils may be a more effective strategy than testing of commercial foreign canes on sandland. However foreign cane should continue to be imported for use as parental material in the basic breeding program to improve sugarcane biomass yields and disease resistance. Deren, C.W., Alvarez, J. and Glaz, B. 1995. Use of economic criteria for selecting clones in a

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 3 sugarcane breeding program. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 21:437-447. Gilbert, R.A., Shine Jr. J.M., Miller, J.D., Rice, R.W. and Rainbolt, C.R. 2006. The effect of genotype, environment and time of harvest on sugarcane yields in Florida, USA. Field Crops Res. 95:156-170.

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 4 Yield and economic index data for 50 clones recorded in 1998 plant-cane (Experiment 1). RANK COUNTRY STNO STWT SPT TCA TSA ECON. INDEX of origin Stalks/acre lb/stalk Sucrose lb/ton Cane ton/acre Sucrose ton/acre $/acre 1 FAM 79-432 Argentina 41961 3.33 202 71 7.2 1055 2 CP 68-0350 USA 29172 3.65 230 54 6.3 1052 3 YUETANG 85-1253 China 30609 5.58 182 86 7.8 974 4 CP 70-1133 USA 44260 3.04 196 68 6.7 923 5 L 90-191 USA 47709 2.05 227 50 5.6 873 6 LCP 85-384 USA 34345 3.38 206 59 6.1 870 7 YUETANG 81-4364 China 25292 4.18 206 53 5.5 756 8 NG 51-065 New Guinea 30178 3.25 212 49 5.2 739 9 US 90-0026 USA 41818 2.37 210 50 5.2 729 10 HOCP 85-845 USA 39518 2.23 218 45 4.9 702 11 US 93-0017 USA 34201 2.38 225 41 4.6 683 12 TCP 88-3461 USA 35351 2.54 215 45 4.8 679 13 CP 72-1210 USA 31040 2.57 226 40 4.6 674 14 CP 87-1248 USA 33626 2.21 231 39 4.5 673 15 TCP 89-3498 USA 37219 2.33 211 44 4.6 622 16 YUETANG 63-237 China 30752 3.55 190 55 5.2 619 17 YUETANG 59-065 China 25723 4.28 183 57 5.2 565 18 GREEN GERMAN India 30321 2.61 219 38 4.1 551 19 CC 84-010 Colombia 30034 2.73 203 42 4.3 545 20 Mexico 43111 1.89 204 41 4.2 510 21 YUETANG 71-359 China 33626 3.58 175 60 5.2 505 22 USA 42105 1.84 210 38 4.0 481 23 LCP 86-454 USA 48284 1.94 196 48 4.5 474

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 5 Yield and economic index data for 50 clones recorded in 1998 plant-cane (Experiment 1). 24 CP 70-0321 USA 37075 2.21 197 41 4.1 460 25 CP 78-1628 USA 32046 2.63 197 42 4.1 459 26 TCP 87-3388 USA 27016 2.60 208 36 3.7 439 27 New Guinea 38369 2.22 183 43 4.1 418 28 USA 39662 2.13 185 43 4.0 414 29 Taiwan 27878 2.96 192 41 3.9 403 30 Taiwan 34345 3.20 170 55 4.7 398 31 Colombia 46560 2.21 174 52 4.5 391 32 USA 26441 2.40 211 32 3.4 381 33 Colombia 43398 2.29 170 50 4.3 359 34 Taiwan 29459 2.72 186 40 3.7 336 35 Dominican Rep. 19687 3.37 194 34 3.3 320 36 China 26729 3.06 178 41 3.7 302 37 China 25435 2.86 178 37 3.4 296 38 China 20550 3.90 175 41 3.6 280 39 Phillipines 24573 2.31 202 29 2.9 269 40 USA 31327 2.37 178 38 3.3 246 41 India 19544 3.81 175 38 3.3 237 42 China 28309 3.34 155 48 3.7 173 43 Colombia 32046 1.75 185 28 2.6 164 44 China 35638 2.78 150 50 3.8 160 45 USA 20837 2.61 180 28 2.5 121 46 Brazil 36644 2.50 146 46 3.4 94 47 Dominican Rep. 32046 2.40 143 39 2.8 3 48 Colombia 24861 2.25 156 29 2.2 0 49 USA 37794 1.81 141 35 2.5 -23 50 New Guinea 30178 1.91 124 29 1.8 -162 15700 0.57 32 25 2.5 526 STNO = stalk number, STWT = stalk weight, SPT = sucrose concentration, TCA = cane yield, TSA = sucrose yield.

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 6 Yield, economic index and disease incidence data for 23 clones recorded in 1999 plant cane (Experiment 2). RANK STNO STWT SPT TCA TSA ECON. INDEX DISEASE Stalks/acre Lb/stalk Surcose lb/ton Cane ton/acre Sucrose ton/acre $/ha 1 CP 73-1547 27156 3.76 194 52 5.1 621 2 CP 68-0350 39520 2.89 186 58 5.4 617 R2x1, R3x1 3 36175 2.64 198 46 4.7 593 R1x1 4 TCP 88-3461 33722 3.03 192 53 5.0 592 5 LCP 85-384 44252 1.89 204 41 4.2 507 6 TCP 87-3388 32706 2.74 195 44 4.3 467 R2x1 7 30253 3.28 179 49 4.4 420 R3x2 8 US 90-0026 34416 3.06 178 51 4.5 413 R2x1 9 34094 2.13 193 35 3.5 365 R2x1 10 31219 2.50 191 39 3.7 361 11 30724 2.29 199 35 3.5 358 R1x1 12 31740 2.57 185 40 3.7 343 R3x2 13 36646 1.76 206 31 3.2 341 14 33648 2.50 177 41 3.7 304 R2x2 15 LCP 86-454 46804 1.62 182 38 3.5 288 16 33474 2.73 169 44 3.8 284 17 26487 3.77 170 50 4.1 274 R4x1 18 33400 1.96 177 32 3.0 219 19 28494 3.60 152 50 3.9 193 R2x1 20 25025 3.39 160 42 3.3 155 R3x1 21 25521 2.68 172 34 2.9 149 22 30204 1.77 176 26 2.3 97 R3x1 23 19574 2.98 167 29 2.4 62 R2x1, R3x1 7209 0.68 29 14 1.6 348 STNO = stalk number, STWT = stalk weight, SPT = sucrose concentration, TCA = cane yield, TSA = sucrose yield. Disease ratings: R = rust, 4 = most severe rating, x 1 indicates number of plots (out of 3)

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 7 Yield, economic index and disease incidence data recorded in 2000 (plant cane) and 2001 (first ratoon) for eight clones (Experiment 3). VARIETY CROP STNO STWT SPT TCA TSA EI DISEASE 1 P 33900 3.1 231 52 6.0 990 R3x1, R2x2, R1x4, SMx1 1 R 39188 2.3 236 45 5.4 909 R1x1, SMx1 1 AVG/SUM 36544 2.7 234 48 5.7 1899 2 P 38211 2.5 248 46 5.7 1006 R2x4, R1x1 2 R 42349 1.9 252 40 5.1 876 2 AVG/SUM 40280 2.2 250 43 5.4 1882 3 P 27442 3.3 233 45 5.3 840 R3x3, R2x2, R1x4 3 R 29675 2.8 259 40 5.3 947 R1x2 3 AVG/SUM 28559 3.1 246 43 5.3 1787 4 P 45827 1.9 227 43 4.9 745 4 R 43690 1.7 261 36 4.7 824 4 AVG/SUM 44759 1.8 244 39 4.8 1568 5 P 46071 1.7 235 39 4.5 685 5 R 44754 1.7 260 37 4.8 851 5 AVG/SUM 45413 1.7 247 38 4.7 1536 6 P 30546 2.7 225 40 4.5 651 6 R 32908 2.1 243 34 4.1 641 6 AVG/SUM 31727 2.4 234 37 4.3 1293 7 P 29809 2.5 224 35 4.0 537 R4x1, R3x2 7 R 31160 2.2 239 32 4.0 620 R1x1 7 AVG/SUM 30484 2.4 231 34 4.0 1157 8 P 28568 2.4 225 33 3.7 501 R3x1, R2x3, R1x3

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Performance of Foreign Cane Germplasm on Florida Sandlands 8 Yield, economic index and disease incidence data recorded in 2000 (plant cane) and 2001 (first ratoon) for eight clones (Experiment 3). VARIETY CROP STNO STWT SPT TCA TSA EI DISEASE 8 R 28736 2.2 256 30 3.9 622 R1x9 8 AVG/SUM 28652 2.3 241 31 3.8 1123 P 4726 0.3 19 6 0.8 211 R 4245 0.3 11 5 0.7 173 STNO = stalk number, STWT = stalk weight, SPT = sucrose concentration, TCA = cane yield, TSA = sucrose yield, EI = economic index, units as in Table 2. Disease ratings: R = rust, 4 = most severe rating, x 1 indicates number of plots (out of 18), SM = smut