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DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 1 DON'T SHORTCHANGE THE SURVEY : A THEMATIC APPROACH TO UNCOVERING NON WESTERN ART IN AP ART HISTORY By LACEY VAN REETH A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ART S OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TH E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 2 2013 Lacey Van Reeth
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 3 Acknowledgements I would like to th ank my teacher, friend and mentor Ms. Jenny Gi fford for inviting me to teach art h istory at the Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts back in 2009, and for being part of the editing process of this capstone project; you ignited my career in art education and also consistently set the bar for how to be an involved and selfl essly engaged art educator I would also like to thank Ms. Marsha Russell for h er participation in the editing of this project, for unselfishly sharing her expertise and resources for the teaching of AP Art History and for instilli ng within me the inspir ation and confidence to have fun and get creative in the art h istory classroom. I am also deeply indebted to Ms. Michele Fricke, for it was her contagious enthusiasm for art history that shifted the course of my life back in 2002. Additionally, I would lik e to send many thanks to Dr. Michelle Tillander and Dr. Craig Roland for serving as my committee members, and for helping me slowly but surely hone in on this pr oject while consistently peppering me with reminders to keep it doable over the past year. L astly, I would like to send a big shout out and thank you to all of the students who I have been fortunate enough to have in my classroom over the past five years; each and every one of you pushed me and continue to develop me in one way or another to ward be ing the best teacher I can and I would not be where I am today without all of you.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAST ER OF ARTS DON'T SHORTCHANGE THE SURVEY: A THEMATIC APPROACH TO UNCOVERING NON WESTERN ART IN AP ART HISTORY By Lacey Van Reeth December 2013 Chair: Michelle Tillander Committee Member: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract This capstone pr oject explores the value of online art historical teaching and learning resources when put to use in a global Advanced Placement (AP) Art History classroom. By investigating a variety of existing online content driven and curricular based resources relev ant to AP Art History teachers and their students, I examined t he components of these resources and using my experience as an AP Art History teacher assessed their value to a course that needs to bec ome more cohesively global in its content T he redesign ed AP Art History course, which will launch in 2015 emphasize s the teaching of a rt in a global context, yet online curricular r esources for integrating global art practices and traditions are lacking. Thematically
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 5 teaching course content is a feasible wa y to merge the t eaching of artworks from global traditions and easily manage the expected course content that spans from the art of the Ancient Near East through Global Contemporary traditions. C oncise and clear examples of how teachers should implement th ematic tea ching in their classr ooms are hard to find and often times not well developed Upon the culmination of my research, I created a series of instructional videos for AP Art History teachers that demonstrate how to thematically link works of art fro m global cultures while maintaining a linear chronology that I feel is important for beginning art h istory students APAH in Themes ( https://www.youtube.com/user/apahinthemes ) is a series of short videos th at each compare two diverse works of art that are linked by an overarching, globally present theme; these themes include Sacred Spac es, Power & Authority, Nature and Violence
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page ....1 UF Copyright page ..2 Acknowledgements .3 UF Formatted Abstract ... 4 Table of Contents ... 6 Introduction 8 Statement of the Problem . .. . 9 Purpose of the St udy .. 10 Assumptions of the Study .. 11 Limitations of the Study . 12 Literature Review .. 12 Methodology.. 17 Area of Focus ... . 18 Data Collection Procedures and Analysis . .18 Limitations . .. . 19 Findings 20 AP Art History: Present and Future ... ... 20 Smarthistory & AHTR: Online Content and Curricular Resources ... .. .22 Proliferation of Content Via Video: Amor Sciendi and 82 nd & Fifth . ... 25 Summary across all Findings . ... 28 Conclusion and Recommendations ... 29 Significance, Implications and Recommendations .. .. 29
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 7 APAH in Themes Online Video Series . 30 Globalizing AP Art History & Reaching Beyond the Exam. 33 Conclusion .. ... ... ............ 34 References. .. ...35 List of Figures and Figure Captions ... ... 38 Author Biography .. ... 39
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 8 Globalizing Art History If you flip through any major art history survey textbook ( e.g., Adams, 2011 or Kleiner, 2009 ) the chapters that cover cultures of people firmly rooted or linked to European history take precedence If a textbook does contain material from beyond the Euro centric tradition, the chapters are condensed to a miniscule size that pale in comparison to their Western counterparts (Stokstad, 2008). For example, in Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Global His tory (2009) the entirety of some of the oldest civilizations in the world such as the Indus Ri ver Valley and China are compressed into two short chapters each while the Italian Renais sance alone dominates four As a new teacher of AP Art History fully e mbedded in this 21 st century digital world, I often wonder what can be done with technology to more cohesively and respectfully i ntegrate global cultures into an art history course that has forever been dominated by E uro centric superiority. This capstone r esearch project aim s to help teachers of AP Art History and other secondary art history survey courses easily manage course content by allow ing for thematic comparing and contrasting of art works from global cultures. A fter coming to the realization that global integration was the major area of AP Art History in need of development in the course's curriculum I investigated online resources that might assist m e in designing and implementing a new global AP Art History curriculum set to launch in 2015. As a result of my experience teaching the course and discovering the needs of AP teachers in the process, I investigated online resources in search of areas in need of development when compar ed to curricular requirements. Based on these findings, I created a series of instructional videos that help guide AP Art History teachers towards thematically weaving global cultures from beyond the European tradi tio n into their chronological curriculum s This capstone paper supports the need for curricular restructur ing, digital supplementation, and
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 9 thematic teaching in the AP Art History classr oom based on the present needs of the course, and the curricular components of the recently announc ed AP Art History Curriculum F ramework (2013) launching in the fall of 2015 Statement of the Problem The art history survey course has long been structured as a linear progression through the history of Western fine art The information is neatly compartmentalized into chapters in massive text books ( e.g., see Adams, 2011 or St okstad, 2008 ) that do not fully promote the cultural overlaps, influences trends, themes, and interactions that occur throughout global history Well known and often used survey textbooks such as Gardner's (2009) and Stokstad (2008) have until recently mi nimized the majority of world cultures from beyond the Eur opean tradition such as Islamic, Buddhist, and Japanese Art As a teacher of AP Art History, I am constantly seeking new ways to present information to my students especially in regards to more c ohesively int egr ating n on Western art into a largely Western curriculum and using digital technology and online resources to help me do it I am fortunate to be provided with textbooks and other supplementary materials by my school but many are outdated a nd lacking in much of the content that the College Board cur rently asks to be covered in their curriculum In addition, it is rare to ge t new textbooks for AP Art History as they can reach upwards of $170.00 per copy, so I have had no choice but to find supplementary material online The AP Art History curriculum covers innumerable artworks made during a span of more than 4,000 years, which can be intimidatin g for both students and teacher s at the start of the course While t he College Board offers both curricular and methodological suggestions for teachers they leave it up to the individual educators to ultimately decide on their teaching methods and curricular design; t his open ended curriculum model is likely welcome d by teachers
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 10 who have the e xtra t ime to be creative and build educational tools, but can become burdensome and overwhelming for those teachers who do not While the re are online content resources av ailable, such as Smarthistory and Art History Teaching Resources 1 many are not organized s pecifically for the needs of the AP Art History course T eacher s can often not afford to devote the extra time that it takes to make new classroom resources develop a thematic approach to the course, or work on implementing other new teaching methodologi es that could help them with more cohesively teaching art history in a truly global context Purpose of the Study The purpose of my research was to study the value of existing online art history resources to secondary art history education particularly the curricular requirements of the AP Art History course I investigate d current online resour ces available to AP Art History teachers in order to understand their organization and how they might be either useful or detrimental to AP teachers building a global art history curriculum S pecifically, I explored online resources that aim ed to organize and associate global works of art from both Western and non Western civilizations in a the matic way, which allows for strong comparative learning opportunitie s in the classroom and accommodates the AP curriculum's non Western requirements Research Questions The primary focus of this research began with a question that I myself tackle with in my classroom each year, that is "H ow can AP Art History teachers co hesively integrate n on Western art into their curriculums and use digital technology t o help enrich their teaching practices in this area ? I then broke down this big question into three sma ller research questions that enabled me to investigate the teachin g approaches and curricular components needed to 1 Smarthistory can be accessed by going to http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ and Art History Teaching Resources can be accessed by going to http://arthistoryteachingresources.org/
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 11 make the AP Art History classroom successful The research questions I answer throughout this study are below. 1. Where is there need for improvement in the AP Art H istory cou rse in terms of both curriculum a nd teaching practices according the AP Development Committee ? 2. What non Western and thematic digital resources are currently available to AP Art History teachers and how can they be blended into their curriculum? 3. How should global course content for an AP Art History course that uses overarching themes be structured ? Rationale and Significance of the Study This study is needed because online resources such as Smarthistory and Art His tory Teaching Resources available for use in the AP Art History c lassroom do not currently provide the needed resources to properly implement the thematic teachin g of global traditions. Additionally, these resources do not engage learners in comparative and contrasting associations of artworks that encourage a deeper u nderstanding of content. I feel that tea chers of AP Art History need access to resources that a llow them to see t he possibilities that exist in thematic teachin g and also need guidance on what digital resources are most valuable as supplementary course co ntent in the AP Art History classroom. Assumptions of the Study A major assumption of this study was that global art historical instruction is a necessity in secondary art history classrooms. Additionally, in conducting this study I assumed that current t eachers of AP Art History see the need for change and adapt at ion in light of the recently announced re design of the AP Art Hist o r y course, set to launch in the fall of 2015. In connection with this previous assumption, I also assume that teachers of th is course stay current
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 12 with College Board announcements and stay tuned with what areas of their course are in need of development. I also assumed that other teachers of AP Art History seek information through online resources as much as I do, and aim at d eepening their knowledge of subject matter whenever possible. Limitations of the Study The APAH in Themes video resource I created and the research I conducted along with it revolve around the College Board's AP Art History course and curr iculum, which I have taught for the last three years. I realize that it is not a course offered at all high schools and i t is not my intention to ostracize non AP Art History teachers in the p rocess of conducting this study I feel that the research I conducted and the final online videos I created will be useful to all art educators and perhaps even teachers of other humanities course s who wish to work towards developing a global curriculum My personal attachment with the course and in class professional experiences w ith my students also impacted some decisions I mad e when creating the final product s and I fully acknowledge that this was created from a biased position. Literature Review The Expectations of AP Art History Since 1955, the College Board's Advanced Place ment (AP ) program has developed and maintained guidelines for teaching a great variety of courses at a college level in a high school setting. The AP program allows students to experience college level academic intensity while they are still in high schoo l. Passing scores can earn students coll ege credits and potentially give them the ability to bypass introductory courses in those subjects once they enroll in college in the future. AP Ar t History is one of approximately 30 courses offered by the
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 13 College Board's AP program and in it students are expected to learn a great deal about the history of global art from ancient civil i zations through the contemporary era. According to the College Board's AP Art History Course Description (2012), students enrolle d in the course are expected to examine and critically analyze many forms of artistic expression from pas t and present cultures in addition to understanding the f unction of artworks in context. In order to understand the context of artworks, teache rs are e xpected to help student s examine historical factors such as politics, economics, religion, gender and class. Approximately 20% of t he current course curriculum is to be devoted to art from beyond the Euro pean tradition 2 Based on years of exam data, t he co urse description now emphasizes a growing concern amongst the AP Art History development committee that teachers are focusing too heavily on the cultures of Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt which is proving detrimental to the art of the Islamic, Asian, Mesoa merican, African and Oceanic cultures. In October of 2013, the College Board released a new Curriculum F ramework 3 (2013) f or a revised version of AP Art History that launches in the fall of 2015 and focuses on the truly global context ual teaching of art a nd increases the n on Western course content to 35%. 2 According the AP Art History Course Description (2012), art from beyond the European tradition (also known as non Western art) includes the art of the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Africa, So uth & Southeast Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Oceania, Islam and the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. 3 Released on October 10 th 2013 this new course framework lessens the expected content coverage for AP Art History teachers to only 250 works of art, but asks that they dig deeper into contextual understandings and rem oves the labels of Western and n on Western art in an attempt to create a course that is truly global. This new framework is over 200 pages long and divides the entirety of art histor y into 10 content areas, providing teachers with big ideas, specific learning objectives and examples of evidence teachers should look for to assess student achievement in each content area. The new AP Art History Curriculum Framework can be viewed at http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/2013advances/ap art history curriculum framework.pdf
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 14 The Course D escription (2012) also encourages AP Art History teachers both novice and experienced to consult sources outside of the ir chosen course textbook in order to strengthen both their collection of visual resources and their knowledge of the material. In the AP Art History Teac her's Gu ide Darracott (2009) acknowledges the impact that recent and rapid technological change has had on the subject, for it has allowed unprecedented access to informa tion a nd imagery that has changed the future of the course Darracott believes that the use of the Internet in classroom instruction can enhance the course by connecting students with current events issues and context that can then be compared to art his torical issues of the past. A Ne ed for Change? What's Right and Wrong With the Art History Survey While art history is only one of many survey courses that exist in education, the subject has forever connected the word survey with a year long chronologica l introduction to Western art that focuses on high cultures (Graham, 1995). Little believes that the traditional chronological format should be maintained in the survey in order provide students with a fundamental grounding of context and history while Co stache believes that chronology can be main tained as long as relevant connections are established between the past and present through cross chronological and cross cultural comparisons (Phelan Concannon, Costache, Desmond, Little, & Shipps, 2005) Darrco tt (2010) states that a chronological approach to teaching art history provides a comforting sense of coherence, contradicting Graham (1995) who believes that the traditional linear approach is oblivious to cultural interaction and is in complete contradic tion with the practices of art history today. One of t he biggest challenges with the AP Art H istory surve y course is the more than 4,000 year s of artistic production and innumerable artworks that students, mostly without any art or art history background at all, are expected to digest in a small period of time (Phelan et al.,
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 15 2005). Finding ways to fit all of the content into a relatively short academic year can be challenging for teachers and Desmond (2005) suggests that teaching through big ideas is mor e valuable to students and will help them r emember information longer versus memorizing facts alone Darracott (2009 ) documents that the effective integration of art from beyond the European tradition the use of primary s ources and historical documents, a nd the study of contemporary art are all area s of needed enrichment for the AP Art History course. Gunnin (2010) suggests that themes are a savv y way for AP Art History teachers to infuse non Western art into a short year but does not endorse a complet ely thematic approach because the jumpy nature of a purely thematic curriculum has the potential to confuse students new to the discipline Graham 's (1995) argument for rejecting the traditional art history narrative and themat i zing content fully in order for teachers to free themselves from the constriction of canonicity is in harmony with Halsey Dutton (2002) who believes as many others do that as globalization increases so to o should the understanding and respect for other cultures. Howard (2013) argues that teachers who opt for a thematic approach to global integration should guard against simplification, and continue to ground art historical pedagogy in the discussion of an artwork's context, funct ion, and formal elements. Howard warns against reductio nism, but believes that through thematic comparisons students develop deeper understandings of artworks by exploring the differences in the contexts and functions of the artworks in question. Finally, k eeping the survey lively, engaging and contemporary w ith teaching practices is another challenge that the teachers of the survey must take on. Desmond states that it is imperative to define the audience we tea ch and establish how they learn, while Costache adds that a fundamental objective of the survey is t o ensure that content is interesting and meaningful to a 21 st century audience (Phelan et al., 2005). Implementing the use of the digital cultu re that
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 16 student s engage in daily within the survey classroom is a welcome addition, allowing for virtual field tr ips to far away places and in to t he past T here is a need amongst teachers of the survey to find an effective pedagogy that takes full advantage of new technologies that are available to them (Cohen, 1997). Digital Resources in the Art History Classroom As digital techn ologies have evolved, so to o have the explorations of technology's place in the classroom. Baca and Tranzo (2006) believe in the potential power that technology has to enrich traditional art his tory scholarship, but emphasize that resources need to be controlled, reliable and authentic in an era of quick Google ¨ searches and Wikipedia page skimming. Since the lack of access to a multitude of online art history resources is no longer a limitation, creatively fusing technology into teaching pr actices is a wise decision in a n era when budgets for additional resources are often tight (Halsey Dutton, 2002). Cohen (1997) emphasizes that there are still trade offs when using digital technologies in teaching, for as teachers we continue to have the p rimary task of enabling students to analyze, understand and discuss works of art as they encounter them in the real world. Fisher (2013) notes that the big name art history survey textbooks devote twice as much space to the Western world than any other c ultures, which limited her ability to teach a truly global art history survey using only the book her institution provided S he argues for the end of the compulsory art history survey textbooks and the integration of free ly accessible g lobal online resourc es that can be adapt ed to many learning styles. The various ways in which to do this remain open to each individual educator, but the curricular goals of the AP Art History survey should be kept in mind when deciding what types of digital elements a re val uable enough to integrate into the curriculum
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 17 Conclusion Due to the areas of the art history course cur rently in need of development and the availability of quality course supplements, t he AP A rt H istory teacher needs to continually adapt. Additionally the AP Art History course redesign that shifts its focus to a truly gl obal curriculum looms in the future, and teachers need to prepare. The traditional art historical survey is outdated, and the use of thematic comparative teaching can greatly help tea chers manage the consuming course content that currently spans over 4,000 years of art production across the globe. Digital resources shou ld not be taken for granted and should be used to supplement course textbook content whenever possible in the art hist ory classroom Research Methodology The primary method of re search for this capstone was practice led research as I investigated ways to thematically integrate n on Western art in to the AP Art History curriculum while also looking to enhance digital pedag ogical practices at the same time. Candy (2006) describes practice led research as research that intends to advance knowledge within a practice, which is what I intended on doing for AP Ar t History and other art h istory survey instructors with this resear ch and project While practice led research is most closely associated with action research my end product was not implemented in a classroom setting officially for the sake of this study and its effectiveness and was not analyzed and observed in practice with teacher or student participants McNamara (2012) warns against the subjectivity that can become quite apparent with practice led research and reminds us that the goal of the research should be to explain something of significance to a larger communit y of people, not simply yourself. Nimkulrat (2007) describes practice led research as recent and unique because the researcher will eng age in the study of his or her personal artistic practice. While my practice as a teacher is
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 18 not an art form, per se, my end product is a reflection of my profession al experiences and knowledge of the practices and needs of an AP Art History teacher. Area of Focus I focused on the curricular components of the art history survey specifically AP Art History, in order to in vestigate areas of the course in need of development. I also investigated existing onli ne resources relevant to the AP Art History curriculum in order to study their strengths and we aknesses for possible inclusion in the course. I then formulate d an onlin e video resource 4 that allow s teachers to discover new teaching methods for thematic, cross chronological and cross cultur al comparisons Data Collection Procedures and Analysis Data was collected by investigating four existing online art historical re sources that were in some way relevant to the study of AP Art History. Since this research is primarily practice led and my study was without human subjects, my personal experiences and knowledge gained as an AP Art History instructor became my guide thr ough this research. Using my pr ofessional knowledge in regards to the expectations and teaching of this course, I investigated these web sites and analyzed ways in which t hey presented, organize d and associate d works of art. I then assessed how valuable the resource would be as a content or curricular supplement to AP teachers attempting to more cohesively implement non Western art into their course I first analyzed and then compared the content and features of these existing online resources in order to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of each based on the curricular requirements of AP Art History and areas recognized as being in need of development From these findings I for mulate d a thematic approach to presenting course content tha t I felt was a 4 APAH in Themes videos can b e accessed at https://www.youtube.com/user/apahinthemes
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 19 desirable cohesive, and manageable way to structure artworks from Western and non Western cultures togeth er for my online video resource In order to ensure that these videos remained relevant and acces sible to AP teachers, I requested the help of two a dditional AP Art History instructors with more than 20 years of experience combined to review the videos as I completed them and asked them to provide me with detailed feedback in regards to their strengths and weaknesses I sought the guidan ce of teacher s actively engaged the course in order to ensure that the videos delivered quality content that was relevant to the course and reflected the expectations of the AP curriculum. The feedback received by the two instructors included both praise and criticis ms regarding the accuracy of contextual content, the clarity of narration, the relationship of images to the narration, in addition to the pacing of the videos. Each video was edited as a result of their feedback in order to ensure that their content was r elevant to the course expectations and that they presented the artworks from both civilizations equally These videos not only present a clear and concise thematic com parison of one Western and one n on Western work, but they also organize valuable online c ourse content relevant to the featured artworks and provide methodological strategies for teachers to implement thematic teaching and the use of online resources within the traditional art history survey. Limitations A limitation of this practice led metho d of research was that I only explored online resources used in my practice in search of content and curricular support that could benefit the AP Art History course, specifically. I limited the online resources I explore d to four, and chose resour ces I kn ew to be heavily relied upon by AP Art History teachers based on communication and networking I have established with other educa tors in the AP community.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 20 Additionally, the exploration and analysis of these online resources was limited by focusing only o n offerings within them that emphasize or outline thematic approaches to art history or that cover art from beyond the European tradition. Findings The following three sections will fo cus on my findings within the current and future AP Art History cour se description and prospective. First, I share my findings while investigating the online content and curricular re sources of Smarthistory and Art History Teaching Resources Lastly, I discuss the discoveries I made while researching the online video resourc es on the Amor Sciendi YouTube C hannel and the Metropolitan Museum of Art's 82 nd & Fifth video collection. AP Art History: Present and Future According to the most current AP Art History Teacher's Guide (2009), one of the most pressing concerns for the course development committee was the observation that students relied too heavily on artworks made by the Ancien t Near Eastern and Egypt ian civilizations when answering 30 minute essay questions. In 2010, the course development committee decided to elim in ate the study of Prehistoric A rt from the course due to its lack of contextual evidence while als o amending their discussion of cultures from beyond the European tradition in the course description. While the committee did not completely forbid the use of Ancient Near Easter n and Egyptian examples on exam essay questions, they did emphasize that the intent of the n on Western 30 minute essay question was to "draw from areas such as Africa (beyond Ancient Egypt), the Americas, Islamic cultures, and Oceania" (p.34). More so than a message to students, this reads a s a message to teachers to go beyond teaching only the art of the Ancient Near East and Egypt and delve into other global artistic traditions as well.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 21 O n October 10 th 2013, the College Board released a new course prospective for AP Art History that has been in development for many years This new AP Art History Curriculum Framework (2013) emphasizes the teaching of art history on a global scale. Instead of emphasizing that 20% of the course curricu lum be devoted to art from beyond the European tradition, the redesigned course framework attempts to abandon those words altogether, ceasing the use of the words non Western throughout the text. Instead, the 250 artworks are divided into ten content areas that are organized by regions on a global timeline (see Figure 1). T he redesign addresses the major challenges AP Art History teachers face such as balancing course content while also developing deep conceptual and contextual understandings with their s tudents by "specifying learning objectives, defining course content, and limiting the number of works 5 of art 5 The AP Art History development committee has minimized the expect course coverage to is 250 works. This is the first time the College Board has established a set number of works that AP Art History students are required to have knowledge of. Figure 1. The 10 content areas outline by the new AP Curriculum Framework (2013)
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 22 students are required to understand in order to support their in depth learning, critical analysis skills, and discovery of connections among glob al traditions" (p.1). S marthistory & AHTR: Online Content and Curricular Resources Choosing next to focus on online resources that were prolific in their ability to offer both excellent content additions and curricular suggestions for AP Art History teac hers, I investigated Smarthistory.org 6 for both quality n on Western content offerings and curricular suggestions, as well as ArtHistoryTeachingResources.org 7 for curriculum suggestions offered by colleagues internationally Smarthistory is more content dri ve n, nicely de signed and cleanly organized. It allow s for easy navigation by either searching through time period (dates), style (periods or movements), or artist. Smarthistory offers over 500 videos and nearly 300 essays about works of art from many diffe rent periods and civilizations. Smarthistory offer s some healthy n on Western content, especially for the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt South Asia and Islam. The we bsite offers minimal content for the art of China, Japan, and the A mericas, while it offers none on Africa (beyond Ancient Egypt), Southeast Asia, or Oceania. Altogether, this led me to the conclusion that Smarthistory is in need of the same development as the AP Art History course for the Ancient Near East and Egyptian offerings are bountiful while the other n on Western cultures fall by the wayside. Additionally, Smarthistory offers a tab that enables you to search by theme, but this tab does not offer themes that deal with overarching big ideas fou nd globally. I nstead it offers options like 6 Smarthistory.org merged with the free online education resource Khan Academy in late 2011. The online art history textbook featuring both text and vi deo resources can be viewed by going to http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ 7 ArtHistoryTeachingResources.org is a peer populated site that began as a project by the graduate Art History department at The City University of New York in early 2011 and was intended to be a resource that enabled new art history teachers to hit the ground running. The website can be viewed by going to http://arthistory teachingresources.org/
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 23 Understanding Basics and Media which I found to be misleading, oddly organized, and offering no support for the global course components I was searching for (see Figure 2). Figure 2. The odd offerings of the Smarthistory.KhanAcademy.org Themes tab Lastly, I explored the Teach with Smarthistory 8 link found at the top of the website's homepage. This page offers two sample syllabi that utilize only Smarthistory content in teaching; ne ither of these syllabi feature n o n Western components of any kind While the quality of the content that Smarthistory offers is excellent, it provides only minimal n on Western content and gives no suggestion s or curricular samples for how to cohesively blend the teaching of truly 8 Teach with Smarthistory can be accessed by going to http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/create your own content1.html
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 24 global culture s together in the classroom. Smarthistory is a Western centric website that does not adequately meet the needs of the AP Art History teacher and classroom. I also inv estigated the peer populated online resources found on the website ArtHistoryTeachingResources.org (AHTR) which is more curriculum than content drive n This website offers a space for teachers to share their resources, and for those in need to reach out a nd borrow ideas, suggestions, or creations that teachers have made for the art history classroom While this website is not specifically devoted to the needs of AP Art History, most of the content prove s very valuable for the needs of the AP course, as m any of the contributing educators are currently or have at one time been AP Art History teachers Art History Teaching Resources (AHTR) offers sample assignments, books suggestions, video links, sample syllabi, suggestions for art history writing, and ex tensive lecture notes provided by professi ona ls in the field These lecture notes include an extraordinary amount of content from all n on Western cultures, in addition to art from the Western world. The sample syllabi provided by AHTR are all traditionally chronological, and the thematic syllabi mentioned is attributed to Smarthistory.org but the link provided to that thematic syllabus no longer exists. R ecently published article s 9 on the AHTR website by Dell'Aria (2013) and Fisher (2013) tackle the issue of how t eachers should go about approaching such diverse cultures in one class, for which they endorse teaching the art history survey in a thematic way. Nonetheless, there are no sample s yllabi or specific example s for teachers to follow in order to begin a thematic approach within their classroom located on Art History Teaching Resources (see Figure 3) 9 Read Ms. Dell'Aria's arg ument for a thematic survey course and her tales of how she is trying it in her own classroom by going to http://arthistoryteachingresources.org/20 13/10/15/the thematic survey a comparative approach/ Read Ms. Fisher's article by going to http://arthistoryteachingresources.o rg/2013/08/30/thematic approaches six degrees of separation in art history/
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 25 Figure 3. The peer populated Art History Teaching Resources homepage Proliferation of Content Via Video: Amor Sciendi and 82 nd & Fifth Lastly, I inves tigated two online art historical video resources aside from the videos provided on Smarthistory in order to discover whether or not they provided valuable Non Western content, or methodological and curricular suggestions for thematic teaching art history. I studied both the Amor Sciendi YouTube 10 series of videos produced by New York based educator 10 Amor Sciendi YouTube Channel and videos can be viewed by going to http://www.youtube.com/user/AmorSciendi/videos
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 26 James Earle and his students, along with many of the videos produced by t he Metropolitan Museum of Art and made available for viewing via their 82 nd & Fifth 11 onl ine video collection. Am or Sciendi has 43 videos that highligh t one significant work of art each, but quickly and thoroughly dive into rich contextual and conceptual information in regards to the civiliza tion or culture during which the art was made. On ly two of the 43 videos deal with a work of art that is considered n on Western, and all of the videos are purely content driven (see Figure 4) While t hese videos did not offer curricular suggestions that would benefit the AP Art History 11 82 nd and Fifth (which is the address of the Metropolitan Museum) is a collection of 100 videos that is in progress but will eventually showcase 100 great works of art from global cultures that are part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's collection. E ach of the 100 videos will be narrated by a different curator, and all of the videos that are currently completed (93 as of November 30, 2013) can be viewed by going to http://82nd and fifth.me tmuseum.org/#/new/ Figure 4: A screen shot of some of Amor Sciendi's vid eo offerings
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 27 classroom, I did value them for their relatively short length and plentiful contextual information, which makes them an excellent resource for use in class. While I did not discover any substantial non Western content or thematic suggestions, the quick paced and loaded vid eo format the channel uses in video production make for an appealing in class resource 82 nd & Fifth's collection of videos is much richer in terms of it s offering of global content but is also purely content driven. One work from the museum's collection is fo cused on in each video, with a different curator from the museum researching and narrating each episode. A variety of n o n Western artworks are featured and the curators provide in depth contextual information about the artworks One particularly strong ch aracteristic of the 82 nd & Fifth collection of videos is that it allows you to search for the videos via a global m ap on Google Earth ¨ (see Figu re 5 ). This global search allows the true global scale of this project to be visually evident on the map. Fi gure 5 : The Google Earth global search tool on the 82nd & Fifth website
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 28 Summary Across All Findings Upon the conclusion of my research, it is clear that the College Board resources for AP Art History such as the Course Description (2012) and the recentl y released Curriculum Framework (2013) reveal that one of the most pressing area s in need of development for the course and its teachers is the cohes ive and respectful integration of art in context on a global scale. In comparison to their Western counterp arts, artworks from n on Western global cultures have substantially less online content available to help bolster the professional knowledge of teacher s and supplement in class learning for students; this is particularly true with global cultures beyond the Ancient Near East, Egypt, and Islam. Curricular support, guid ance, or examples that support a thematic approach in the art hist ory classroom are sparse, and still leave much to be des ired by teachers. While there are a plethora of online resources that ex ist for AP Art History teachers, there is little guidance in regards to ways they should be used in combination with a traditional l ecture style art history course S ample syllabi are available and the use of a thematic approach is suggested, but the re is a lack of examples on these websites that s how teachers how to implement the se approaches in th eir classrooms While the College Board and other proponents support and endorse thematic teaching as a way to help teachers reign in and more cohesively link t he expected content of the AP Art History curriculum there is a lack of clearly and concisely organized thematic curriculum, unit, or lesson examples for the art history teacher and classroom This too leads me to believe that it is up to each teacher to emphasize themes and structure content to correspond with those themes as they see fit in their own teaching practice
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 29 Conclusion and Recommendations When beginning this research project it was my goal to discover the area or areas of AP Art History in greatest need of development, to investigate the potential that online resources have to perhaps accommodate areas in need, along with developing a structure for delivering course content using a thematic approach in order to more efficiently and cohesive ly integrate global art historical traditions into the teaching of the course. Literature supported the bolstering of n on Western content in the AP Art History classroom via a partially or fully thematic curriculum that manages content by teaching through big ideas. Additionally, scholarly sources provided a strong foundation for the use of digital components in the art history classroom, which have the ability when used prope rly to virtually take students on global field trips a nd more easily explore dive rse ideas and content from global traditions and pers pectives By exploring and analyzing a sampling of online art historical resources that contained both content and curricular support relevant for the AP Art History classroom, I determined that the gre atest need for teachers of this subject was to have more specific and relevant guidance and examples to help them im plement a thematic approach to n on Western integration in their classrooms. In the following section, I will discuss the significance of my findings and my subsequent video series project, and the implications that it has for the present and future teaching of this course. Significance, Implications, and Recommendations The past months of studying the value of online art historical resources has allow e d me to see that despite the rec ent push for more diversity and global emphasis in American classrooms, the subject of art history still remains to be substantially Western in nature. While I understand the firm and long standing roots of the su bject may take a while to fully change it was surp rising
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 30 to me to discover that so many new and developing online sources created by 21 st century minds continue to fall short in adequately represent ing many of these global cultures in comparison to their Western counterparts. Elkins (2006) claims that art history as a discipline avoided losing canonical works of art in textbooks by simply continuing to enlarge and add the content of global traditions, in turn making the discipline extensive ver sus intensiv e in nature T hese large textbooks skim the surface of global traditions because they feel obligated to offer them, but don't dig as deep as the y do in chapters containing European and American male painters, sculptors and architects. I observed through my investigation of online resources that this practice has largely continued in the digital kin of the art history survey textbooks, namely Smarthistory It is obvious to me through my research of online art historical sources and the clear state ments made in the College Boar d's AP Art History Course D escription (2012) and the new Curriculum Framework (2013) that time and effort must be put towards establishing teaching methods that allow for a global AP Art History classroom. APAH in Themes Online Video Series The creation of my onl ine video series APAH in Themes videos and YouTube channel ( https://ww w.youtube.com/user/apahinthemes ) was created with teachers of AP Art History and secondary ar t history survey classes in mind. It took me a substantial amount of time and effort to get on my feet when first teaching this course, which can be a staggering challenge when a teacher sees just how much content they are required to cover with their stud ents. While these thematic videos will most certainly aid AP teachers currently, this project has the potential to keep growing, as teachers will need to fortify and expand their knowledge of global cultures and traditions in order to be successful with t he new course that is set to launch in the fall of 2015. Now is the time for AP teachers to begin their pursuit of additional knowledge
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 31 and skills that will enable to them to teach art history in a global context I t took me a substantial amount of time a nd effort to get on my feet when first teaching this course, which can be a staggering challenge when a teacher sees just how much content they are required to cover with their students. While these thematic vid eos will most certainly aid AP teachers curr ently, this project has the potential to keep growing, as teachers will need to fortify and expand their knowledge of global cultures and tradition s in order to be successful with the new course that is set to launch in the fall o f 2015 (see Figure 6) Now is the time for AP teachers to begin their pursuit of additional knowledge and skills that will enable to them to teach art history in a global context. Whe n developing the APAH in Themes video series, I made a l ist of what I felt were the four most p revalent and important themes found globally throughout my current AP Art History curriculum ; Sacred Spaces, Power & Authority, Nature and Violence In order to ensure this project was relevant for not only the present AP curriculum, but also for the red esigned course launching in 2015, I chose the works to comparatively present within each thematic video Figure 6: APAH in Themes Video series on YouTube
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 32 from the newly released list of 250 core ar tworks created for the redesigned course 12 By analyzing the format of past AP exams, I have come to an under standing that most often the artworks students are questioned on in a compa rative fashion side by side are not only thematically linked, but also made with similar mediums or with the same technique. Therefore, both artworks I chose for each video were mad e with similar m aterials or techniques. Lastly, before the production of these videos commenced I wa nted to make the sure the relatively small quantity of episodes I was creating would reflect many global cultures. Each video compares on e Western and one n on Western artwork, but no two a rtworks in any of the videos were mad e by the same civilization during the same era or by the same artist. The civilizations and eras represented throughout the videos in chronological order are Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome Byzantium, Islam Gothic, Aztec, Benin, Japanese Edo, and British Romanticism. T he cohesive teaching of art from beyond the European tradition was the major concern of the AP Ar t History development committee that I chose to focus on exclusively for th is pro ject, because I felt it is the most pressing for the present and future di rection of this course. However, the College Board also expressed conce rn that global contemporary art was lack ing in coverage as well. I intend on continuing the production of APAH in Themes vi deos beyond the scope of this capstone project ; I would like to expand the content coverage and produce vid eos that thematically weave together both historical and contemporary global art. I would also like to create a video channel aime d at student viewers, while maintaining the production of this video series geared towards a teacher audience I intend to explore how to best organize videos that would be most valuable to students who will be participants of the new, truly global AP Art History co urse set to launch in 2015. 12 The complete list of 250 required artworks for the redesigned AP Art History course is available at http://media.collegeboard.com/digit alServices/pdf/ap/2013advances/appendixes.pdf.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 33 Globalizing AP Art History & Reaching Beyond the Exam The conversation of global art history seems to have only just begun and as both an eternal student and art educator who pushes for a diverse classroom experience, I will continue to remain an active participant in that conversation An interesting argument and conversation put forth by Elkins (2006) is that art historical traditions in non Western global cultures beyond Europe and America do not really exist The tradition of art history as a discipline is a thoroughly Western one, so it makes me wonder what that means for the future of the global art history argument. If we continue to travel down the path of globalizing the discipline of art history, which seems likely, w ill it be truly global if it is being written from a Western perspective? It is an interesting consideration to make as we begin to travel further down this path in the AP Art History classroom. To conclude t his section, I would also like to address the way in which this project has focused on the curricular requirements of the AP Art History course. I feel this project may come across as one that place s emphasis on the course components that are necessary to ensure students can pass the cumulative AP ex am that is admin istered at the beginning of May and nothing else. It cannot be denied that earning a high score on the AP exam is a good goal for students to have; higher AP scores earn the high schools that administer them money and have the potential to result in more college credit for the student. Howe ver beneficial high scores may b e to both the school and the student, I would like to make it clear that often times the more fruitful outcomes of teaching this course are not reflected in the results of t he AP exams. Hearing from m y colleagues that a student uses new vocabulary he or s he learned in my class during critiques, or observing students make connections, comparison s or exciting insights on their own are often more rewarding to me in regards to m y efforts in the classroom than AP
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 34 scores. While I am still young, I have already received emails and phone calls or had chance run ins with former students, in which they have expressed to me how much they appreciated my class and tell me that I have mad e an impact on their lives. Often times, these haven't bee n the star students but instead hav e been the students who struggled with the material or who had attitudes and behaviors that caused me to struggle teaching them. It is in these instances that the true benefits of teaching become apparent, and while I will always strive for success in every way possible as an educator, in the end it is often the intangibles of teaching this course that reap the greatest rewards. Conclusion The research I ha ve done for this capstone paper and the time I have put into the development of the APAH in Themes video series has led me to a have a deeper appreciation for the educational community and their unselfish willingness to share resources and insights Through out th is process, I discovered both content and curriculum oriented resources that educators spent substantial amounts of time on, yet selflessly share with others who they kno w could use their hard work to help better prepare their students. The Internet is an invaluable tool that allows educators to network and share resources and information, and the possibilities it offers to the future of art education are endless. The countless hours t hat went into this project do not matter in the end, because I know that in some way it will benefit my colleagues and their students, and that is what choosing a career in education is all about.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 35 References Adams, L. (2011). Art across time New York, NY: McGraw Hill. AP Art history curriculum framework [course handout]. (2013). New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/2013advances/ap art hist ory curriculum framework.pdf AP Art history course description [course handout]. (2012). New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved from http://a pcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap art history course description.pdf Baca, M. & Tronzo, W. (2006). Art history and the digital world. Art Journal, 65 (4), 51 55. Candy, L. (2006). Practice based research: A guide. Retrieved from http://www.mangold international.com/fileadmin/Media/References/Publications/Downloads/Practice_Based_ Research_A_Guide.pdf Co hen, K. (1997). Digital culture practices of art and art history. The Art Bulletin, 79 (2), 187 216. Darracott, D. (2009). AP Art history teacher's guide. New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved from http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap_arthistory_teachers_guide.pdf Darracott, D. (2010). Merging contemporary art into the curriculum throughout the year. In AP Art history thematic and cross cultural approaches curriculum module New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved at http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/r epository/ah thematic cross cultural approaches.pdf
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 36 Dell'Aria, A. (2013). The thematic survey: A comparative a pproach. Retrieved from http://arthi storyteachingresources.org/2013/10/15/the thematic survey a comparative approach/ Elkins, J. (2006). Art history as a global discipline. In Elkins, J. (Ed.), Is art history global? (pp.3 24). New York, NY: Routledge. Fisher, M. (2013). Bye, bye survey t extbook! Retrieved at http://arthistoryteachingresources.org/2013/03/15/bye bye survey textbook/ Graham, M.M. (1995). The future of art history and the undoing of t he survey. Art Journal 54 (3), 30 34. Gunnin, J. (2010). Infusing non western works into the curriculum. In AP Art history thematic and cross cultural approaches curriculum module New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved at http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ah thematic cross cultural approaches.pdf Halsey Dutton, B. (2002). Artifacts of cyberspace: A model of implementi ng technology into art history education. Art Education, 55 (4), 19 24. Howard, D. (2013). Thematic approaches: Six degrees of separation. Retrieved from http://arthistoryteachingresources.org/2013/08/30/thematic approaches six degrees of separation in art history/ Kleiner, F.S. (2009). Gardner's art through the ages: A global history Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. McN amara. A.E. (2012). Six rules for practice led research. Journal of Writing and Writing Courses 14 1 15.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 37 Nimkulrat, N. (2007). The role of documentation in practice led research. Journal of Research Practice, 3 ( 1 ) 1 8. Phelan, P., Concannon, K., Costa che, I.D., Desmond, K., Little, D., & Shipps, S. (2005). Art history survey: A round table discussion. Art Journal, 64 (2), 32 51. Stokstad, M. (2008). Art history Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Taylor, P.G. & Carpenter, B.S. II. (2005). Computer hypertext "uncovering" in art education. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14 (1), 25 45.
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 38 List of Figures with Captions Figure 1. The 10 content areas outline by the new AP Curriculum Framework (2013) Figure 2. Th e odd offerings of the Smarthistory.KhanAcademy.org Themes tab Figure 3 The peer populated Art History Teaching Resources homepage Figure 4: A screen shot o f some of Amor Sciendi's video offerings Figure 5 The Google Earth global search tool on the 82 nd & Fifth website Figure 6 : APAH in Themes Video series on YouTube
DON'T SHOR T CHANGE THE SURVEY 39 Author Biography Lacey was born and raised in West Palm Beach Florida, making her one of the few native Floridians out there After graduating from the Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts' Visual Arts department in 2002, Lacey attended the Kansas City Art Institute for two years where her focus shifted from fi ne arts to art history because of a n i nspirational professor. Lacey transferred to Florida Atlantic University to complete her Ba chelor of Arts in Art History which she earned in 2007. In 2009 Lacey began teaching Art History as an Artist In Residence at the same high s chool she graduated from; s he has been teaching AP Art History with a digital twist since 2010 and began teaching studio art in addition to ar t history in August 2013. Lacey likes to have fun in the classroom and find creative ways to engage her 21 st century, smartphone obsessed students with digital ways to discover the awe someness of the history of art. Lacey is also a working artist, creating works in a variety of media that often deal with the issues of body image and flesh manipulation a nd distortion