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HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA B y TRISH O'DONNELL A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAST ER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Trish O'Donnell
3 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Acknowledgements It is no exaggeration when I state that every lesson of every class I took throughout the University of Florida's Masters in Art Education Distance Learning P rogram was immediately applicable to m y classroom practice Entering the program, I didn't know what to expect, but what I received was a rigorous, challenging, and completely relevant education regarding what it takes to be a master contemporary art teach er. It was an honor to be educated by such accomplis hed and esteemed professors as Dr. Elizabeth Delacruz, Dr. Jodi Kushins, Professor Patrick Grisby, and Professor Bob Mueller; these four professors challenged me in my academic and studio practices and tr ansformed me into a bett er artist and art teacher. I am proud to say that after completing the UF Master s in Art Education program, I can never go back to who I was and how I taught before. I am forever grateful for the tools, resources, support and acces s to gre at leaders in art education, which I am confident I will be able to utilize for the rest of my career. The last two years have demanded dedication and every spare moment of time, and I am extremely appreciative of Nick Cort s taking over the househ old responsibilities so I could focus on my studies. Thank you for cooking, doing all the laundry, and takin g such good care of me for the p ast two years. Thank you to my parents for their unyielding support and pride in my accomplishments; y ou are my hero es. Lastly, thank you to my students who challenge me to be a better teacher every day and help me realize t hat teaching art is one of the reasons I was put on this Earth
4 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the Universit y of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA By Trish O'Donnell December 2013 Chair: Jodi Kushins Major: Art Education Abstract An introduc tion to the history of homeschooling and current philosophical motivations behind homeschooling are considered in order to gain better clarity of how and where art education fits within the greater picture of contemporary homescho oling Through semi struct ured interviews, I investigate d the re sources and practices of families in Central Florida that seek art education as a part of a customized homeschool curriculum. My research is presented as a case study in the form of narratives and provides a glimpse in to various methods of art instruction employed by three local families. I intend my analysis to provide art education and homeschooling communities with a critical understanding of what art education may encompass in homeschools in Central Florida. Based o n interview responses and an analysis of currently available homeschool art education resources and curricula, I conclude my research with a proposal for the development of new methods and resources that focus on providing homeschoolers with contemporary a rt education lessons and objectives. The curricular foundation for my suggested educational approaches focuses on current contemporary art practices and concepts in order to provide relevant art education course work, theory, methodology and context to to day's homeschool students.
5 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Table of Contents Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 3 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 4 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 7 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 8 Goals of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 9 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 9 Rationale and Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ .............. 10 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 10 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 11 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 Customization and Art Education ................................ ................................ ........................ 14 Distance Learning through Virtual (Online) Courses ................................ .......................... 15 Homeschooling in Central Florida ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 Implications for Further Research ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 20 Subjects and Area of Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 21 Research Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 22 Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation ................................ ................................ 23 Data Analysis P rocedures ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 24
6 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA The Matthews Family ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 25 The Art Room: Jack O Lantern Gourd Workshop ................................ .......................... 31 The Hanson Family ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 34 Creald Community Art School: Olivia at the Potter's Wheel ................................ ....... 38 The Carpenter Family ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 40 At the Dining Room Table: Making an Egyptian Mask ................................ .................. 4 5 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 47 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 47 Response to Research Questions ................................ ................................ ......................... 48 Concerns: What's Missing? ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 Proposed Methods of Instruction ................................ ................................ ......................... 54 What Questions Linger? ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 57 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 60 List of Figures with Figure Cap tions ................................ ................................ .................... 65 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 66 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 68 Appendix C ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 69 Appendix D ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 72 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 73
7 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Introduction Florida, like most other states, has a growing population of homeschool families Since 1999, there has been a 75% nationwide increase of children being homeschooled. 1 Of the 75, 8 01 students between the ages of 5 17 homeschoole d in the state of Florida d uring the 2012 2013 school year, 8,767 o f those students reside in the G reater Orlando metropolitan a rea, consisting of Lake Orange, Osceola, and Seminole counties. 2 Currently, Florida does not require homeschool students to rec eive an arts education. In section 1002.01, of the Florida Statutes, home education is defined as, "the sequentially progressive instruction of a student directed by his or her parent or guardian in order to satisfy Florida's compulsory education requireme nts. 3 Those seeking approval for homeschooling are required to maintain a portfolio of the home school student's educational work (homework, writing assignments, tests, quizzes, etc.) and may choose from five methods of annual evaluation as outlined by th e Florida Department of Education and approved by the superintendent of the district in which they reside. Through semi formal interviews, I investigate d the methods and approaches being utilized by three local homeschool families currently providing visual art instruction to their children Through interview s observations of student art learning, and analysis of preexisting homeschool art education materials, I ga in ed insight of the learning needs, motivations and desires of homeschool families and s tudents with regards to art education. Based on my research findings and analysis of preexisting homeschool art education materials, I p ropose the develop ment of art educational programs and curriculum materials that target local community homeschool stude nt s as well as the greater homeschooling community at large 1 http://www.educationnews.org/parenting/number of homeschoolers growing nationwide/ 2 http://www.floridaschoolchoice.org/pdf/Home_ Ed_Fast_Facts.pdf 3 http://www.flsenate.gov/Laws/Statutes/2012/1002.01
8 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA The curricular foundation for my suggested educational approaches focuses on current contemporary art practices and concepts in order to provide relevant art education coursework, theory, method ology, and context to today's homeschool students. All curricular suggestions are developed to meet the National Art Education Association national s tandards and take into consideration the unique learning needs, motivations, and desires of homeschool fami lies and students a cross the country. 4 The learning objectives o utlined in my proposed curriculum resources focus on art making skills, problem solvin g skills, visual literacy skills, art appreciation, and creative self exploration through a contemporary a rt framework in order to provide homeschool students with a relevant and individualized art education Statement of the Problem Finding no existing data to provide scope of the art education methods and practices being utilized by the homeschool communit y I embarked on an investigation to gain an understanding of the implementation of art education practices among homeschoolers in the Greater Orlando metropolitan a rea. It is in the best interest of art educators and the National Art Education Association t o pursue an investigation into the world of homeschooling to better understand to what extent homeschooled students are receiving an arts education. Homeschooling is a viable form of education that continues to gain support and followers annually and it is integral for art educators and the NAEA to consider their role in providing high standard and relevant learning opportunities for homeschool students 4 I will be addressing the NAEA National Standards as they have been previously stated as well as the new standards t hat are currently under development. Information was accessed from http://www.arteducators.org/research/naea standards
9 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Goals of the Study Through my research, I gain ed a better understanding of the needs and interes ts of homeschool famil ies that seek arts instruction for their children I was curious about their motivations considering a visual art s education is not mandated by the state of Florida. I was also interested in learning what art education resources are utilized by homeschool students in the Orlando area and how or if homeschool students are being assessed i n their art edu cation studies Through my discussions, observations, and research I was also able to analyz e the quality and relevanc e of homeschool art education approaches and curricul ar materials in comparison to compulsory art education practices I intend my research to create a better understanding of the art education methods and practices utilized within the homeschool community and provide ins ight for art educ ators and homeschoolers alike. My objective is to use this research to de velop resources and learning opportunities that address contemporary art learning objectives and standards as promoted by the Nation al Art Education Association, that also take into consideration the specific learning needs and desires of homeschool families across the country. Research Questions The questions my research aims to answer are: 1. What art education methods, practices, and resources are homeschool families in the Greater Orlando metropolitan a rea u tilizing for their children ? What are they neglecting ? 2. Wh at motivat es homeschoolers to engage in visual art education ?
10 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA 3. In what ways can art education materials and programs for homeschool students be improved to meet the learning needs and desires of homeschool families and students? Rational e and Significance of the Study While the number of families seeking out homeschooling continues to rise nationwide, t here is little research on homeschooling and art educati on. A dvanceme nt of technology and accessibility to online learning resources suggest there will be a continual increase in homeschool students seeking out distance learning opportunities. Due to the nature of homeschooling, choice and customization of lear ning materials, activities and methods of instruction are up to the discretion of the family as long as the family follows the state statutes for annual evaluation and can provide evidence of progressive compulsory education goals I believe the National Art Education Association and art educators interested in homeschool motivations s hould take an active role in the production and dissemination of art education materials and resources that are available for homeschool students Professionals invested in t he current role and future of art education are the most qualified to ensur e homeschoolers are receiving a quality and relevant art education that not only prepares them for artistic study at the collegiate level, but prepares them for 21 st century skills in visual literacy, creative problem solving, social aw areness, and an appreciation of the arts. Assumptions Based on reading parent reviews on a popular homeschool review site, Homeschoolreviews.com m y current understanding is that the curricular resour ces and instructional art education methods homeschoolers are being exposed to are heavily rooted in
11 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA material manipulation, traditional art making techniques, crafts, and Western art history. 5 I believe there is a gap in the availab ility of contemporary ar t instruction that homeschool students are receiving in comparison to compulsory school art education courses As the number of homeschoo lers continues to rise, it is essential that homeschool students be exposed to contemporary art education learning obje ctives, resources, and practices that will better prepare them for 21 st century skills Many of the resources I have examined are heavily rooted in a M odernist mentality and either supp lement th e student's core curriculum history lessons through art histor ical investigations, offer lessons that explore a specific material or technique or provide an outlet for children to exercise their hand eye coordination through the execution of craft projects. 6 B ased o n the reviews posted on Homeschoolreviews.com it al so appears that art curriculums that do not involve purchas ing a wide vari ety of materials and are not viewed as overly messy are often preferred. 7 Art education resources appear to be secondary to the core curriculum of math, science, history, and langu age arts and do not appear to address contemporary art education objectives, such as visual culture, visual literacy, multiculturalism, social awareness, creative problem solving, the development of self identity and exposure to new forms of media De finition of Terms Homeschooling Ideologue : Ideologues are individuals who choose homeschooling because they desire a stronger family bond and an education that is absent of any harmful social 5 http://www.homeschoolreviews.com/reviews/curriculum/default.aspx?id=115 This link provides a list of various homeschool visual art curriculums and parent reviews. 6 http://www.homeschoolreviews.com/reviews/curriculum/default.aspx?id=115 This link provides a list of various homeschool visual art curriculums and reviews by parents. 7 http://www.homeschoolreviews.com/reviews/curriculum/reviews.aspx?id=312 This link provides examples of reviews regarding low cost and benefit of utilization of few materials.
12 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA teachings of public education that may undermine the moral and r eligious beliefs of the family (Hanna, p. 612) Homeschooling Pedagogue: Pedagogues tend to be well educated parents who believe the education they can provide their children will be superior to public a nd private school instruction (Hanna, p. 612) Unschooling: Unschooling is an educational approach defined by John Holt in the 1960s, which promotes the idea that children learn best when they are free to explore their personal interests rather than being forced to follow the regimented curriculum o f traditional schools (Yuracko, p.126). Literature Review Homeschooling in education is not a new phenomenon. It wasn't until the 1850s that compulsory education ( government mandated attendance in schools ) was enforced This meant that previously, many c hildren received their education at home based on family needs and choices ( Davis, 2011 p. 29) Homeschooling all but disappeared from American education until the 1960s and 1970s when due to rising dissatisfaction with government policies and an increas ing desire to disassociate with a national identity, families began to educate their children from home (Gaither, 2008, pp. 226 227) In the early 1960s, student populations became more multicultural and diverse, and public schools abandoned religion, cau sing private Christian schools to beco me popular. Some p arents were still unsatisfied with the education offered by these schools as well as tuition prices and support for homeschooling grew Also, due to the rise of s uburbanization, parents had space to provide their children with their own educational programs. In his article, "Why Homeschooling Happened," Milton Gaither (2008) explain s: "Suburbanization facilitated
13 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA segregation by race, income level, age, number of children, and cultural style, thus fee ding the American hunger for privacy" (p. 233). America was becoming more child centered and some families desired to liberate their children from the institutionalization of schools and provide them with a wider range of learning and educational experienc es. Court cases sprung up throughout the 1980s and ultimately homeschool education practices found their way back into American education. As Gaither (2008) point s out, "in recent decades increasing numbers of people have been teaching children at home as a self conscious act of protest against mainstream society" (p. 226). Throughout history there have been various political motivations for families choosing homeschooling, but today's homeschoolers can be divided int o two fairly distinct philosoph ical bra nches Jane Van Galen (1986, 1991) refers to those philosophical branches as the ideologues and the pedagogues Van Ga len (1986) defines ideo logues as those who cho o se homeschooling because they desire a stronger family bond and an education that is absen t of any harmful social teachings of public education that may undermine the moral and religious beliefs of the family. Interestingly, ideo logues tend to follow regimented curriculums and schedules modeled after traditional public school instruction (Knowl es, Marlow, & Muchmore, 1992). Van Galen (1991) describes pedagogues as parents who tend to be well educated and desire to provide their children with an education that they believe is superior to public and private school instruction. The philosophy of pe dagogues more closely follows the unschooling approach defined by John Holt in the 1960s, which suggests children learn best when they are free to explore their personal interests and learn from naturally lived experiences These children may also seek o ut non traditional contexts of learn ing such as travel, fieldtrips, work experiences or internships, and
14 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA other individualized learning experiences that the public school regimen is unable to provide for the masses (Yurako, 2008). In her article, Homescho oling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula, Linda Hanna (2011) explain s The learner took a central role as the pedagogues created a holistic, experiential, and unstructured learning laboratory that bore little resemblance i n form and function to the public schools" (p. 612). Although today's homeschool famil ies may blend learning approaches based on both ideological and pedagogical philosophies, generally there is a clear socio cultural motivation behind the choice to homesc hool and it usually either involves religious and moral convictions or a desire to provide personalized learning opportunities that exist beyond classroom walls. Customization and Art Education In his study "Customization Through Homeschooling," Brain D. Ray (2002) finds "that the parent's desire to customize their children's education was consistently among the most important reasons that parents cited for homeschooling" (p. 51). Customization, or differentiat ion of curriculum and instruction, allows the family to pursue specific educational experiences tailored to students' special needs or interests. Adjustments to the pace learning materials are presented and learned, availability of resources outside of classroom walls (such as fieldtrips, internships online learning, volunteerism, etc.), and the flexibility of schedules allows for homeschool students to have a uniquely customized education. Parents are able to evaluate their child's specific learning needs, whether the child has special needs or is g ifted, and compensates for a deeper and more tailo red learning experience than traditional standardiz ed compulsory education allows.
15 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA In this context, with an absen ce of specific state requirement s to receive an arts education, the family decides whether or not to pursue study of the visual or performing arts based on their child's or family's interests. Some families may elect to use an art curriculum provided through a homeschooling publisher, while others may seek out private instruction through community art classes or individual art lessons With the rise of social media and DIY mentality, websites like YouTube, Pinterest, Tumblr, Facebook, and countless blogs make art learning accessible to the masses. There is a wide variety of visual art instructional and learning opportunities that exist online, through publishers, and within communities that homeschool families may choose to utilize. Distance Learning through Virtual (Online) Courses Distance learning is currently undergoing rapid growth and populari ty among homeschool families, and art courses are beginning to become more available through online l earning p latforms According to "Keeping Pace with K 12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice," 250,000 students were enrolled in virtu al schools in the 2010 2011 school year (Watson, et al., 2011, p. 5). Researchers determined, "as of late 2011, online and blended learning opportunities exist for at least some students in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia, but no state has a fu ll suite of full time and supplemental options for students at all grade levels" (p. 4). More and more universities are offering d istance l earning art courses as well, and although the consensus among studio teachers is that face to face learning is still the preferred method of providing arts instruction ( Grant, 2002, para. 4 ) a s drawing professor at the Penn sylvania State University, Jerrold Maddox stated in an interview with the New York Times "online courses, paradoxically, are much more intimate, be cause you are dealing with people one on one, and people speak much more frankly" (Grant, 2002, para. 5).
16 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA The scheduling flexibility and individual attention provided through d istance l earning fits the educational needs of the homeschool student and conti nues to be a more commonly used resource among homeschool families. Virtual schools offer a unique option for homeschool families because, as Alison Davis (2011) observed in her article, "Evolution of Homeschooling," "Parents who do not have confidence in their ability to teach their children can still provide a safe learning environment free of distractionsand provide them with a diploma from an accredited institution" (p. 33). Homeschool families are increasingly using d istance l earning, virtual schools, and online lea r ning opportunities due to the flexibility and customization these educational platforms provide. Homeschooling in Central Florida Florida, like most other states, has a growing population of homeschool families. Since 1999, there has been a 75% nationwide increase of children being homeschooled. 8 Of the estimated 2,000,000 children ages 5 17 currently being homes chooled in the United States, 75,801 of those children were homeschooled in the state of Florida duri ng the 2012 2013 school year. 9 According to statistics compiled by the Florida Departme nt of Education, during the 2012 2013 school year, the G reater Orlando metropolitan area (comprised of Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Seminole counties) accounted for 8,767 homeschool students 8 (2012). Number of homeschoolers growing nationwide. Educ ation News. [Retrieved from http://www.educationnews.org/parenting/number of homeschoolers growing nationwide/ ] 9 The US Census Bureau estimates that there are over 2,000,000 students being homeschooled, but exact numbers are not available due to not all states requiring homeschool families to register with the school districts, various laws and regulations for each state, and a multitude of definitions as to what constitutes "homeschooler." http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0053/twps0053.html Other data that is specific to the state of Florida is t aken directly from the Florida Department of Education [Retrieved from http://www.floridaschoolchoice.org/pdf/Home_Ed_Fast_Facts.pdf]
17 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Although there are specific requirements outlined by the state and by school districts regarding curriculum, learning objectives and assessment of homeschool students, currently Florida does not require homeschoolers to receive an arts education. The Florida Depart ment of Education does advocate that families follow the course requirements outlined for public education for high school students, which includes one unit of arts courses, be it in the performing or visual arts. Otherwise, students are only required to f ollow the curriculum that is chosen by the family and approved by the superintendent of the district in which they reside. According to data compiled by Florida Virtual School (FLVS) the first state wide Internet based public high school in the country ( f ounded in 1997 ) 25% of the 122,702 students enrolled in FLVS during the 2010 2011 school year were homeschool students. 10 FLVS not only serves students in all of the state of Florida's 67 public school districts, but also provides enrollment to students in 49 states and 57 countries (FLVS, 2013). Currently FLVS offers a Creative Photography class for both middle and high school students, an Art History and Criticism course and AP Art History for high school students. Implications for Further Research There is little research and data regarding the topic of homeschooling and art education. In her article, Music Education and Homeschooling: A Preliminary Inquiry, Jeananne Nichols (2005) refers to a study conducted in 1999 by Connie Schalinske for her disser tation from Ohio State University, "Homeschooling and Art Education in Ohio: A Case Study According to Nichols, Sc h alinske's findings determine, "an emerging demand for homeschooling art education programs, serv ices and resources" ( Schalinske 199 9, as cited in Nichols 2005, p. 29). 10 Data provided by Florida Virtual School 2010 2011 Enrollment Summary [Retrieved from http://www.flvs.net/areas/aboutus/Documents/EnrollmentSummary.pdf ]
18 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Despite a lack of current studies on arts education and homeschooling, what is clear from my review is that some h omeschool families are pursuing art instruction as part of their child's overall education This is eviden t b y the ample art curriculums supplemental materials, and review s of these resources t hat exist. Families that choose an accredited homeschool curriculum, such as Seton Home Study receive a curriculum that includes Art, Music, and Physical Education along with the core academic studies of English, Math, History, Science Also, because Seton Home Study is a Catholic based curriculum, a Religion course is provided as well 11 Homeschool families may choose to pursue a separate art curriculum, such as Artistic Pursuits Art with a Purpose or Meet the Masters (At Home Edition) to name a few F amilies may also take advantage of community art school classes, art museum pr ograms, private art tutoring, seek out art instruction through the enrichment programs of pub lic or private schools or utilize various online a rt courses and resources Due to the nature of homeschooling, choice and customization of learning materials, activities and methods of instruction are up to the discretion of the family. The problem is th at there is no current data regarding who is seeking out art instruction, what art education resources are being utilized most commonly, how or if homeschool students are being assessed on their art education studies, or important information regarding the quality and relevancy of home school art education curriculums It can be assumed that because homeschool parents generally want their children to receive a well rounded and all encompassing education that their children are receiving some sort of art educ ation, but at this very moment in time there is no qualitative or quantitative data to support such speculations. 11 Review of curriculum retrieved from www.setonhome.org
19 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Conclusion Homeschooling continues to gain popularity and grow as an alternative method of education that is appealing to a wide range of i ndividuals Families may choose to homeschool their children based on ideological concerns of providing a moral and religious education that cannot be achieved in public schools, for pedagogical purposes of pro viding a superior education than what can be o ffered by tradition brick and mortar institutions, for flexibility based on family needs, to meet the needs of at risk students, or to provide a better learning environment due to a child's special needs or health concerns. Whatever the family motivation m ay be, homeschooling is a viable form of education that receives little to no government control and therefore exists on the periphery of scrutiny or research collected in terms of education in the United States. Research I t is in the best interest of th e field of art education to pursue an investigation into the world of homeschooling to better understand to what capacity students are receiving an arts education. In this section, I present a case study investigating the role of art education in three Cen tral Florida families home educations In the Appendices, I provi de an overview of several art educational opportunities and materials that currently exist for homeschool students Through my research investigation, I gain ed a better understanding of what drives a homeschool family to seek out art s instruction for their children what art education resources are being utilized how or if homeschool students are being assessed on their art education stu dies, and provid e an analysis regarding the quality and relevancy of homeschool art education methods and curricula I hope that my investigation and research will create a better understanding and context of art education within the homeschool world and will benefit art educ ators and homeschoolers alike. I pl an to use my research to develop contemporary art education resources and learning opportunities that
20 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA address current learning objectives and standards as promoted by the National Art Education Association and that also take into consideration the specific learning needs and desires of homeschool fa milies across the country. Methodology In order to collect the data necessary to answer my research questions, I conduct ed a case study of three local families who homeschool their children, and whose children s tudy art as part of their homeschooling curriculum I perform ed semi structured interviews with and observations of the families in order to get to know them and learn abo ut their homeschooling routines and better understand their beliefs and mot ivation s for both homeschooling and for p roviding visual arts education in their child's overall educational experience. The advantage of using semi structured interviews i s that the method is flexible, allowing interview s to happen more naturally rather than bas ed on a regiment ed script delivered to each interviewee exactly the same. The topic of the interview and general structure w as the same for all interviews, but with the semi structured interview process there is room for further questioning, follow up, cla rification or exploration of questions and answers based on each individual interview ( Mason, 2004 ) See A ppendix A for the list of questions followed for each intervie w. In conjunction with semi structured interviews, I also spoke informally with the home school students about their interests and experiences with art viewed artwork s they have produce d and observed some of the students participating in art instruction at secondary locations I n addition, I examine d homeschool art curriculum materials, and consider ed these materials in relation to emerging National Visual Art s Standards Based on the findings of this stud y I intend to develop high quality contemporary art education materials that address current learning objectives and standards and that al so take into consideration the specific learning needs
21 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA and desires of homeschool families across the country. I also created a digital magazine containing much of the content of my study and more supporting images, which can be accessed at: http://issuu.com/trishcodonnell/docs/homeschool_issuu_final_00f64edba89748 Subjec ts and Area of Focus I collect ed data by interviewing and observ ing three homeschool families th at currently reside in the Greater Orlando metropolitan a rea These families serve d as a purposive sample of Central F lorida homeschoolers. 12 T he participants demonstrate d a range of school ages and methodologies of homeschooling. In my interviews I gathere d information regarding each family's philosophical motivations for homeschooling and for providing art educat ion experiences Through my discussions with and observations of the homeschool students I was able to witness them participating in their art ed ucation learning activities and gained a better understanding of why the famil ies and student s seek visual arts instruction as a part of their homeschool curriculum. I originally planned on making connections with local homeschool families through instruct ion at Creald School of Art's Summer Camp program 13 and making contacts at the Florida Parent Educator Association Spring Convention that occurred in Orlando May 23 rd May 26 th 2013 which I attended as a booth member with Creald School of Art in our first attempt to gather information in the development of homeschool art education opportunities. Unfortunately, neither of those approaches yielded a successful commitment of research subjects. In a second attempt, I worked from the ground level up asking fri ends and colleagues to verbally approach 12 A purposive sampling is a qualitative rese arch method used when a researcher has a specific targeted group that would not easily be known or accessible in mind for interviewing in order to collect information to serve specific research needs [as cited on: http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/sampling/types.htm ] 13 Creald School of Art is a local non for profit community art school that was established in 1975. Creald offers over 100 courses throughout three different locations in Orange County and also has an extensive community outreach program. More can be learned about Creald School of art at www.crealde.org.
22 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA homeschool parents they knew from church or from continual enrollment in Creald's community art classes on my behalf I believe that the individuals that responded to my request to participat e in my research were m ore apt to reach out to me as a stranger because of the trusting relationship they had already established with the person I used to network through. None of the families that participated in my research know each other, and all of them live in different c ities within the Greater Orlando metropolitan a rea. Each family expressed similar motivations for homeschooling their children, yet had unique reasoning and personal experiences that led to their ultimate choice to homeschool. Each family's ap proach to hom eschooling is different, and their methods and reasons for providing visual art education vary as well. All three families are middle class and Caucasian. The husbands of each family are the primary breadwinners, but all three mothers who are the primary educator s work part time. Each family also acknowledged that religion is a major component of their homeschooling practice. ( A ppendix B provides a comparison chart of the families and their motivations and methods ) Research Site I was able to interview ea ch family in their home where the majority of the ir education al activity occurs. Interviews lasted between one and a half to two hours. I maintained communication with each participating family through emai l, text messag ing and phone conversations to gat her pertinent information in follow up discussions to our face to face interviews. I was also able to observe students participating in community art programs when relevant to the family's approach. Observing the site s where student s receiv e their art educ ation provide d valuable insight and information regarding the implementation of art education practi ces and objectives. Visiting the families' homes facilitated in viewing collections of student
23 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA artwork throughout each home, in observing the areas within t he home designated for art making, and in speculati on of the value of visual art to the family based on interior dcor. By observing students engaged in the art making process at secondary art instruction sites, I w itnessed the behavior of the learner whil e actively making. Through observ ation of both the families' home s and the children engaged in art learning activities that occur outside the home, I gained a comprehens ive understanding of the process, motivation and value of visual arts education for ea ch family and student. Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation Case study research and performing semi structured interviews are advantageous when observing small groups because these methods allow for the intervi ewer to observe the interviewee s b ody language, intonation, and timing when providing answers to questions and probe for further exploration to fully understand and interpret responses (Barriball & White, 1993). Due to the nature of my research, I decided to rel y on my listening abilities rather than a tape recorder to aid in detailed transcription of interviews. According to Stake (1995) "Rather than tape record or write furiously, it is better to listen, to take a few notes, to ask for clarification T hen following Stake's advice, "ins ist on ample time and space immediately following the interview to prepare the facsimile and interpretive commentary" (p. 66). Before engaging in the interviews, I provi ded families wi th a concise outline of the interview objectives via email in order to guide our time and avoid departure from the interview agenda (Stake, 1995). I utiliz ed a camera a field notebook for jotting down notes during observations and interviews, and a print out of the interview questions, which aid ed in recording a typed narrat ive immediately after Once I completed each family's narrative, I emailed the
24 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA drafts for member checking to make sure my writing maintained the integrity of their homeschooling experience and words (Creswel l & Miller, 2000 ) Data Analysis Procedures Throu ghout the process of my research, I created a methods m atrix, because based on the advice of Maxwell (1996) it helps coherently, "display the logical connections between your research questions and your selection, data collection, and data analysis decisio ns" (p. 102). I used a digital calendar to manage interview schedule s and store contact information, which aid ed in organization and time management. I also created a physical portfolio in which I stored my interview questions and notes for each family as well as their signed consent forms. I used a digital folder to keep all of my typed notes and photographs organized as well. Limitations Limitations to my research proposal may manifest in an inability to generalize my findings based on my small and pur posive sampling. Also, because I only spoke with students that currently seek art as part of their homeschool educatio n I have limited my research by not communicating with homeschool students who are not pursuing a visual arts education. Case Study I int erviewed and observed three local families i n order to gain an understanding of what methods and practices homeschool families use to provide their children an art education. The names of the following participants have been changed to maintain anonymity. Interviews were conducted with the primary home educator, which in all three circumstances was with the mo ther There was child participation to some extent in all three interviews and observations. The initial interviews lead to follow up discussions and observation of students engaged in art
25 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA learning activities. The narratives and descriptions are followed by a detailed analysis based on my observations, as well as questions that have emerged from performing this case study. The Matthews Family Colleen Matthews is a mother of six children. She graduated from college as a secondary English teacher, but after three years of teaching at a private Christian school she grew tired of dealing with needy parents and school politics. She left the school system an d focused on raising her children at home. When it came time to send her oldest son, Jacob to preschool, she followed tradition and he was enrolled in a half day program. Going to school was a difficult transition for Jacob so Colleen began working part t ime at the preschool. When she was there her son was fine, but on days she wasn't he would have a meltdown. Colleen was faced with a conflict and was unsure of what was the right thing to do for her son. She began to discuss with her husband the possibilit y of homeschooling their two sons that were now both of appropriate school age. He fully supported her decision. After all, they thought, they didn't have children so they could send them away to be raised and educated by other people. They wanted to be th e ones raising and educating their children. Homeschooling seemed to make the most sense to them. Colleen her husband, and their six children moved to Winter Garden, Florida a year and a half ago from their home in South Carolina due to a job relocation. Her oldest son is nineteen and has started his first year in college. She has two other teenage sons; Michael is in his freshman year of high school and Jonah is a senior. H er daughters Hannah and Ella are both twelve years old a nd are in the sixth gra de; Ella is adopted from China. Her youngest son, Joshua is nine and is in the third grade.
26 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA As we began our first casual conversation I was introduced to each of her children, one by one, as they came into the kitchen for a bite to eat or something to d rink. Her oldest son was the first to engage in conversation with me. Jacob is currently enrolled at Liberty University, an online college and also America's largest Christian University After attempting classes at Valencia College, a local community col lege that also offers a four year degree program, he was unimpressed by both the quality of teachers and of students and opted for an online education verses the traditional classroom environment. He had taken online classes during his secondary homeschool program and appreciate s the potential of a distance learning education. He sets his own pace and is completely in control of what he puts in to, and gets out of his education. As her youngest son came into t he kitchen, Colleen began to tell me that neith er Jacob nor Joshua has ever shown even the slightest interest in ever picking up a crayon. She said that even when her youngest has a worksheet that requires him to use a red pencil to emphasize something, he asks why he can just use a regular pencil. She explained that when her oldest son was younger, she would do more crafty projects with him, like making paper airplanes or holiday crafts. She also would take him to Home Depot on Saturday's for their free kids' workshops where he got to build things like birdho uses. She explained that Jacob got more out of the "manly project s where he got to build something, otherwise he never showed any interest in drawing or creative activities. Her youngest son seems to be cast from the same mold as her oldest. Colle en's two daughters, on the other hand, are more interested in making art. Once a week her children go to an enrichment program through Pine Ridge Home Educators. They have a teacher who uses a curriculum model and goes through all of the core academic subj ects and lessons for the week. She assigns them lessons and homework in all of their subjects and they are
27 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA to complete everything at home for the following week. Occasionally, the teacher provides an assignment that has a creative component. Ella showed me an example of a Creation Book that she made in conjunction with her B ible studies lesson (See Figure 1) The assignment was to interpret the story of Genesis into her own words and make a children's book, with each page adorned with illustratio ns made by the student. As Ella was showing me her book, Colleen was explaining how much time she put into making her drawings an d how much she enjoyed making the book Figure 1 Ella's Creation Book In addition to the enrichment program, Hannah, Ella, and Joshua have recently started to attend Saturday morning workshops at the Art Room, a community art school in Windermere, Florida, that focuses on traditional drawing and painting techniques. For their first two workshops, they engaged in making Fall holiday art by painting gourds. I accompanied the family on their first workshop at the Art Room to observe the learning objectives provided through the lesson and witness t he participation of the Matthews childre n. This was the first time
28 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Colleen enrolled any of her children in a structured art instruction program. ( I provide a detailed description of the workshop I observed in the following sub section of this paper ) Before their move to Winter Garden, Florida, Colleen followed the homeschool curriculum provided thr ough My Father's World She explained that the curriculum integrates visual arts and music education throughou t weekly lessons. Although Colleen has never provided a separate visual art education by utilizing a distinct art curriculum, she believes she has provided her children with a solid art education through an integrated learning approach. Her children have been exposed to art history throughout their various history lessons, and have learned about color through their science units. Many of the assignm ents her children have completed involve a visual component to enfor ce mastery of the subject. Colleen often reinforces learning objectives by telling her children "When you draw it and write it, you remember it; it just sticks." In addition to the arts learning incorporated in My Father's World Colleen also buys sketchbooks for her children when they begin elementary school as a space for them to dr aw from their imagination (See Figure 2) Colleen gives her children prompts, but she admits she utilizes sketchbook time as a way to keep her children busy when they don't have anything else to do rather than a planned activity She explained that she also will occasionally purchase drawing books from stores like Barnes and Noble that teach step by step inst ructions on how to draw horses, cars or other subjects relative to what her children are interested in Her second to oldest son, Jonah spent countless hours drawing cars and trains in his sketchbook when he was younger.
29 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 2 Joshua's sketch of a r obot Although Colleen didn't have much of a visual art education beyond her elementary school experience, she believes it is her duty to expose her children to all forms of artistic expression in order to discover any interests or talent that her children may not know they have. All of her children are required to learn a musical instrument, her daughters are currently enrolled in dance class, three of her children are signed up for art workshops, and she regularly takes her children to see local theater performances. She emphasizes to her children that art is in so much of daily life from what we see on TV and in movies, to what we engage with on computers, to the objects we utilize in everyday life. Colleen does her best to point out real life situations to teach her children the importance and practicality of every subject, from math to the arts. She explains to her children even when watching Disney movies how writers, artists, musicians, and actors are all collaborating to ma ke the movie a reality. In Colleen 's words, she teaches "the arts" as a whole. She explains how in public school students are forced to take classes they might not have a talent or interest in, like art, and are either left behind or humiliated
30 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA because they may perform at a lower le vel than their classmates. When homeschooled, kids get to choose what they are most interested in when it comes to extracurricular subjects and parents can customize their child's education to what they are passionate about. When asked to distinguish betwe en "making art at home" and "homeschool art education" Colleen replied that she feels her family does a lot of making art at home but that they don't expand their art making activities into what she would consider an art education. When asked what sort of art her and her husband expose their children too, she stated that being a Christian family, they tend to expose their children to art and architecture related to B iblical history. When traveling, they have taken their children to art museums and the whole family really responds to creative forms of art expression. For an example she described a series of assemblage sculptures made of recycled junk that they saw on a trip to Washington D.C. She explained that her family doesn't really have an appreciation f or abstract or self expressive art, rather they respond to art that represents real life images and ideas Her daughter, Hannah loves photography and uses her iP od Touch to create photo collages and expressive videos in which she incorporates dance, fashi on, and acting. Colleen realizes the value of exposing her children to what she considers contemporary art education through learning graphic arts, digital media and various technological forms of creating, but she also is fearful of the effects of digita l media and TV on the brain. She tries to provide a distance, or keep technology "in check", so that her children get exposed to traditional modes of thinking and creating. Doing math without a calculator, reading a book instead of gathering information on line, and making art with a pencil or paintbrush, rather than a stylus. Colleen knows that to best prepare her children for success in college and in the workplace that they need to be educated in technology and commonly utilized computer
31 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA programs, but cu rrently isn't addressing such learning goals. She explained that her primary goal is to teach her children to be self sufficient adult citizens. Colleen prepares her children for the journey into adulthood by teaching them the "ins and outs" of their house hold. They not only know how to wash their own clothes and do the dishes, but they also participate in the calculations of the family finances, budgeting for grocery shopping, cooking, sewin g, and the list continues. Colleen is proud that she has made "lif e=school" and that her children learn by their experiences, by living. The Art Room: Jack O Lantern Gourd Workshop Two weeks before Halloween, Hannah, Ella, and Joshua Matthews attended the Art Room, a community art school in Windermere, Florida for a popu lar three hour workshop. Each student was provided with a large dried out gourd, acrylic paints, and brushes. The instructors explained the project procedure and showed examples of possible final outcomes. Students would be painting their gourds to look li ke pumpkins with black witch's hats (See Figure 3) The instructors demonstrated the painting technique employed for making the bottom portion of their gourd look like a pumpkin by blending the orange and yellow colors they were each given and by demonstra ting paint brush handling. Music was put on and the students began painting their pumpkin gourds. Periodically the students, ranging from approximately six to thirteen years old, would go over to the hairdryer stations to dry their paint so they could cont inue painting another layer.
32 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 3 Art Room examples of Jack o lantern project. After the students turned their tan colored gourds into yellow orange pumpkins, the instructors demonstrated how to apply the brown acrylic paint to create the illusion of the ridges of the pumpkin. Then they moved on to the black hat. Students were once again shown examples of the project, this time to demonstrate the style of hats they could create. Students were to consider if they wanted a wavy, zig zag, straight, or other creative line for the brim of the hat. After the hat shape was drawn on and painted solid black, everyone was handed a piece of paper and were to begin considering the face of their Jack o lantern (See Figure 4) The instructor used a bold sharpie ma rker on a large pad of paper placed up high on an easel for all eyes to see and demonstrated a variety of shapes and sizes of Jack o lantern facial features. Students were challenged to consider the expression and placement of their pumpkin's face. The ins tructors advised the students to make at least three different faces on their paper and then to put a star next to their favorite. The expression of choice was then drawn onto the gourd and the eyes, nose, and mouth were filled in with black paint to resem ble the cut out shapes of a carved pumpkin.
33 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 4 D rawing Jack o lantern facial features. The final steps allowed the students to embellish their hat with different colored paint pens as well as add a fine line of yellow in the eyes, nose and mouth to create a glowing highlight from the imaginary candle inside. The pumpkin gourds were sprayed with clear coat outside and the finishing touch was a burlap bow, pre made, that students could choose to place on their pumpkin's hat (See Figure 5) The three hour workshop flew by and Ella, Hannah, and Joshua were fully engaged in the entire process. Figure 5 Finished Jack o lantern painted gourds.
34 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA The H a nson Family By the time Olivia Ha nson entered the first grade, her parents had already tried a handful o f schools and approaches. Olivia had been tested as gifted in prekinderga rten, and it was evident to Olivia 's parents that traditional compulsory school just wasn't the right fit for their da ughter. Since first grade, Olivia has been enrolled in the Intern ational Community School, which offers a blended learning experience for homeschool students. Now in sixth grade, she attends school two days a week and completes the rest of the outlined curriculum, learning objectives, and homework at home t he other days of the week. Olivia is really happy with the program because she gets to be with her school friends twice a week while at the same time is able to set her own pace; she is a fast learner, so she loves being able to move ahead in the curriculum since she h as all of the resources she needs at home. Her mom, Lindsay believes that having the flexibility to set her ow n pace and customize Olivia 's education ensures that she doesn't lose, "the love of learning." Since Olivia was very young, Lindsay recognized he r innate interest in creating. Not being visually artistic herself, but having a deep appreciation for the arts, Lindsay began to enroll Olivia in community art programs. Since she didn't feel qualified to teach her daughter art lessons, she felt it was be st to leave that to the experts. She began exploring options and they have tried a variety of class offeri ngs. For a period of time Olivia participated in community art workshops offered through a neighboring church. She also participated in an art class o ffered by t he mom of a fellow homeschool student that met once a week on Fridays. Before it closed, Lindsay and Olivia went several times to Escape 2 Create, a paint your own pottery studio that also off ered glass fusing classes. Olivia showed off a beauti ful glass chessboard she made that was on display in the family room (See Figure 6)
35 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 6 Olivia's glass fused chessboard. Olivia also frequently participates in classes and workshops offered through the Orlando Museum of Art. During the summer she takes part in the museum's summer camp program. This past summer Olivia participated in OMA's Interior Design Art Camp, which lasted from 9am 4pm for an entire week. I was really impressed by the art board she made as the final project from the art camp an d how well she articulated her concept and design She was able to demonstrate, with mastery, her comprehension of design theory and application in her concept drawings and collaging of a redesig ned room within her house. Oliv i a demonstrated sophistication in her application of colors, furniture, textiles, wall and room decoration, while at the same time incorporating pre owned materials in their home repurposed in her updated design (See Figure 7) A local interior designer taught the camp, and it was e vid ent that Olivia benefitted from learning from a professional. She is now obsessed with DIY Network's show, Rehab Addict and has several projects lined up, such as refurbishing a set of cabinets she has found for a good price on Craigslist. Lindsay and Oli via have added Interior Design to the list of possible career avenues she may want to pursue in her future. Through the Orlando Museum of
36 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Art, Olivia has been exposed to a variety of techniques, materials, and processes ranging from clay sculptures, textil es, collage, drawing, painting, and knitting. Figure 7 Olivia's interior design project from OMA summer camp. For the last fourteen months, Olivia has also participated in classes offered through Creald School of Art, a local community art school that provides classes for children and adults, in Winter Park, Florida. She has discovered an affinity for throwing clay pots on the w heel. At twelve years old, Olivia is capable of creating a variety of sizes and shapes and her technical ability is excellent. When asked why she loves pottery, she replied that she loves that she can, "turn something from a hunk of clay into something like a mug." Lindsay explained that her daughter has always been very tactile, so it made sense to her when Olivia got hooked on working with clay. She attends classes regularly at Creald Sessions are six weeks long and classes meet one afternoon a week for two hours. Lindsay believes that a portion of a child's education should be student led. Although Olivia spends a lot of her time making arts and crafts both in and outside of her regular community art classes, she is involved in other extracurricular activities. Olivia is an avid
37 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA horseback rider and also plays tennis. Since Olivia is homeschooled and finishes her schoolwork ra ther quickly (although mom notes it is quality work), her schedule is flexible enough for her to pursue her other interests. Olivia has a natural love for learning and for making, but is also deeply passionate about horses, horseback riding, and playing te nnis. Li ke most homeschool parents, Lindsay tries to expose her daughter to a wide variety of activities, subjects and ar t form s. For her college degree, Lindsay created her own area concentration major by combining music, art history and litera ture, so i t is evident that Lindsay has a passion and appreciation for a ll of the arts. Although Olivia tried piano lessons, she is not really interested in learning an instrument. Olivia also tried theater for a year, but she's not in love with p erforming on stage either. Olivia did dance for about a semester. She loves making things with her hands. She designs profile pages for members of the website howrse.com, she makes jewelry and sells it at the end of her driveway ( in lieu of lemonade ) she designs banners for various events using computer programs like Paint and pizap.com, and her mom is very intentional about making various art supplies available to Olivia In their sunroom, there is an entire cabinet devoted to art making materials. When asked what the pros and cons to homeschoo ling were for their family, Lindsay could only come up with pros. As mentioned earlier, it was difficult early on in Olivia 's education to find the right combination of factors that she and her husband were seeking for their child. Wh en they found the International Community School it provided the right social environment, academic rigor, as well as provided a religious component. The school's educational mission focuses on faith, family, and scholarshi p. What's most important to Linds ay is that, "by homeschooling I am able to pour into the heart of my child." She explains that she doesn't want to send her child away from her everyday; "I don't have that long with her and I
38 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA hate being away from her. I love summers because we have so muc h time together." Although Lindsay works part time, the limited school week provided through ICS allows Lindsay to spend more time with her daughter and play an active role in Olivia 's education. Lindsay realizes that providing Olivia with a sound art educ ation extends beyond satis fying her desire to create. Lindsay believes that the arts enrich life, allow people to see things in a new light, and can take one to places one has never been. In her words, "art is good for the soul and t he act of creation is healthy and is a life long process. Lindsay and Olivia are looking forward to the "fieldtrip" they have planned to New York City over Thanksgiving week. They are planning on visiting a fe w art museums while there. Olivia has realized that although she lik es to create more abstract art, she is more interested in looking at and studying traditional art. She also loves artworks that are int eractive and multi sensory. Lindsay 's specialty is Renaiss ance and Baroque art. When she takes Olivia to exhibits, whethe r at the Orlando Museum of Art, Creald School of Art, or when they visit the museums in NYC, she is intentio nal about what she exposes Olivia to and what they take fr om the exhibit. She wants Olivia to be able to "taste it" through exposure While she is still young, Lindsay wants to make as many options available for Olivia so she can discover her passions. Creald Community Art School: Olivia at the Potter 's Wheel By the time I arrived at Creald Community Art School, Olivia 's hands were already glued to the wheel, coning a lump of clay. It was evident that she had finished one pot and was onto her next piece, a lid for the pot she had just thrown (See Figure 8) It was class three of a six week session and there were four other girls, app roximately the s ame age as Olivia in the class. Most of the girls were beginners, but the instructor, Miss Belinda, allows Olivia and another student to continue taking the class because they have such an affinity for throwing on
39 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA the wheel and th e r e are no other advanced options for their age group While the beginning students were learning basic throwing technique and how to trim their already thrown pots, Olivia was working on more complicated skills. It took her much of the whole two hours to get the lid for her pot ju st right. Figure 8 Olivia coning clay to make a lid for her pot. The classroom environment was meditative. It was a pleasant evening and Miss Belinda let all the doors in the studio remain open ; a wonderful cross breeze circulated the room. The hum of the wheels going round and the excited voices of five young tween girls was the only sound as they experienced successes or the physics of centrifugal motion got the best of their pots. Miss Belinda meandered through the wheels assisting each girl with the ir work and saving as many pots from having to be started over. With each fix came a technical correction, an explanation of what went wrong, a demonstration of how to get the pot back in shape, and a boost of confidence. It was clay therapy for sure. Ove r th e course of the two hours, Olivia worked intently at her wheel. She struggled to get the results that she was trying to achieve, but she brushed off each failed attempt and started
40 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA again. Having taken pottery class es for over a year now, she understand s the process of throwing on the wheel and remained emotionally unaffected each time she had to start over. Her dedication, resiliency, and calm demeanor demonstrated the positive attributes gained from learning to throw pots on the wheel. It was enlighten ing for me to see five twelve year old girls exhibiting such maturity with a technically difficult process. It not only made me want to join them in throwing on the wheel, but it made me think of how beneficial the act of throwing would be in "centering" m any individuals who are overrun by their emotions daily. Without hesitation, each girl got up from her wheel and began to clean up before the end of class. Everyone quietly moved around the room, all knowing what needed to be accomplished. Wheels were wa shed, buckets of slip and clay scraps were recycled, tools were cleaned, and the floor was mopped. Each girl brought her creations to the center table where they were wrapped in plastic to keep them moist so they could continue working on them next week. I n the next class students will continue trimming their pots and will also learn how to adorn their pottery with various decorative techniques. The girls were all so proud of their creations and you could tell they were already looking forward to next week' s class. Being able to throw a pot out of a hunk of clay is exhilarating, but I think the atmosphere of the studio, the demeanor of the instructor, and the process itself is also what keeps Olivia coming back. The joy in the room emanated from each student and made me want to come back next week too. The Ca rpenter Family Beth Ca rpenter begged her mother to homeschool her when she was in third grade. This was in the 1980s, before homeschooling was legal in all 50 states. Her argument to her mother was, "Yo u are smart enough to be our teacher," and she and her brother wanted out of the social pressures of public education. Fast forward to 2013. Be th now has three of her own children, her
41 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA oldest, Hailey is in first grade When it was time to put Hailey into preschool, she decided to enroll her in a traditional program along with a frien d. By the end of the year, Beth noticed that Hailey seemed to be struggling with reading and made the decision to homeschool her daughter. She explained that kindergarten was a breeze, it was fun for Hailey and they were able to not only catch up to her reading level, but got ahead of the learning curve. Now, Hailey is in first grade, and although she knows she has the optio n to ask to go to school, Hailey prefers to learn at h ome with her mom. Beth went to art school for college and majored in Fashion Merchandising. She explained that she always made art when she was younger and that her father and her oldest brother are al so artists. Her daughter, Hail e y already displays a lo ve for making art and if it were up to Hailey she would just mak e art all day, every day. Hailey draws endlessly, from beach and mountain scenes, to making her own books, to drawing and pai nting figures and flowers ( See Figure 9) Beth explained that Hail ey already has a critical eye and is always trying to improve her drawing abilities. Figure 9 Hailey's drawing of her and her mom.
42 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA As an artist, Beth understands the value of a solid art education and chooses to create her own art education methods rat her than following a predetermined curriculum. From her research and experience, many of the homeschool art curriculum resources tend to provide "step by step" instruction, which in her opinion is not what art educ ation is about. Currently, Beth customizes art lessons by integrating art making with the core curriculum she teaches, particularly al ong with history lessons. Hailey just finished making her own Egyptian mask and collar to go with her lesson on Egyptian pharaohs and mummies (See Figure 11 ) The w eek before they investigated the process of making clay coil pots (See Figure 10 ) Beth has decided that while Hailey is still young, she will integr ate art lessons with what Hailey is learning in her core curriculum, but she will throw in art and design v ocabulary and learning objectives, such as color the ory, as it is appropriate. Beth understands the difference between "making art at home" and an "art educati on" and plans on exposing Hailey to the art education objectives that s he learned in college, as Hailey gets older. For now, however, she knows that by integra ting art with the lessons Hailey is learning in her core subjects, that the pr ocess of making will help Hailey make connections and, "make the learning seep in." For elementary school the focus will be art appreciation, but as her children transition into high school they will focus on thinking and seeing critically about their ow n making and surroundings. Beth already works with Hailey to be aware of her surroundings and see the aesthetics of th e world around her. She wants her daughter to be able to articulate what she sees and be aware of how she responds to visual cues.
43 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 1 0 Hailey's coil pots made in conj unction with her history lesson Beth acknowledges that homeschooling is not alw ays easy and that sometimes teaching can be frustrating, but the pros heavily outweigh the cons. Bullying and exposure to social behavioral issues in traditional schools was a problem when Beth was a child and she knows from personal experience that homesc hooling nurtures a healthy level of self esteem for her daughter as well as allows them to customize and set an individual learning pace. When asked why she homeschools, Beth 's answer was very telling, "I've seen the village and I don't want them raising m y children." Although the pressure of making sure you provide your children with everything they would learn in school and more -otherwise you know that if they didn't learn something that you failed them as a parent and teacher is overwhelming at times, s he would n't want it any other way. Beth not only gets to ensure that her children receive a quality academic education, she is in control of their moral and spiritual education as well. She uses a curriculum called, Sonlight which provides a biblical lear ning component along with t he core academic subjects. Beth expounds on the provided curriculum with her own bible study objectives. She explains how nice it is to have, for example, a science curriculum that words topics such as evolution in a way that is in tune with her and her family's Christian convictions, unlike the texts
44 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA provided in a public school which would not address, or may contradict, Christian i deology. It's important to Beth that her children's education is more than reading, writing, math, science, history, and the arts, but that her children learn their family 's values and when the time comes that they are confronted with life decisions they will have the tools to make the right choices. Beth tries to expose her children to all of the arts and to various sports activities to help them, "find their thing." Hailey is currently enrolled in ballet and will begin t aking piano lessons soon. Hailey also wants to learn the guitar, but they will wait until after she has a foundation establishe d from learning the piano. Beth's four year old son, Aiden plays soccer and is excited to begin k arate lessons soon. All three of her children also t ake swimming lessons since Beth is a swim instruc tor. As an artist, Beth wants to make sure that her children ha ve an appreciation for what they can make with their hands. She understands that there is value gained from making, whether it be as a form of stress relief or as a mental break in between learning difficult concepts in math or reading. Art allows the stud ent a sense of freedom and a break from the structure of other learning lessons; art allows students to lea rn and work with mistakes. Beth already sees that Hailey experiences a release when she is making her art projects. S he is able to assess that Hailey is absorbing what she is learning and has mastery of core curriculum content, because it is visually apparent in her application of concepts in her artwork. Hailey has been on a field trip to the Orlando Museum of Art and to a children's art museum i n St. Louis, Missouri, but Beth has planned a major art museum trip in the near future. They will be traveling to St. Petersburg, Florida to visit the Salvador D ali Museum to help extend Hailey 's understanding of art. She hopes to expose her kids to all art, tr aditional, classical, and contemporary and hopes that through opening their eyes to a wide variety of images that she will expand, not narrow their definition of art. Beth hopes that they will
45 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA continue to experiment and play with artistic process and know that they can make anything they want with their endless creativity and hands. At the Dining Room Table: Making an Egyptian Mask This history lesson of the week was Egypt. Beth decided that for Hailey's visual art lesson, she would make an Egyptian mask and collar. She searched the Internet and Pinterest for inspiration and adapted an Egyptian mask project she found into her own. In preparation she created an outline for Hailey of the headdress and eyes. It was up to Hailey to decorate it based on what sh e learned in her history lesson. Before starting the art project, Beth engaged Hailey in a visual analysis of Egyptian pharaohs. Together they observed the shapes, materials, decorations, and deta ils of the pharaoh's funerary mask They discussed how the h eaddress looked like a cobra head with it's hood open. They looked for patterns and symmetry. They also discussed special details, like the ankh and collar worn around the neck by some Egyptian pharaohs. When it was time for Hailey to decorate her Egypt ian mask, all decision making was up to her. She ch ose to work with crayons She divided the sides of the headdress into horizontal stripes, like she had seen in the picture of King Tut's funerary mask. She chose purple and grey for her alternating stripe colors. In the ce nter of her mask, above the eye holes, Hailey chose to draw an ankh, the Egyptian hieroglyph for life. Commonly, cobra heads emerge from the center of pharaoh funerary masks so the ankh was a unique decision on Hailey's part. She chose to color the space around h er eyes with blue and grey crayons Once she was done coloring, Bet h helped Hailey cut out the eye holes and then Hailey applied straps to the sides of her mask using ribbon and tape.
46 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA For the collar, Beth provided Hailey with a p ape r plate. Hailey started by cutting the plate in half and then cutting out the bottom of the plate so she was left with just the ridged edge of the paper plate. Using acrylic paints, Hailey divided her collar into segments of different colors. As she painte d the sections, she maintained symmetry with her color choices. Each brightly colored shape represented the precious stones, like lapis lazuli, that were inlayed in the pharaoh's collars. When she completed her painting, Beth helped by punching holes in th e sides of the paper plate collar and Hailey strung ribbon through the holes and tied knots on the ends. Hailey proudly modeled her artwork and eagerly taught me everything she learned and used in her Egyptian mask and collar (See Figure 12) Learning, cre ativity, and fun were all evident in both the artwork and Hailey's expression. Figure 1 1 Hailey's completed Egyptian mask and collar.
47 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Findings Although the Ma t thews, Ha nson and Ca rpenter families provide a unique approach to ho meschooling and art ed ucation for their children, th ey share common motivations, philosophies and demographics Through c onducting interviews and observations I was able to assess the methods of visual arts instruction employed by local homeschool families and addr ess my resea rch questions. Based on my findings, I propose suggested art education materials and resources that meet the n eeds of homeschool students and provide contemporary art learning objectives. Demographics The most recent statistics regarding homeschool demogr aphics in the United States were compiled by the Department of Education through the National Center for Education, based on the 2007 Census 14 According to this research, homeschool families are more likely to be white and have a two parent household The research determined that, "Students in two parent households made up 89 percent of the homeschool population, and those in two parent households with one parent in the labor force made up 54 percent of the homes chool population," (National Center for Educ ation Statistics, 2007, para. 2 ). The data gathered also confirms that both parents are likely to work outside the home. 15 There were a higher percentage of families with h ou sehold incomes of $75,000 or more a year compar ed to families that did not seek ho meschooling Also, homescho ol parents generally had a vocational degree, some college, or a bachelor's degree. Although a variety of reasons for homeschooling were provided, 14 Information posted by the National Center for Education Statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/f astfacts/display.asp?id=91 15 Table 240. Students Who are Homeschooled by Selected Characteristics: 2007 Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, "Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey", of the 2007 National Household Education Su rveys Program, unpublished data. See also
48 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA "In 2007, the most common reason parents gave as the most important was a desire to provide religious or moral instruction (36 percent of students). This reason was followed by a concern about the school environment (such as safety, drugs, or negative peer pressure) (21 percent), dissatisfaction with academic instruction (17 percent), and "other reasons" including family time, finances, travel, and distance (14 percent). Parents of about 7 percent of homeschooled students cited the desire to provide their child with a nontraditional approach to education as the most important reason for homeschooling, and the parents of another 6 percent of students cited a child's health problems or special needs. (NCES, 2007, para 3 ) Compared to the data collected b y the NCES, the Matthews, Ha nson and Ca rpenter families fall in line with common demog raphic s of homeschool families. All three families are middle class Caucasian and are two parent households. All parents have obtained a college degree. To my surprise, but concurrent with the data collected by the NCES, both parents in each family work ou tside the home at least part time In regards to motivations for homeschooling, all partici pants listed school environment dissatisfaction with academic instruction of compulsory schools, and religious instruction as motivations for homeschooling. Howeve r, t he methods and approaches for providing their children's homeschool and visual arts education varied. R esponse to R esearch Questions Colleen Matthews, Lindsay Ha nson and Beth Ca rpenter all had a strong arts education as children. All three mothers pr acticed music throughout their educational career and enforce (or attempt to) music education in their children's homeschool practice. Although Colleen admits her visual art education concluded in elementary school, she reminisced of fond memories of art c lass and the impact it had on her childhood. Both Lindsay and Beth studied art or art history
49 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA extensively in college. All three mothers expressed the importance of exposing their children to all of the arts in order to identify interests or talents. Collee n expressed that visual art can aid in remembering content, Lindsay identified that art allows students to see things from new perspectives, and Beth added that making art provides freedom and stress relief from learning difficult concepts in the core acad emic curriculum. The three moms also expressed the concern, as the sole educator responsible for ensuring their child receives a high quality education, that they provide as many learning opportunities as possible for their children. Except for Beth, Coll een and Lindsay recognize they are under qualified to provide their children with a proper visual arts education and therefore seek outside assistance. When their children were younger, they engaged in craft activities, but as they became older and demonst rated an interest in art, Colleen and Lindsay invested in visual art instruction provided by professionals. Beth having studied art in college, feels very comfortable providing an art education to her children, and although they are still very you ng, has already outlined their visual art learning objectives for primary and secondary school. Colleen utilized the art instruction offered through the My Father's World curriculum that she used before moving to Florida, and now relies on the art lessons and cre ative components that are a part of the Pine Ridge Home Educators enric hment program. She has also has begu n investing in arts instruction at a local community art school that offers workshops and classes to children and adults. Since our interviews, her s on Joshua, who didn't appear to have much of an interest in making art before, has been spending more time making drawings in his sketchbooks. He eagerly showed me the "Turkey Gourd" he painted in their second workshop at the Art Room, as well as some cart oon drawings he made from a tutorial after a Dr. Seuss movie (See Figures 12 & 13 )
50 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 1 2 Joshua's Turkey Gourd made at the Art Room. Figure 1 3 Joshua's Dr. Seuss cartoon drawing made after movie tutorial.
51 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Lindsay expressed t hat from a very young age, Olivia exhibited an interest in making. Having little talent in making art, but a vast appreciati on for art and art history, Lindsay has dedicated much of Olivia 's homeschool education to her visual art studies. Olivia has consistently been enrolled in pottery classes at Crealde School of Art for the last two years. Prior to that, Olivia has taken numerous classes and workshops through the Orlando Museum of Art. Olivia has also engaged in arts learning through other community art programs that Lindsay discovered, but the classes offered through Creal de and OMA seem to satisfy Olivia the most. Having an extensiv e knowledge of art history, Lindsay exposes Olivia to a lot of artwork and is able to teach and discuss art with Olivia on an academic level. B eth has also recognized that Hailey demonstrates a passion for making art. Art making is integrated into the homeschool curriculum weekly, but after dai ly lessons are completed, Hailey spends a lot of her time drawing or making creative pr ojects. Although Beth primarily incorporates art le arning as a supplement to Hailey 's history lessons, she embeds vocabulary and visual art learning objectives into the projects During my interview with Beth, Hailey scrounged through a closet for art supplies and disappea red upstairs to her bedroom. She returned minutes later with a gift she made for me. We had been discussing the Egyptian mask project she had made, when she handed me a new mask. Constructed out of computer paper, tape and ribbon for the strap, drawn on wi th pencil, and eyes cut out with scissors, my mask had a smiley face on one side and a sad face on the other (See Figures 14 &15 ) It was a perfect example of how her art lesson from Egypt had transposed into art making on her own creative level.
52 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Figure 1 4 Smiley face side of mask Hailey made for me. Figure 1 5 Sad face side of mask Hailey made for me.
53 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Concerns: What's Missing? Although I admire the efforts and great lengths Colleen, Lindsay, and Beth go to in order to provide their children with visua l arts learning, I am critical, as a professional art educator, of what is missing from their art education. When asked what methods of contemporary art educati on are being addressed, I recognized a weakness in this area. Colleen defined contemporary art a s digital art and design. She identified that she steers her children away from digital media because she is fearful of the effects of too much technology on brain development, but acknowledged that in order for her children to be best prepared for college and the workplace that they need to learn certain design software. Lindsay identified contemporary art making as computer ba sed also and described how Olivia uses painting and webpage layout programs on the computer. Beth acknowledged a working understand ing of contemporary art practices by stating that she tries to emphasize free play, experimentation, and process with Hailey Through my discussions with all the mothers it was eviden t that none of the children are receiving as comprehensive an art educat ion as outlined by state or national art education s tandards that many, if not most, compulsory art educators strive to or are required to provide students in the classroom. Material manipulation, step by step instruction, traditional technique, and art h istory are all valid components of art education and are a part of the N ational A rt E ducation A ssociation Standards but alone, fall flat when preparing students for studying art in college and for 21 st century skills. The mission of the NAEA is: "The NAEA advances visual arts education to fulfill human potential and promise global understanding." 16 Most art teachers today recognize that to best prepare students to be global citizens and to be successful members in the future workplace requires skills in vis ual literacy, creative problem solving, and social awareness. Art teachers 16 http://www.arted ucators.org homepage.
54 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA also recognize the power of developing confidence and one's self identity through creative self expression. The Matthews, Ha nson and C a rpenter children all have a well developed se nse of art appreciation, but demonstrate very little evidence of self or of global awareness within their art making endeavors. I believe all families would understand the importance of developing these skills through visual art s education if they had a st ronge r understanding of what contemporary art education encompasses. R aising home educators awareness of contemporary art education objectives and providing them with the necessary resources, homeschool families will at least have the opportunity to explo re these learning objectives with their children. From my research and from speaking with other homeschool parents, it is my understanding that homeschoolers go above and beyond to provide the best education for their children. Currently, there is little t o no art education resources geared specifically for homeschool education that advocate or provide contemporary art learning objectives. ( See appendix C for an overview of commonly used/ advertised homeschool art curriculums. ) Proposed Methods of Instructi on Based on the results of my case study, visual arts instruction is best performed by a professional in the field. In order to provide homeschool students with a contemporary art education, I propose both a community art prog ram and an online distance lea rning program that utilize the instruction of a professional art educator. The lessons outlined in the curriculum will be designed to meet the NAEA national standards and will address contemporary art learning objectives and practices. Classes will be orga nized by age level and theme. Based on the needs of homeschool families, affordability, scheduling, and clearly defined learning objectives will be taken into consideration.
55 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Through my observations of the classes and workshops offered through both the Art Room and Creald School of Art, community art schools tend to provide technique and product based learning. Currently, neither school offers classes that address topics such as visual literacy, social awareness, or creative self expression, although it can be argued that problem solving skills are being addressed through discovery of material manipulation and technical mastery. Most of the classes offered are beginner level and focus on step by step instruction. Although variations of student projects are v isible, it is evident that students are following the same instructions. I acknowledge that valuable learning takes place through step by step instruction and confidence in art making abilities are developed. I am critical however because students of suc h programs receive little to no opportunity to develop what they have learned into a personal form of expression. It is one thing to be able to emulate, and another to be able to invent. My proposed curriculum would place emphasis on conceptual development and process. Classes would be based on a theme that explores a contemporary art objective such as visual literacy, visual culture, problem solving social awareness, multiculturalism, or creative self expression. Over the course of a series of sessions, students would explore the topic through looking at contemporary examples, discussion questions, self reflection, and finally the production of an artwork regarding their thoughts and experiences with the theme. Complexity of themes and the content explore d in lessons would be based on age level. An example might be a class exploring gender differentiation through color: Pink is for Girls, Blue is for Boys. Students enrolled in this class would be asked what colors are "girl" or "boy" colors and other quest ions that would require them to think critically about the way colors infer gender. Students would look at a variety of images including toys, clothes, and activities that are defined by color and gender. Next, students would engage in a conversation of wh at
56 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA color means to them and what their opinions are about "girl colors" and "boy colors." Finally, students would engage in some sort of art project perhaps a collage, which explores the concept of colors and gender being linked together. The online distan ce learning course would follow the same structure as the community art program with the same learning objectives. The purpose of offering a distance learning art program is that it is easily accessible to students all over the country. Online learning als o promotes parents active involvement in their child's education. Instruction would be provided by a professional art educator and there would be constant communication and feedback from the instructor to both the student and parents. Lessons would be pr ovided through written description as well as video tutorials. Discussions would be held via discussion boards, blogging, s cheduled online conferences email, and traditional phone or V oice over I nternet P rotocol video/phone calls. Courses offered through both the commun ity art school and the distance learning pro gram will be designed to develop a portfolio of work. Although homeschool families are generally not manda ted by the state to provide visual art education, most homeschool parents that do are accus tom ed to holding on to everything ever made by their child regarding their education in case they ever need to provide evidence of their child's education. Annually, homeschool families provide a portfolio of the student's academic course work to the state department of education. Through their art education classes, they would also be compiling a portfolio that would show evidence of learning relevant contemporary art and critical thinking skills.
57 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA What Questions L inger? Is there anything wrong with step by step instruction? With learning art as a supplement to core academic subjects, like history? With making art to master a technique or experiment with a traditional material? Or with making holiday arts and crafts? It may sound like I am contradicting m yself, but my answer is No. I cannot help but reflect on the pure joy and content ment the children in each family I observed dem onstrated while engaged in art learning activities. Joshua, who prior to his Art Room holiday gourd pain ting workshop had no int erest in making art, proudly showed me all of the drawings he has been making since then. Olivia is passionate about throwing on the wheel and exhibited so much patience and perseverance through several failed attempts at making a lid for one of her pots. Hailey was able to take what she learned through her history lesson on Egyptian masks and make her own creative mask. I am an advocate for all methods of visual arts instruction that are explored by each of the families in my case study. None of th e method s they employ cause any harm, and all of the methods support a healthy development of art appreciation. I do believe that children need to love art first, and that love is fostered through making. Making art, in return, develops an appreciation, and the cy cle of loving, making and appreciating art continues and is reinforced. Simultaneously, I remain critical that a comprehensive art education is not being offered or provided for homeschool students, based on the literature I have read, curriculums I have investigated, and families I have observed and spoken with. As a contemporary art educator I understand the value of a relevant art education that is designed to develop student's skills for study of art at the collegiate level, for 21 st century careers a nd to be a successful global citizen. From what I have learned abou t the homeschool community, parents spend countless hours researching the best educational opportunities for their child and I am confident that if the
58 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA contemporary art education programs e xisted, al ong with literature explaining their value, that homeschoolers would invest in such programs for their children. Cost and accessibility are always an issue for homeschool families and would need to be greatly considered when developing the art pr ograms I have proposed. A plethora of free art lessons have emerged as a respons e to growing social media. The I nternet presently provides art education resources through Pinterest, Twitter, Tumblr, Facebook, YouTube, and countless blogs to name just a f ew. Do It Yourselfers can simply search "kids ar ts projects" on Google and have access to websites, blogs, and various resources. Have a particular theme or project you want to search? Chances are, many examples exist online. Even if you are just looking f or inspiration with no final outcome in mind, reading blogs or surfing Pinterest will get your creative mind pumping. Not sure how to do something? Plenty of video bloggers are ready to guide you throu gh the process on YouTube. The I nternet and ambitious w eb users have made sharing and accessing art education right at the tip s of our finger s The issue is in training the user to find the resources relevant to visual arts learning aligned with the NAEA national standards and contemporary art education object ives. This is why I firmly believe that it is in the best interest of art educators and the NAEA to provide high standard contemporary art education programs and resources that are relevant to homeschool students. In a response to sorting through which onl ine art education projects meet NAEA national standards and contemporary art education goals, I have created a Pinterest board titled, Contemporary Art Teacher Approved Art Lessons for Homeschoolers (appendix D). I believe homeschoolers will take the oppor tunity to learn about the value of high quality contemporary art instruction and resources through local community art schools, distance learning programs, and through social media and will come to understand why contemporary art
59 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA education object ives are i n the best interest in providing their children a comprehensive education. Art educators and homeschool educators essentially want the same outcome for our children, and that is that they are best prepared to be global citizens of the world we live in.
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61 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Education News (2012). Number of homeschoolers growing nationwide. Education News. Retrieved from http://www.edu cationnews.org/parenting/number of homeschoolers growing nationwide/ Ellis, B. & D. (2011). Information. Retrieved from http://www.artisticpursuits.com/index.html Florida Department of Educatio n (2012). Home education program. The Florida Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.floridaschoolchoice.org/pdf/Home_Ed_Fast_Facts.pdf Florida Senate (2012). Florid a statutes. Retrieved from http://www.flsenate.gov/Laws/Statutes/2012/1002.41 Florida Virtual School (2013). About us, quick facts. Florida Virtual School Retrieved from http://www.flvs.net/areas/aboutus/pages/quickfactsaboutflvs.aspx Gaither, M. (2008). Why homeschooling happened. Educational Horizons 86 (4), 226 237. Garber, E., & Stankiewicz M. A. (2000). Cyber faculty: A n experience in distance learning. Art Education 53 (1), 33 38. Grant, D. (2002, November 10). Distance learning; If you can't draw this The New York Times Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/10/education/distance learning if you can t draw this.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm Hanna, L. (2 012). Homeschooling education: L ongitudinal study of methods, materia l, and curricula. Education and Urban Society, 44 (5), 609 631. Retrieved from http://eus.sagepub.com/content/44/5/609 HomeSchool Reviews (2008 2013). Visual arts. Retrieved from http://www.homeschoolreviews.com/reviews/curriculum/default.aspx?id=115
62 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Kate, A. (2011). Art with a purpose. Retrieved from http://www.thecurriculumchoice.com/2011/05/art with a purpose/ Knowles, J. G., Marlow, S. E., Muchmore, J. A. (1992). From pedagogy to ideology: O r i gins and phases of home education in the United S tates, 1970 1990. American Journal of Edu cation 100 (2), 195 235. Kuzman, R. (2012). Education, schooling, and children's rights: the complexity of homeschooling. Educational Theory 62 (1), 75 89. Lodico, M. G., Spaudling, D. T., Voegtle, K. H (2006). Introduction to educational research. In M. Lodico, D. Spaulding, and K. Voegtle (Eds.), Met hods in educational research: From theory to p ractice (pp. 1 21). San Francisco CA: Jossey Bass. Mack, Julie. (2012). What the US Census says about homeschool families (Julie Mack blog), M Live http://www. mlive.com/education/index.ssf/2012/01/homeschooling_by_the_census_nu.ht ml Mason, J. (2004). Semi structured interviews. In M. Lewis Beck, A. Bryman, T. Liao (Eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods Volume 3 (pp. 1020 1021). Thousan d Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (pp.100 103) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Meet the Masters (2013). About us. Retrieved from ht tp://www.meetthemasters.com Morse Brown, A. (2013). The art course. Retrieved from http://www.theartcourse.com/ NAEA (2013). NAEA standards. Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/research/naea standards
63 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA National Center f or Education Statistics (2007). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=91 Nichols, J. (2005). Music education in homeschooling: A preliminary inquiry Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education 166 27 42. Ray, B. (2002). Customization through homeschooling. Educational Leadership 59 (7), 50 54. Reich, R. (2002). The civil perils of homeschooling. Educational Leadership 59 (7), 56 59. Seawright, J., & Gerring, J. (2008). Case selection techniques in case study research: A menu of qualitative and quantitative options. Political Research Quarterly, 61 (2), 294 308. Stakes R. E. (1978). The case study method in social inquiry. Educational Researcher, 7 (2), 5 8. Stakes R. E. (1995). The art of case study research (pp.49 68) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Stebbing, B. (2012). About the instructor. Retrieved f rom http://www.howgreatthouart.com Types of Sampling. (n.d.) Purposive sampling. Retrieved from http://psychology.ucdavis.ed u/sommerb/sommerdemo/sampling/types.htm Van Galen, J. (1986). Schooling in private: A study of home education. Unpub lished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Education. Van Galen, J. (1991). Home schooling: Politi cal, h ist orical, and pedagogical p erspec tives Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publis hers. Watson, J., Muri n, A.,Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., Rapp, C., (2011). Keeping pace with K 12 online learning, iNACOL Retrieved from http://kpk12.com/cms/wp content/uploads/KeepingPace2011.pdf Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (pp. 3 185) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
64 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Yurako, K. A. (2008). Education off the grid: C onstitutional constraints on homeschooling. California Law Review 96 (1), 123 184. Zeise, A. (2013). Number of homeschoolers in the USA. A to Z Home's Cool Homeschooling. http://homes chooling.gomilpitas.com/weblinks/numbers.htm#how_many
65 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1 Ella's Creation Book 27 Figure 2 Joshua's sketch of a robot ... .. 29 Figure 3 Art Room examples of Jack o lantern project ... .. 32 Figure 4 Drawing Jack o lantern facial features ... 33 Figure 5 Finished Jack o lantern painted gourds ... 33 Figure 6 Olivia's glass fused chessboard ... .35 Figure 7 Olivia's interior design project from OMA summer camp ... 36 Figure 8 Olivia coning clay to make a lid for her pot .37 F igure 9 Hailey's drawing of her and her mom .. 41 Figure 10 Hailey's coil pots made in conjunction with her history lesson ..43 Figure 11 Hailey's completed Egyptian mask and collar 46 Figure 12 Joshua's Turkey Gourd made at the Art Room .. 50 Figure 13 Joshua's Dr. Seuss cartoon drawing made after movie tutorial .. 50 Figure 14 Smiley face side of mask Hailey made for me 52 Figure 15 Sad face side of mask Hailey made for me 52
66 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Appendix A Questions for Interview 1. Do you incorporate visual arts learning in your child(ren)'s homeschool study? 2. What methods have you tried? What seems to work best for your students? What are some resources that you use to provide art education? 3. Does your child(ren) demonstrate a definite interest in visual art? Do they have a preferred form of ma king/ expression? 4. Have you ever tried any of the art curriculums developed specifically for homeschooling? Do you follow one currently? If yes, do you allow your students to deviate from the curriculum? Do you supplement the art curriculum you follow with any other resources or materials? 5. How often does your child(ren) engage in visual art? (hours per week?) 6. Why do you choose to incorporate visual art as a part of your child's homeschool study? Are you aware that visual art is not mandated by the state of F lorida? Why do you feel it is important? 7. What do you feel art provides children as a part of their education and development? What do you hope your child will gain from their art education? 8. What do you feel the purpose of an art education is/ should encom pass/ provide? 9. Do you provide an assessment for you child's art project? (grade, critique, reflective writing?) 10. Why do you choose to homeschool? 11. What are the pros and cons of homeschooling for you?
67 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA 12. If you were to invest in art education materials geared to wards homeschooling, what would you be looking for? What would meet your needs? 13. Distinguish making art at home a nd "homeschool art education"? D o you set objectives? Is there art history? 14. What type of art do you look at with your children ( both in terms of art his torical as well as models for projects )? What do you consider to be con temporary art as a part of your child's education?
68 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Appendix B Comparison Chart of F amily M otivations and Methods of Art Instruction Families Why Homeschool? Why Provide Visual Art? Methods Matthews Oldest son had a difficult transition into school. Colleen was a teacher. Parents wanted to be responsible for raising and educating their children. Parents believe it is their duty to expose children to all forms of a rtistic expression in order to discover any interests or talent that their children may not know they have. Lessons through main curriculum, community art school workshops, and sketchbook drawings. Hanson Their child tested as gifted and none of the vario us schools they tried met the academic needs or acceleration their child needed. Since child was young, parents noticed she had an innate sense of creating and was very tactile. They want to make as m any options available for child so she can discover her passions. Commun ity art schools or classes and museum art programs and summer camp. Student led art making, such as beading and webpage design. Carpenter Oldest daughter exhibited signs of falling behind in reading in Kindergarten, so parents made the dec ision to educated from home. They caught up and went beyond her reading level. Mom was homeschooled as a child. Mother is an artist and understands value of art education. She n oticed daughter loves to make art. She is able to assess her own artwork and st rives for improvement. Art lessons designed by mother and integrated into core curriculum, especially with history lessons. Student led art making activities, such as making own coloring books.
69 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Appendix C Synopsis of Five Popular Homeschool Art C urriculums Artistic Pursuits: Dan and Brenda Ellis are the cofounders and writers of Artistic Pursuits Inc. a series of coil bound text books designed for students in preschool through high school. Each book focuses on building visual vocabulary, cri tical thinking skills, creativity, art appreciation, art history, and art making techniques. On the homepage they state, At Artistic Pursuits Inc., we believe every child can understand the concepts of art and enjoy the process of putting ideas and visual images on paper (Ellis, 2000 2013 ). The lessons provided for each age level focus on observation of nature and the world in which we live, as well as art historical examples, and are designed to let students make unique choices of subject matter and mate rials. The creators of Artistic Pursuits emphasize that their curricular approach is not step by step, is not technique driven, does not require students to watch videos as a form of emulation, and above all is designed to allow creative expression and fos ter a love of making. The authors express, "We expect a child to be a child and we value what they produce from their own hands" (Ellis, 2000 2013). Atelier: Since its inception in 2000, Atelier has been marketing art instruction through DVDs for homeschoo lers and co op teachers. There are eight levels of instruction, each level consisting of three DVDs, provides lessons for one year per level. The DVD instruction focuses on building a foundation of the elements and principles of art and design, art history media exploration c reative self expression, cultural appreciation, and right brain drawing techniques (homeschoolart.com, 2011). Arts Attack publishers market the program as being user friendly, quality arts instruction. Parents receive a teacher's manu al and printed guidelines for creating art shows, for visiting museums, glossaries of terms, materials lists and supplemental tips for
70 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA learning activities, along with the DVD package. Art with a Purpose: Designed for st udents ranging from 1st grade through 8th grade, the homeschool parent purchases an "Artpac" comprised of 38 lessons that are advertised as being very low in cost (under $10.00), simple step by step instruction, and require minimal purchasing of materials that are easily obtainable and do not create a mess. Art activities focus on coloring, shading, grid drawing, painting, cutting, card making, and freehand drawing (Kate, 2011). Art with a Purpose Artpacs are published by Rod and Staff, a Christian Mennonite company Text throughout the Artpac is often Christian in nature and designed to be inspirational. There is no art history or art appreciation offered through this program. Meet the Masters at Home: In 1985, Bonnie Steele developed Meet the Masters as a supplemental art program for her daug hter's school. Her intention was to expose children to art and help them realize the importance of art and of creativity in our lives Meet the Masters is a program that is utilized in public, private, charter, and homeschools. Through images the lessons expose students to art history, vocabulary, and techniques. Lessons can be easily downloaded for homeschoolers and provide step by step instruction. There is audio provided to make learning more interactive. Art making activities focus on materials, techni ques, and compositions of Western art history, predominantly from 20 th century American and European artists. Art projects are step by step and the same lessons are built upon for each age level to address more complex learning objectives. Meet the Masters has three different levels: Kindergarten 2 nd grade, 3 rd 4 th grade, and 5 th grade through adult. How Great Thou Art: Barry Stebbing is a college educated artist and art educator that created How Great Though Art homeschool art curriculum and workshops as a way to share his God given talents. He has developed fifteen textbooks that provide visual arts learning for
71 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA perschoolers through high school. How Great Thou Art has a strong emphasis on drawing and painting but also focuses on the fundamentals of composi tion, journaling and art appreciation. Barry and his wife also travel throughout the United States and Canada offering three day workshops that focus on drawing, painting, and art appreciation. There are also a variety of drawing, pai nting, and art appreci ation DVD curriculums available for purchase. Stebbing states on the website for How Great Thou Art, May God bless the work of your hands and make all your plans succeed (Stebbing, 2012 ).
72 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Appendix D Pinterest board Contemporary Art Teacher Approved Art Lessons for Homeschoolers http://www.pinterest.com/dishmouse/contemporary art teacher approved art lessons for /
73 HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA HOMESCHOOLING AND CONTEMPORARY ART EDUCATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA Author Biography Tri sh O'Donnell earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Studio Art with an emphasis in drawing, painting and photography, as well as her Education Certification from Lawrence University in Appleton, WI, in 2003. Upon completion of her student teaching in the Ap pleton School District, Trish moved to Taiwan where she taught English to students ranging from six to seventeen years old. She returned to the States for a position as a high school art teacher at Shawano Community High School in Shawano, WI. After three years, Trish returned to school to further her education and completed the Post Baccalaureate Certificate Program at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design with an emphasis in painting (2008). Trish accepted a position to head the Visual Arts Department (2008) at Montverde Academy, Montverde, FL, where she is currently teaching. MVA is an international boarding school as well as a day school for local residents. She currently teaches Introduction to Art, Two Dimensional Art, Three Dimensional Art, Photog raphy, Advanced Photography, Advanced Studio Art, Advanced Placement Studio Art, and Advanced Placement Art History. She also sponsors MVA's National Art Honor Society chapter and is in charge of Montverde Academy's Visual Art diploma program. In addition to her traditional classroom teaching position, Trish also teaches part time for Creald School of Art, a non for profit community art school located in both Winter Park and Winter Garden, FL. She primarily teaches elementary students in both painting and photography classes. In December 2013, Trish defend ed this Capstone Research to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida as the final requirement in pursuit of her Master's in Art Education.