Finding parallels: advancing creativity and innovation in engineering through the visual arts

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Title:
Finding parallels: advancing creativity and innovation in engineering through the visual arts
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Lallement, Kathryn F.
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Place of Publication:
2013

Notes

Abstract:
My capstone project stemmed from conversations that I, an art educator, began with my father who is a professor in engineering. My research investigates background information outlining the recent history of engineering and how art related skills in engineering are currently taught. It examines the current trend of project-based lessons in the classroom as an attempt to integrate more creativity and problem-solving skills into the engineering curriculum. My research explores the connection of visual art practices and engineering through sketching, visualization, model making, and exploration of spatial relationships. It also examines the problems and impediments the inclusion of arts-based creative learning activities can bring to the engineering classroom and curriculum. Methods used in this research included semi-structured and informal interviews. I conclude this Capstone research paper with insights that pose the skills and inquiry processes that are basic to art education as beneficial to the education of engineering students. I created several products to support this research. This included a blog, found at www.klallement12.blogspot.com. My blog captures my thinking and emerging findings as this study unfolded. I also created over thirty original images for this project. I curated two archives of resources on Pinterest.com that include images and articles that are related to science, engineering, and the visual arts. My Pinterest boards are viewable on http://www.pinterest.com/katelallement/art-and-engineering/. I also created a Scoop.It archive of readings informing my topic at http://www.scoop.it/t/art-and-engineering, and an electronic picture book, published in ISSUU at http://issuu.com/katelallement/docs/art_engr. This picture book recounts in narrative style some of my insights, conversations, and interviews with engineering professors, each juxtaposed by one of my original images created for this project. My website houses my gallery of original images, along with links to my other creative products mentioned above. My website is viewable at http://lallement12.wix.com/artengr.
Acquisition:
Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Kira Krall.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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IR00003632:00001


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PARALLELS IN ART AND ENGINEERING 1 FINDING PARALLELS: ADVANCING CRE ATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN ENGINEERING THROUGH THE VISUAL ARTS By KATHRYN F. LALLEMENT A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO TH E COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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PARALLELS IN ART AND ENGINEERING 2 2013 Kathryn F. Lallement

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PARALLELS IN ART AND ENGINEERING 3 Acknowledgements I would like to first thank my husband, David La llement, and daughter, Stella Lallement for being my biggest fans and believing in me; th is would not have been possible without their support. I would also like to thank my mom, Di ane Fallon, who came to my rescue several times throughout this process and always “understood”. I would like to thank Dr. Keith Plemmons and Dr. John Murden for their insights and enthusiasm for my research. I would also like to thank my committee member, Dr. Craig Roland, who always got me to “dig-deeper,” bought me a coffee when I needed it most, and who always looks out for the well-being of his students. My deepest appreciation and gratitude goes to my committee ch air, Dr. Elizabeth Delacruz who has been my untiring guide and without whose amazing knowledge extreme patience, and constant help, this Capstone would not have been possible. Finally, it has been my great honor and privilege to have worked with my father, Dr. Dennis Fallon. I woul d like to thank him for his support, excellent advice, laughter, and fantastic stories.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESEN TED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS FINDING PARALLELS: ADVANCING CRE ATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN ENGINEERING THROUGH THE VISUAL ARTS By Kathryn F. Lallement December 2013 Chair: Elizabeth Delacruz Committee Member: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract My capstone project stemmed from conversations that I, an art educator, began with my father who is a professor in engineering. My research investigates background information outlining the recent history of engineering and how art related skills in en gineering are currently taught. It examines the current tr end of project-based lessons in the classroom as an attempt to integrate more creativity and problem-solving skills into the engineering curriculum. My research explores the connection of visual art practices and engine ering through sketching, visualization, model making, and exploration of spatia l relationships. It also examines the

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 5 problems and impediments the inclusion of arts-bas ed creative learning activities can bring to the engineering classroom and curriculum. Methods us ed in this research included semi-structured and informal interviews. I conclude this Capsto ne research paper with insights that pose the skills and inquiry processes that are basic to art education as be neficial to the education of engineering students. I created several products to support this research. This included a blog, found at www.klallement12.blogspot.com My blog captures my thinking and emerging findings as this study unfolded. I also created over thirty original images for this project. I curated two archives of resources on Pinterest.com that include images and articles that are related to science, engineering, and the visual arts. My Pinterest boards are viewable on http://www.pinterest.com/katelallement/art-and-engineering/ I also created a Scoop.It archive of readings informing my topic at http://www.scoop.it/t/a rt-and-engineering and an electronic picture book, published in ISSUU at http://issuu.com/katelallement/docs/art_engr This picture book recounts in narrative style some of my insights, conve rsations, and interviews with engineering professors, each juxt aposed by one of my original im ages created for this project. My website houses my gallery of original images along with links to my other creative products mentioned above. My website is viewable at http://lallement12.wix.com/artengr Keywords: engineering, visu al arts, art education, problem-solving, creativity

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 6 Table of Contents Title Page .................................................................................................................... .................... 1 UF Copyright Page ............................................................................................................ ............ 2 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. ........... 3 UF Formatted Abstract ......................................................................................................... ......... 4 Table of Contents ............................................................................................................. .............. 6 Conversations ................................................................................................................. ............ 9 Research Questions and Assumptions ..................................................................................... 10 Rationale and Significance of the Study .................................................................................. 11 Supporting Literature ......................................................................................................... .......... 11 The Problem of Creativity in Engineering Learning ............................................................... 11 Visual Skills Found in Engineering ......................................................................................... 1 4 Project-Based Learning ........................................................................................................ .... 15 Model Engineering Programs .................................................................................................. 16 Research Methodology .......................................................................................................... ...... 18 Informal Interviews ........................................................................................................... ....... 18 Semi-Structured Interviews .................................................................................................... 19

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 7 Subjects ...................................................................................................................... .............. 20 Data Collection ............................................................................................................... ......... 24 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................. .......... 25 Limitations ................................................................................................................... ............ 26 Discussion of Findings ........................................................................................................ ......... 26 Creativity and Innovation for the Future of Engineering ......................................................... 26 Fundamentals of Visual Arts Skills in Engineering ................................................................. 27 Project-Based Learning in Engineering Studies ...................................................................... 28 Challenges and Impediments in th e Engineering Curriculum ................................................. 29 Insights and Speculations ..................................................................................................... ........ 31 My Creative Products .......................................................................................................... .... 33 Some Final Thoughts ........................................................................................................... .... 41 References ................................................................................................................... ................. 43 List of Figures with Figure Captions ....................................................................................... 4 8 Author’s Biography ............................................................................................................ ......... 49

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 8 Conversations For as long as I can remember, I have been th e only “known” artistic person in my family and have always felt a little misunderstood. Unt il I started teaching, I never thought that I had much in common with my father, Dr. Dennis Fall on, who is a professor in engineering at the Citadel in South Carolina. My pursuit of college degrees in Horticulture, French, and Studio Arts have been jokingly commented on by my father who asked when I would start studying “real” subjects like engineering. Living close and seeing each other frequently, I was out to prove to my father (in good fun) the significance of art. As an art educator, I do this all the time with my students to show them how what they are taking can contribute to their overall education. This would be a challenge with my father, as I knew very little about engi neering and engineering education. While trying to convince my father about the worth of art study as my goal, I started linking different aspects of engineer ing to my knowledge about art. Over a year ago my father and I began long weekly conversations in which we would discuss education, art, and engi neering. Dad mentioned a real ne ed in American Engineering–a need for more creative and innovative student s. Seeing also a need to demonstrate the significance of visual arts a nd how it could enhance creativity and innovation, I expressed my interest in researching the benefits of art ed ucation in engineering for my Master’s Degree Capstone Project through the University of Flor ida and together we started this journey. This research is much more than a look into art educ ation and its relationship with engineering. Much like my father and I, being male and female a nd from different generations, my work is a look into two subjects that are percei vably at different ends of the professional spectrum. Through this inquiry I attempt to show how these two percei vably different subjects share similar problems and what advancements we might make in both fields if we collaborate.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 9 Problem Statement and Goals With exponential increases in technol ogy and communication, our world is becoming smaller. Countries such as China and India are graduating large amounts of engineers every year. In 2005, the United States graduated 70,000 engineer s compared to India at 350,000 and China at 600,000 (Kiwana, Kumar, & Randerson, 2012). What se ts engineering in the US apart from Engineers in other coun tries in the world? The US has excellent engineering programs and schools already in place nation-wi de, however, the field of engin eering and the needs of society are changing beyond the programs currently in place. In my research, I consider why engineers must develop creative and problem-s olving skills. I identify art ski lls and inquiry processes that are already found or thought to be needed in th e undergraduate engineeri ng classroom, and when enhanced, how such art skills and inquiry proces ses might better prepare engineering students for the 21st century workplace. My research also identifie s some obstacles to integrating visual arts skills and inquiry processe s into the undergraduate e ngineering cu rriculum. There may be general thought amongst the US public that engineer ing students are taught what they need to know to immediately start working professionally upon graduation. After all, a B.S. degree in engineering is considered a pr ofessional degree (Wulf, 1998). In actuality, many engineering firms require one post-baccalaureate year of on-the-job training before they feel new candidates are ready to take on real-life engineering problems ( Foley & Kazerounian, 2007) Students graduating as engineers w ith bachelor’s degrees in engin eering usually spend a year or two completing their “studies” on the job (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey & Leifer, 2005) What skills are not taught or developed in the univers ity undergraduate engineering program? Do artrelated educative skills fill a gap in the undergraduate educ ation of the engineering student? Research suggests that artistic creativity and creative problem-solving skills are highly

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 10 underestimated and underdeveloped in engineering schools (Felder, 1988; Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey & Leifer, 2005 ) and that the engineeri ng professional would benefit greatly if creative problem solving were more directly addressed in their undergraduate studie s. Scholars argue that such skills and dispositions would strengthen ingenuity and innovation on the job (Santamarina & Akhoundi, 1991). Based on the aforementioned belie fs, the purpose of my study is to develop a rationale for teaching and lear ning art-based creative and de sign processes in undergraduate engineering programs of study. This study shows relationships to skills learned in visual arts and design and engineering, outlining si milarities in thinking processes across these fields. It will consider the views of faculty who favor diverg ent thinking with faculty who favor convergent thinking in engineering departments. Research Questions and Assumptions I believe that together, engineering professo rs with art and design faculty could develop creative, professionally ready engi neering graduates to better so ciety and address twenty-first century problems. Using informal interviews a nd semi-structured interv iews as my primary method of inquiry, research questions that guided my inquiry were: 1. How can engineering programs teach art-based, creative, and critical thinking skills to new engineering students? 2. How are the visual arts and engineering connected? 3. What current trends are found in the engine ering classroom as an attempt to integrate more creativity and problem solving skills? I further believe that the development of visu al arts skills and i nquiry processes in the engineering undergraduate curric ulum could enhance engineeri ng learning, creativity, and innovation.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 11 Rationale and Significance of the Study The development of programs in secondary schools that promote STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is ga ining popularity in the US. Some educators have expanded the STEM initiative to include the significance of art education. These scholars and educators have modified the STEM initiative to become STEAM, which includes an “A” in the acronym to include the arts (Bequette & Bequette 2012). Such initiatives have stimulated investigations into the releva nce of creativity and innovation taught and learned through the visual arts to other core subjects in k-12 sc hool settings (Bequette & Bequette, 2012). Scholars observe that creativity and diverg ent thinking need to be developed in undergraduate university courses as well, especially in subjects that involve innovation and problem-solving like engineering (Adams, Kaczmarczyk, Picton, & Damian, 2007; Felder, 1988 ). My study adds to this ongoing conversation about the role and value of visual arts education in re lation to other subjects, including and in particular engineering. Supporting Literature This literature review will discuss select ed themes and findings emerging from my readings. These themes include ideas about crea tivity in engineering, vi sual arts skills and processes that are found in e ngineering, and project-based le arning activities used in the engineering classroom. These th emes provided me a context for understanding as I pursued my research questions. The Problem of Creativity in Engineering Learning Looking for creativity in the profession of engi neering was one of the main concerns that motivated my research. Right away, for me, it seem ed that both art and engineering are creative. My readings about creativity led me to conclude that this was a broa d and varyingly defined

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 12 concept, but creativity is describable, ne vertheless. Zimmerman (2009) observes, “Many contemporary psychologists and edu cators agree that creativity is a complex process that can be viewed as an interactive system in which rela tionships among persons, processes, products, and social and cultural contexts are of paramount importance” (p. 386). As I dove deeper into the topic I noticed parallels between the visual arts and engineer ing regarding the need for creativity. Scholars such as Dr. Richard M. Felder have advocated for creative and innovative learning in the field of engineering.1 Felder (1987) writes, “It would seem to be our (engineering professors) responsibility to produce some creative engineers-or at least not to extingu ish the creative spark in our students” (p. 222). In his article “Creat ivity in Engineering E ducation,” Felder (1998) suggests characteristics to look for in crea tive students. These characteristics include “independence, inexhaustible curiosity, tolera nce of ambiguity in problem definitions, willingness to take risks, persistence in pursuit of problem solutions, and the patience to allow the solutions to take shape in their own time” (p. 6). He explains that many professors don’t or aren’t able to see these characteristics because of the analytical manner of most engineering classroom activities (Felder, 1988). Creativity may be thought of as both a pr ocess and a way of th inking. Convergent and divergent thinking are both necessary for the pr actice of engineering. Convergent thinking is defined by Merriam-Webster as “thi nking that weighs alternatives w ithin an existing construct or model in solving a problem or answering a que stion to find one best solution” (MerriamWebster’s online dictionary, 2013). This type of thinking is found in analytical, solution1 Dr. Richard M. Felder (1987) is well known in the field of engi neering. He is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina. His articles expr ess interests in educational refo rm in engineering, placing the responsibility and change on the engineering professor.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 13 oriented, problem solving endeavors in engine ering learning. Divergent thinking is a kind of thinking associated with open-ended and multi-solution problems. Merriam-Webster defines divergent thinking “...cre ative thinking that may follow ma ny lines of thought and tends to generate new and original so lutions to problems…” (Merriam -Webster’s online dictionary, 2013). The problem lies not in types of thi nking engaged, but in goals sought. Adams, Kaczmarczky, Picton and Demian (2007) observe, “Ex cellence in engineering problem solving is synonymous with skill at convergent production si nce engineering education normally involves only problems with a single correct answer. However, this is not particularly true of engineering practice in general” (p. 2). This statement demons trates a problem in engi neering education, that is, the goal to produce a single correct answer. Yet writings indicate a ne ed for creative and innovative engineers to solve societal problems today and in the future (Santamarina & Akhoundi, 1991; Stouffer, Russell, & Oliva, 2004; Felder, 2008). Engineers need to be good problem solvers, able to solve both problems that are analytical in nature and problems that may have more than one solution. Stouffer, Russell, & Oliva (2004) claim “What ‘normal’ civil engineers do is inherently creative, as compar isons between the creative process and the design process demonstrate. The same can be said for chemical, electrical, indu strial, mechanical, and systems engineers” (p. 22). Kazerounian and Foley (2007), authors of “Barriers to Creativity in Engineering Education: A Study of Instructor s and Students Perception” stre ss the value of arts based learning in engineering classes.2 In their examination of the significance of the relationships 2 Dr. Kazerounian is currently the interim dean for the department of engineering at the University of Connecticut. His current active research includes creativity in engineering education amongst other interests in the engi neering field. Stephany Foley, is currently a Mechanical Engineering Designer and Project Manager at LIGO Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 14 between creativity, the college prof essor, and the student, they f ound that engineering professors are resistant to creative work finding the work not serious-minded. They also found that current engineering education can suppress creative ch aracteristics. They es tablished that the environment can suppress creativity in students a nd changing this environment can foster more creativity in the engineering le arning (Kazerounian and Foley, 2007). Visual Skills Found in Engineering Through my readings it is apparent that the development of visual art skills such as drawing, sketching, model-making, and spatial relati onship skills are considered to be essential to engineering problem-solving, analyzing, a nd communication. These skills are developed during the last two year s of the engineering und ergraduate program and are typically taught by university and college engineering professors. Sp atial and visual ability can be described in engineering by orthographic (two dimensional) images, “created by theoretical projections of the object onto perpendicular reference planes” (Voland, 1987, p.83). An example of spatial and visual ability in drawing is the ability to render the orthographic dr awing of a pictorial concept or model (Voland, 1987). Being able to translate a two-dimensional object to a three-dimensional object and vice-versa is necessary especially in mechanical, civil, and structural engineering. For engineers, being able to “see” the whole picture as it relates to a project is indispensable. Engineers often use sketches in communicati ng plans and projects be tween engineers and clients or non-engineers. Engi neering sketching or freehand dr awing is defined by Voland (1987) as, “…drawing without the use of instruments” (p. 381). Voland asserts th at the engineer, “must be able to graphically record and communicate ideas with speed in the absence of drawing equipment” (1987, p. 381). Drawings can be simple or highly detailed an d can include various lines, dimensions, and symbols.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 15 Communication is a big part of engineering practices. For example, an engineer needs to communicate ideas to other engineers, clients, and to contractors. Through sketching and drawing these ideas are visually represented. Th erefore, the better the drawing, the better the communication. Dr. Joakim Juhl3 and Hanne Lindegaard (2013) looked closely at sketching, visualization and design skills found in the visual arts and how they relate to engineering practices. They found representations to be an im portant part of engin eering learning. Moreover, representations aid in the tran sfer of knowledge and ease the “act ual synthesis” in the design process (Juhl & Lindegaard, 2013, p. 47). Juhl an d Lindegaard (2013) suggest that working in collaborative groups when lear ning observational drawing is si gnificant to engineering. They also observe that more research is necessary regarding visual represen tation in engineering education. Project-Based Learning Another area where we see visual arts and design skills being practiced in the undergraduate engineering classr oom is in project-based lear ning encounters. Project-Based Learning is used as a means for motivating the student and enhancing th e engineering program by providing engineering students with real worl d scenarios, problems, and learning experiences that involve collaborati on and communication ( Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005).4 Project-Based Learning is defined by the Buck Ins titute of Education as “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning esse ntial knowledge and life-en hancing skills through 3 Dr. Juhl is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Progr am on Science, Technology & Society. His current research centers on how the roles of models and simulations can be interpreted as a characteristic mode of mediation between science, technology and society at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. 4 Project-Based Learning should not be confused with Problem-Bas ed Learning (also abbreviated as PBL), which is also fo und in engineering learning.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 16 an extending student-influenced inquiry process structured ar ound complex authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks” (The Buck Institute, 2013, para. 7). These skills include “communication and pres entation skills, organization and time management skills, research and inquiry skills, self-assessment a nd reflection skills, and group participation and leadership skills” (The Buck Institute, 2013, para 3). Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer (2005) suggest that project based learning addresses transfer in the cogniti ve science in their observation that, “ transfer,” which may be defined as the ability to extend what has been learned in one context to other contexts” (p. 110). Model Engineering Programs There are programs in engineering schools th at I looked at as exemplary models that incorporated engineering techniqu es with activities in creativity, sketching, visualization, modelmaking, and exploration of spatial relationships Some examples include but are discussed below. SCOPE Seniors at Olin College of Engineering participate in a Caps tone project, SCOPE (Senior Capstone Program in Engineering). The SC OPE project is a partnership with industry to develop and provide solutions i ndustries may need. With their culminating experience of Olin students' education, students work in collaborative groups for the duration of their senior year (http://scope.olin.edu/about/). The Olin SCOP E project engages engi neering students to creatively solve-real world problems. Students working on the SCOPE project work with not only Olin University faculty but also have compa ny advisors. Students are a llowed to work in the on campus art facility and are provided well-furn ished workspaces to complete their projects. Some examples of companies that have provided this collaboration are Boeing, Facebook, Harley Davidson, and Trip Advisor.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 17 Lego Engineering This project was developed by th e Tufts Center for Engineering for Engineering Education and Outreach (CEEO). Engineering schools like Tufts University ( http://ceeo.tufts.edu/ ), Clemson University ( http://www.clemson.edu/ces/departments/ece/undergrad/mindstormslab.html ), and the University of Nevada-Reno ( http://www.unr.edu/nevada-today ) are engaging students with LEGO projects. Students build robots and other creatively designed cons tructions using LEGOs parts and computer chips that are programmabl e, and that move and perform specific timed tasks. These projects engage not only creativit y and problem solving in engineering by taking inanimate objects and making them animated but al so are fundamental to the art practices of sketching, drawing, and visualiza tion for project planning and desi gn, since students are asked to visualize and sketch ideas as part of the process.. The LEGOEngineering website ( http://www.legoEngineering.com/ ) also contains information for engineering instructors teaching at K-12 schools. Concrete Canoe Engineering schools all over the wo rld participate in concrete canoe racing. In the Southeast US, engi neering schools such as The C itadel, University of South Carolina, Clemson, and North Carolina State Univer sity participate in a yearly concrete canoe race. Engineering students are asked to collabor ate to build a canoe out of concrete. After designing the frame of the boat a nd creating the light-w eight concrete, students race the canoes hoping that they will float. Taking pride in their cr eation more often than not, students also paint the canoe showing their school’s pride. Constructing the concrete canoe allows students to participate in problem-solving, co llaborative, visual arts skill s with drawing, painting, and sketching plans and ideas. Taken together, these ex amples exemplify creativity, visual art skills, and project-based learning. They are informed by the same kinds of skills and inquiry processes

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 18 that are fundamental to Art, therefore showing a true collaboration of real-world experiences with art and engineering. Research Methodology My research methods for this capstone pr oject included informal and semi-structured interviews and purposive expert sampling met hods. The purposive sampling method is a method of sampling where the researcher knows what needs to be researched and identifies for interviews or surveys specific individuals who have expertise in the particular field of inquiry being researched (Tongco, 2007). I also relied on my literature review to both help me better understand undergraduate engineer ing programming concerns a nd to identify and examine models that crossed over into what I believe to be methods and concepts that are also fundamental to art making. My interview subjec ts included three engineering professors, Dr. Dennis J. Fallon, Dr. Keith Plemmons, and Dr. Jo hn Murden. Each have given consent to be participants in this study. They have also consented to have their names used. To prepare for these interviews, I examined contemporary engin eering writings concerni ng the incorporation of creativity, visual art skills, a nd problem-based learning in the engineering curriculum. I also looked for model programs in engineering. My goa l was to identify programs that engage the visual arts or art-based learning. My readings of published research pertaining to my topic helped me identify areas of convergence between engineering and visual arts education. Informal Interviews I began this research project many months be fore my research officially started. Since becoming an art educator and pursuing my Master s degree, my father (an engineering professor) and I have had numerous conversations about cr ossovers between the professions of art, engineering, and education. These conversations were the basis for subsequent informal

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 19 interviews with my father. These informal inte rviews acted like a guide to my research. We looked at my research questions, themes, and topics of research. The interviews took place weekly during a six-month period in 2013, and w ould vary in time from ten minutes to two hours. We also communicated through email. I doc umented these informal interviews with my father by taking notes. Seeing my father so of ten allowed me to go back and ask further questions if I needed him to elaborate. I also kept the emails we would send in case there were any questions. Emails also allowed us to send jour nal articles to one anothe r for further research. My reflections and analysis of these informal in terviews provided a basis for my semi-structured interviews with two other engineering professors. Semi-Structured Interviews Semi-structured interviews are interviews that originate with a list of topics or questions pre-determined by the researcher prior to the interview. However, the interview in itself is flexible as long as it answers the questions or topics (Heiman, 2001). Answers to questions led to probing and follow up questions, and sometimes th ese interviews took off in directions that deviated from my original list of questions. My semi-structured intervie ws sought to know how three current professors in the field of engi neering apply skills also commonly found in the visual arts (like drawing, sket ching, observation, spa tial relationships, and creativity) to their classroom curriculum. Each of my semi-str uctured interviews lasted over an hour. The interviews took place at the Citadel in Charle ston, South Carolina and at the Low Country Graduate Center in North Char leston, South Carolina. Intervie ws were audio recorded and transcribed. I took notes during th e interviews as a means to identify things that seemed important during the interviews. Questions for the semi-structured interviews were sent via email

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 20 prior to the interview. The questions I asked cam e from my research questions and included the following: 1. How do you see the visual ar ts and engineering connected? 2. How do engineering programs teach art-based, creative, and critical thinking skills to new engineering students? 3. What current trends are found in the engine ering classroom as an attempt to integrate more creativity and problem-solving skills? I also felt it was necessary to ask a fourth question: 4. What can visual artist learn from engineers (o r design in engineering)? Subjects My informal interviews were conducted excl usively with my father, Dr. Dennis Fallon. My other subjects for the semi-s tructured interviews were Dr. Keith Plemmons and Dr. John Murden, professors in Engineering at the Citade l in Charleston, South Carolina. These subjects were purposively selected on the basis of their expe rtise, experience, interest in the topic, and willingness to talk to me. The Citadel is a renow ned conservative military college in Charleston, SC. My first thoughts about my capstone proposal we re to collect data from up to nine Citadel engineering faculty. This became a problem with summer scheduling and time conflicts. A smaller number of interviewees helped me narrow down data collection for this research.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 21 Dr. Dennis Fallon, my father, earned a Ph.D. fr om North Carolina State University (see Figure 1). He has over eleven years of industr ial experience designing transmission structures and commercial and industrial buildings. He has over thirty years of teac hing experience at the graduate and the undergraduate level. He is al so a fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and a Fellow in the American Society of Engineering education. He served for ten years as Department Head of Civil and Environmen tal Engineering as well as eight years as the founding Dean of Engineering at the Citadel. He has served in various leadership roles for the American Society for Engineering Education. He is a licensed professional engineer and a Figure 1. Dr. Dennis Fallon

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 22 project professional in addition to having served on the state board for the registration of engineers and land surveyors. Dr. Keith Plemmons has extensive industria l experience in Project Management (see Figure 2). In addition, he has exte nsive experience in higher educa tion teaching the principles of Project Management, Risk Assessment, and Qual ity Assurance and Control. He has had over twenty years of experience teaching the funda mental principles of program and project management at the undergraduate and graduate leve l. He is currently an Associate Professor at the Citadel in the School of Engineering. He is a Professional Engineer and Project Management Professional. Figure 2. Dr. Keith Plemmons

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 23 Dr. John Murden has a PhD from Clemson University and has been teaching at the undergraduate level in the Civil and Environmental Department at the Citadel for over twenty seven years (see Figure 3) His area of expertise and research interests are Structural Mechanics, Structural Analysis, Computer Simulation, and Fluid Analysis. His speci al interests lie in developing computer models using stochastic analysis. He expresse d high interest in my research stating a need for the visual arts connection in engineering and sugge sted I continue after graduation. Figure 3. Dr. John Murden

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 24 Data Collection The first stage of this process was to inquire “How are the visual arts and engineering connected?” One connection I sought was throug h examination of ideas about creativity and innovation. I examined scholarly research and writings by scholars that have extensive knowledge in the field of engineering and innova tion in engineering. As my research developed, I started to realize that there were other elements in the visual arts that could be found in or were important to engineering. Through my readings about creativity and innov ation in engineering, I found drawing and sketching, spatial relationships, and visualization to be important foundations that lead to creativity and innova tion in engineering. Seeing the re lationship between these visual arts skills to creativit y and innovation; I slightly shifted my research from focusing primarily on creativity to these considerations. Most of my readings were from engineering scholars. Surprisingly, I found it difficult to find readings about creativity and innov ation in the sciences (including engineering) written by art education scholars in hi gher education. The articles I found written by art education scholar s dealt with the K-12 program and pertained mostly to the STEM to STEAM movements (B equette & Bequette, 2012). During the second stage of my research, as my focus shifte d, I developed and refined my interview questions. I felt it was better to as k engineering professors about the professional training development of engineer s in universities rather than to pose questions to practicing engineers. The continuing conversations with my father and review of relevant studies helped with the development and refinement of my in terview questions. I focused my questions to engineering professors, asking if they thought there were examples or interest in integrating visual arts skills or processes into the engineering curriculum, and what was lacking in the development of these visual arts skills as such sk ills pertained to engineering tasks. I wanted to

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 25 know how these current engineering professors in corporate creativity and skills such as drawing, sketching, observation, spatial rela tionships, and art inquiry processe s in their curriculum. I also wanted to know how these engin eering professors felt about recent trends in innovation in the field of engineering and what kinds of knowledge (if at all) an edu cator in the visual arts could bring to student learning in engineering programs of study. Data Analysis My findings have been derived from data collected, analyzed, a nd reviewed from the readings and from my informal and semi-structure d interviews with selected engineering faculty. Once I had conducted the interviews I identified patterns and relationships from my records of these interviews (Boyce & Neale, 2006). For th e informal and semi-structured interviews, analysis included organizing my topics, questions and recurring statements (from the interviews) into broad categories. I looked and found common responses ( Guion, Diehl, & McDonald, 2001 ) from the engineering professors I interviewed. I looked fo r relationships in re sponses to organize and interpret data from the interviews (Boyce & Neale, 2006). Some of my interview data collected did not fit into broa d categories and I was able to create additional substantive categories to analyze data and look for simila r data in my readings (Maxwell, 2004). Using triangulation methods (Maxwell, 2004), triangulating inte rview data across my three subjects and creating a synthesis matrix (Maxwell, 2004) Creativity, common skills found in both art and engineering, design study, and proj ect-based learning emerged as cen tral themes of interest in my synthesis matrix. In additi on, subjects were contacted for me mber-checking as recommended by Carlson (2010). I returned to my interviewees fo r clarifications and to ve rify that I interpreted their responses correctly. This procedure proved to be invaluab le as I refined my findings.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 26 Limitations There are several limitations to my researc h. The first limitation is my knowledge and understanding of engineering. My knowledge is limited to scholarly literature, interviews and surveys, and my personal relationship to my fath er who is a current professor in engineering. Another limitation is time allowed for further research and data collecting. Limitations of the semi-structured interviews include the location in which my subjects work. The subjects teach at a conservative school in South Carolina and may hold traditiona l views. An additional limitation is the subject of creativity. Creativity is diffi cult to define and can be interpreted in many different ways. Also, there are more aspects of engi neering that can be relate d to visual arts than those mentioned in this research and should be further explored. It is my hope that findings emanating from my research motivates future research into relations hips between art and engineering education. Discussion of Findings A key finding of my research is that innova tion and creativity, aspects thought to be central to art, are also important to engineer ing and engineering learning. From my research I surmise that inquiry processes centr al to the visual arts can play an important aspect in providing engineering students with opportun ities to engage in divergent thinking, use their imagination, innovate, and create. The visual arts also empl oy important skills such as sketching, rendering, modeling, and communicating visually. Creativity and Innovation for the Future of Engineering The experience of a visual arts education can “expose us to many tantalizing examples of ambiguity and to a lot of sensations and to fo rms of perception which do not exist in the normal realm of Science and Engineering” (Shuster, 2008, p. 97). My first finding was that in order to

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 27 solve future world problems, there is a great need for creative and innovative engineers. To do this, the use of both divergen t and convergent thinking is fundamental in improving in engineering innovation and engage ment with newly emerging, unusual problems emanating from real world issues is essentia l. Current engineering students are taught to solve traditional problems that are pre-determined by their engine ering teachers, problems that have one solution. They are not necessarily current problems with multiple solutions. One conversation that I had with my father helped me with this insight. He observed “Students are not deviating from the norm. They are using pre-determined, provided que stions and answers and not really learning to solve problems with more than one solution” (D. Fallon, personal co mmunication, September 2013). One of my readings (Shuster, 2008) reconf irms this insight with “If we focus our intentions too strongly on solving problems in onl y our chosen discipline, in which the range of perception and expression is limited-especially so in Engineering and Science-then we lose suppleness in our thinking, as well as insights th at often come from obscure analogies” (p. 98). Pre-determined question and solution instruction does not aid in solving problems that have yet to exist or solving prob lems with no known solution. Fundamentals of Visual Ar ts Skills in Engineering Skills learned in the visual arts, design, and engineering have similarities. Skills I identified in my research and found to be importa nt to engineering include but are not limited to visualization, spatial relationships, and drawing and sketching. Esparragoza (2004) defines visualization by “… the ability to process and inte rpret visual information and to generate visual ideas that can be transformed into concrete dr awings and objects” (p. 77). These skills became more evident in the articles I read on creativity. Visual art sk ills like drawing and sketching found in engineering that can aid in the advanc ement of creativity and innovation but can also

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 28 aid in communication and collaboration. Juhl and Lindegaard (2013) write, “The activity of drawing translates individual cognitions into a pr ocess of collective re-cognition” (p. 33). In my email communication with Dr. J uhl, he noted, “…the traditi onal engineering curriculum promotes and emphasizes engineering sciences and monodisciplinary skills and gives less priority to important collaborative skills such as sketching and visualization” (J. Juhl, personal communication, September 13, 2013). Visualization and spatial relationships are important to observation, good drawing, and in the translatio n of three-dimensional and two-dimensional objects. It is important that engin eering students are able to do this If these visual art skills like drawing and observation are enhanced in engi neering learning, they can not only aid in observational skills but improve visualization and understandi ngs of spatial relationships. Esparragoza (2004) states, “ The ideal situation for engineers is not only to process the visual information fast but to enhance visualization ski lls to be used in the design process and in the solution of engineering problems” (p. 77). Drawing and sketching play a big part in communication in engineering. The better the visual, the better the communi cation. Communication is essen tial to good engineering. An engineer needs to be able to communicate the bi g ideas of an architect or designer to other engineers or construction contractors to ma ke the idea practical and function properly. Professional engineers need to communicate the functionality of objects to people that may not understand engineering terminology. Good drawing ab ilities aid in communicating those ideas. Project-Based Learning in Engineering Studies The inclusion of creative learning activities helps bring real-life pr ofessional experiences to the engineering classroom. S eeing a need for creativity in engineering schools, an example of a creative learning activity is w ith project-based learning. The advantages to project-based

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 29 learning for students are listed by Stouffer, Russell, and Oliva ( 2004) as, “ increased critical thinking, increased self-direction, higher compre hension and better skill development, selfmotivated attitudes, enhanced awareness of the benefits of teamwork and a more active and enjoyable learning process” (as cited in Johnson, 1999, para. 33). Th ese advantages are proven to be reasons for incorporating and learning visual arts in secondary educ ation. Some engineering professors and programs have developed exciting project-based learning (P BL) approaches as a way to develop these skills. However, the use of PBL is not consistent in engineering programs. Engineering professors that have themselves b een taught more analytically and methodologically do not see PBL as a critical part of learning ( Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005 ). Some engineering professors believe that these type s of lessons are created for accreditation purposes only and have little or no valu e to engineering education. Others believe that PBL oriented learning has additional value. In engineering programs, student retention and motiv ation is a major issue ( Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005 ). Engineering students fail to gain critical th inking skill through the common practice of only analytical and mechanical problem-solving (D Fallon, personal communication, September, 2013). Project-based learning bridge s student learning to real-wor ld problem solving and adds excitement to otherwise monotone lessons ( Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005). Stouffer, Russell, and Oliva (2004) believe th at project-based learning is an essential tool to encouraging creativity in engine ering students. Challenges and Impediments in the Engineering Curriculum There are many aspects to engineering learning that share similar features with learning in the visual arts. Creativity, sketching, vi sualization, model-making, design, design thinking, and visual spatial relationships ar e all found to be valued skills f ound in visual arts that aid in

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 30 engineering innovation, creation, and communication. In my rese arch, I found that there are current engineering institutions and programs that see some value to such interests and approaches; however, these areas are under-devel oped. Moreover, engineer ing schools may be asking engineering professors (individuals with little or no experience in art) to be the ones teaching these valued artistic skills and proce sses to students. Art facu lty are specialized and trained to develop these skills and could help engi neering professors teach these skills and better prepare students for their pr ofessional careers as Engineers It would seem as if the problems discusse d here could be an easy fix. Engineering curriculum designers could modify the engineer ing curriculum so that more time would be devoted to the development of professional prob lem-solving, and art-related, and creative skills. Unfortunately, to add art, design, or creative proc esses-oriented courses to an already overloaded engineering curriculum is not feasible. Standalone courses could add too much pressure to an already charged curriculum. Fo r example, some undergraduate engineering programs already have requirements up to 130 hours for graduation. At the same time, states are requiring those institutions to scale down to 120 hours (Wulf, 1998). In response, programs of study in engineering tend to eliminate humanities courses (including the arts) when more fundamental courses are required (Wulf, 1998). Another major difficulty with teaching art and design-based skills is changing the engineering faculty’s perceptions about art education. In most engineering programs, course requirements include little or no artistic courses, desi gn thinking courses, or courses devoted to creativity. Even when the en gineering curriculum includes design courses as fundamental to the program, these courses ar e often taught in an analytical manner by engineering professors.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 31 The question that remains, then, is how can engineering programs teach art-based, creative, and critical thinking sk ills to new engineering students? It is widely recognized that university studio art and design courses involve and develop cr eative thinking skills, visual skills, collaboration, and problem-solving. Rather than adding new courses to an already overcrowded engineering curriculum, rethinking certain courses in the engineering curriculum may be one solution. Selected engineering cour ses could incorporate me thodologies learned in the visual arts and design fi elds. Art and design faculty coul d easily teach creative generating skills in short mini-lessons or problems within existing courses, or they could be engaged as consultants to engineering profe ssors wishing to integrate some creative and art/design-related learning encounters into an existi ng course. In fact, some engin eering schools have hired design faculty to help teach these design courses. Unfort unately, problems arise when design faculty are not viewed as equals to Engineering faculty ( Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005 ). I believe that through sustained, collaborative rela tionships between faculty from these diverse disciplines such prejudices would dissipate ove r time. Innovative, successful models resulting from such collaborations would se t the stage for future integrati on of the art skills and inquiry processes into engineering problems that students are asked to solve. Insights and Speculations As a high school instructor in the visual ar ts, I am constantly advocating the importance of Art. I explain to my friends and colleagues how the study of visual arts is valuable to society and how the visual arts relate to every subj ect of study and how they can benefit students’ futures. I started this research by having conversations with my father. Through this investigation, I wanted to further identify and de scribe some of the re lationships between the visual arts and engineering. Moreove r, I wanted to make a case fo r the significance of visual arts

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 32 education in engineering education. The conversa tions I had with select ed experts (engineering professors) were inspiring both to my research and to me personally, in terms of how I regard Engineering (and the sciences) and my perspective on my own subject-the visual arts. My father continues to encourage me in everything I do and when I decided to do this research, I had his full support. Not knowing much about engineer ing myself, his thoughts on innovation and creativity in Engineering aided my understandings. He feels the future leaders of engineering will need to be good innovator and the development of visual art skills li ke those mentioned in my research, can play a major role in the future of engineering. Together, we have decided to continue researching the benef its of the visual arts in e ngineering in the near future. The conversation I had with Dr. Keith Pl emmons was also eyeopening. Dr. Plemmons remarked that he saw the visual arts as im portant to engineering learning as a way of documenting transactions during th e creation process in case something goes wrong and there is a need to problem shoot. He also commented that he saw the ability to imagine risks or imagine what could go wrong as important to engineering learning and felt that visual art skills could increase such abilities. Personally, I have never a ssociated risk and imagination and found that to be extremely enlightening. Dr. Plemmons feels like the visual arts help people connect with the world around them and that in engineering the vi sual arts can help peopl e see the big picture. In my conversation with Dr. John Murden, he identified key observat ional skills in both engineering and art skills. Thes e fundamental skills facilitate construction, in terpretation, innovation, and presentation of plans and informati on. He also observed that the biggest benefits to Engineering via art education ar e to help students with visualiz ing problems in a way that they can take problems apart for analysis.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 33 Finally, my last expert was unexpected. When I wrote an em ail to Dr. Juhl after being inspired by an article he wrote for the Journal of Engineering Education I was extremely surprised at the warm response I received. His offe r to help and his direction to other resources were appreciated. His article aided me in my research and had me thinking about sketching, visualization, and design skills in vi sual arts. Dr. Juhl wrote, “Engineer ing is also an art, as art is also a kind of Engineering. Modern disciplinary thi nking tends to make us think as if disciplinary boundaries were essential. They are not, they are constructed a nd reconstructed all of the time” (J. Juhl, personal communication, September 13, 2013) This statement reitera ted the benefits of visual Art skills in engineering learning. My Creative Products Using traditional art making, digital imaging, an d online social media sites, I have created a variety of creative products for my resear ch. These include a website, a blog, a Scoop.it archive, a Pinterest Board, and a gallery of orig inal images. I briefly describe these creative products in the following sections. Each of these products is available online. Readers are encouraged to follow the web links provided in each of my descriptio ns of these products. My website. My website is my main repository for th is research project (see Figure 4). It contains links to my Capstone paper, my blog (Blogster), my curated, annotated social media collections that include Scoop.it (for essays and websites) and Pinterest (for images), an online gallery of original images th at I created as this project progressed, and a link to my e-book (ISSUU). Both the images and buttons appearing on my website are linked to the various other products that I created for my research. The we bsite provides a central location and a unified visual format linking to all of my varying cr eative projects resulting from this research ( http://lallement12.w ix.com/artengr ).

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 34 My images My project includes a gallery of origin al artworks that I created as I was pursuing this research (see Figure 5, a nd also go to my online gallery at ( http://lallement12.w ix.com/artengr#!gallery/c14zg ). When making these images I was encouraged by my mentor for this capstone to co ntinue creating them as I was thinking about, talking to my subjects about, and reading a bout my capstone projec t. My goal went from finishing twenty-five images to completing over th irty images. The making of these images gave me creative space in which to think about th e many questions, readings, interviews, and emerging findings that occupied much of my tim e. Creating original ar twork for this capstone project was a highpoint for me. Figure 4. Website

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 35 To make these images, I took photographs and overlaid them onto engineering blueprints I found in my father’s office. There were several reasons why I used engineering blueprints that I found in my father’s office. I wanted to establis h a visual relationship be tween the photos I took and engineering concepts. I could have done th is with just an image but felt like using engineering blueprints and the li nes that were created by someone else (even if it was computer generated) help make this connection. Line happens to be a focus in my personal work so it seemed fitting to allow the engineering lines to weave in and out of my figures. Secondly, I found these in a closet in my father’s office a nd liked the idea that they were once used by him and I would recycle them and turn them into so mething special. I struggle d with the idea to add color to my body of work but felt the contrasts of black and white-two oppositeswent with my ideas of two seemingly different subjects and two different generations th at really go together. To keep the images flat for photographing, I sp ray-mounted each of them onto mat board. When I presented my work to my father, I was perturbe d that he was busily studying the blueprints in the background of the image and not the image in its entirety. I made a point to say to him that he needed to look at the whole im age not just the background. After thinking about it, that’s what the visual arts does; it allows you to see the whole picture. Someti mes it isn’t the just what is on the surface or what you can touch but what is beneath the surface that counts. There are multitudes of thoughts and feelings th at go into making works of art.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 36 My e-book (ISSUU) My e-book was a big motivator in completing my images. I wrote and self-published a “picture-book ” sharing insights from my study, using an online e-book site called ISSUU and including some of my original images that I had created (see Figure 6). The images and text created for this book narrate my c onversations with my fath er as I dove into my research questions. My book describes who I am and who my father is being that he is an important part of my research. It travels thr ough each research question asking my father, then Dr. Plemmons and Dr. Murden th eir thoughts. I also added a pe rsonal communication I received Figure 5. Gallery

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 37 from Dr. Juhl. My first goal was to have at least twenty-five im ages for my book. Then to narrate the e-book, I played with the images I had creat ed, deciding which image would go where. As I started putting the book together, I struggled with the layout and colors. I wanted a simplistic look that focused on the writing and images but al so looked interesting and of quality. I finally chose a landscape design with th e left page a white background with black font and the right page a black background with the centered image. I used iBook software for Macintosh, then published the fifty-five page book on ISSUU ( http://issuu.com/katelallement/docs/art_engr ). Social media curated annotated collections Through the collection of images and ideas on two social media sites, Pinterest (see Figure 7) and Scoop. It (see Figure 8), I was able to Figure 6. E-book

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 38 collect information and organize and ideas that linked ideas in the visual arts and engineering, and in some cases the sciences. Pinterest is pr imarily an image repository, designed to look like a pinboard. With Pinterest, I was able to collect imagery that pertained to teaching and inspiring ideas for my research topic. I also found works of art that were inspir ed by these connections. Some of the images I collected were artwor ks by engineers and arti sts, new and innovative concepts and some images contained project ideas for adults and children ( http://www.pinterest.com/katelallement/art-and-engineering/ ). Using a social media site called Scoop.it (s ee Figure 8), I also co llected inspirational captions and aphorisms about the two fields. Scoop.it is a site where people may create Figure 7. Pinterest

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 39 repositories of collected articles and websites, formatted to disp lay like an electronic magazine. Scoop.it allowed me to collect and organize articles that pertained to the fusion or crossovers of arts and engineering. I was astonished by how many articles I was able to find and how many people have taken interest in this topic. It is my hope that this curated collection will help to further research about how the vi sual arts contribute to innovati on and creativity in engineering ( http://www.scoop.it/u /kate-lallement12 ). My blog. Finally, one of the things I did to facilitate my thinki ng as this research project unfolded was to keep a blog (see Figure 9). To be honest, I was initially resistant to keeping a blog. Before this Capstone project, I found blogs to be for people that had lots of time. When it Figure 8. Scoop.it

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 40 was suggested that I keep one, I said I would. I was surprised to be wrong in my initial assumption. The purpose of my blog was to house a record of my thoughts and feelings through the images I photographed. Some of the photographs in my blog became image inspirations for my e-book. As I finished an image, I would pos t that image on my blog. My blog also allowed others to connect and comment on my posts as my research progressed. The duration of my blog was from August 2013 to November 2013. During my semi-structured interview with Dr. Plemmons he stated how the visual arts pr ovided a means for documenting transitions and “landmarks”. I find this statement to be true. What I had documented in my blog guided me in the narration for the book. It also allowed me to now see this research en deavor holistically and how it developed over time ( http://klallement12.blogspot.com/ ).

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 41 Some Final Thoughts I began this study wanting to find out how ar t education might be useful in engineering programs of study. What I have also learned through this study is that engineering is not just the scientific and analytical field that is perceived to be. It is also very creativ e, artistic, and in some cases misperceived as only methodical and anal ytical. Engineering, alt hough publicly perceived only as a non-creative, analytical and methodological subject, is creative, like the visual arts. Engineers advance, develop, redefine, and produ ce for society’s needs. I agree with William Wulf (1998) who asserts, “Sci ence is analytic-it strives to understand nature, what is. Figure 9. Blog

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 42 Engineering is synthetic-it strives to create what can be” (p. 21). The Visual Arts, in some cases, are also misperceived as being a pastime, fri volous, or not a contribut or to education. My research shows neither is true. These close relationships found in Engineering and in Visual Arts suggest a need to better integr ate art and design thinking skills and art education practices in engineering learning. I would argue it would be necessary to re -conceptualize the engineering undergraduate curriculum to inte grate these skills a nd practices so that they may benefit innovation and creativity in future Engineering. I al so concluded that emphasizing visual arts in the engineering curriculum can al so help build and benefit the significance of art education. I believe that this study strongly suggests a need for engineering faculty who favor open ended problem solving, artistic visu alization, divergent thinking, and collaboration with their colleagues in art and design education. More research should be unde rtaken regarding what the visual arts bring to educati on in other fields such as E ngineering in the post-secondary universities and colleges. There is much to be learned from Engineering that might inform art education practices. Finally, my simple conversati ons with my father ha ve contributed not only to my research but to me in a very personal way. I have gotten to know my father better both personally and professionally and th at we, like our subjects, are not so different after all and have many of the same parallels.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 43 References Adams, J. P., Kaczmarczyk, S., Picton, P., & Da mian, P. (2007). Improving problem solving and encouraging creativity in engineering undergraduates. Development 3(5). Retrieved from http://ineerweb.osanet.cz/Events/ICEE2007/papers/61.pdf Amato-Henderson, S., Kemppainen, A., & Hein, G. (2011). Assessing creativ ity in engineering students. In Frontiers in Education Confer ence (FIE), 2011 (pp. T4F-1). IEEE. Retrieved from http://fie-conference.org/fie2011/papers/1440.pdf Ball, P. (2010). Assessing creativity in design: Emerging themes for Engineering Retrieved from http://78.158.56.101/archive/Engineering/downloa ds/scholarart/assessing-creativity-indesign.pdf Barriball, K. L., & While, A. (1994). Collecting data using a semi-structured interview: a discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing-Institutional Subscription 19 (2), 328335. Bequette, J. W., & Bequette, M. B. (2012). A pla ce for art and design ed ucation in the STEM Conversation. Art Education 65 (2), 40-47. Boyce, C., Neale, P. (2006). Conducting in-depth interviews : A guide for designing and conducting in-depth interviews for evaluation input Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International. Cropley, D. H., & Cropley, A. J. (2000). Foster ing creativity in engineering undergraduates. High Ability Studies 11 (2), 207-219. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.olin.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi Dym, C., Agogino, A., Eris, O., Frey, D., & Le ifer, L. (2005, January). Engineering design thinking, teaching, and learning. Journal of Engineering Education 94 (1), 103–120.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 44 Esparragoza, I. E. (2004, November). Enhancing visualization skills in freshman engineering students In Proceedings from the 59th Annual Meeting and Conference of the ASEE Engineering Design Graphics Division (pp. 21-23). Williamsburg, VA. Retrieved from http://core.ecu.edu/ITEC/chinr/59thmidyearproceedings/76.pdf Felder, R. M. (1987). On cr eating creative engineers. Engineering Education 77 (4), 222-227. Retrieved from http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/us ers/f/felder/public/Papers/LS1988.pdf Felder, R. M. (1988). Creativity in engineering education. Chemical Engineering Education 22 (3), 120. Retrieved from http://www4.ncs u.edu/unity/lockers/user s/f/felder/public/ Papers/Creativity(CEE).pdf Foley, S. (2007). Barriers to creativity in engine ering education: A study of instructors and students perceptions. Journal of Mechanical Design 129 761. Retrieved from http://www.mcrit.com/enginycat/XF/RTK/barriers.pdf Guion, L. A., Diehl, D. C., & McDonald, D. (2001). Conducting an in-depth interview. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/f3y93 Juhl, J., & Lindegaard, H. (2013). Representations and visual s ynthesis in engineering design. Journal of Engineering Education 102 (1), 20-50. doi: 10.1002/jee.20001 Kiwana, L., Kumar, A., & Randerson, N. (2012). The skills ‘threat’ from ch ina and india-fact or fiction. Engineering UK 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.Engineeringuk.com / _resources/documents/Engineeri ng_Graduates_in_China_and_India_fact_or_fiction_EngineeringUK_-_March_2012.pdf

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 45 Lewis-Beck, M. S., Bryman, A., Lia o, Y. F. L. (2004). Retrieved from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-enc yclopedia-of-socialscience-researchmethods/n909.xml Liu, Z., & Schonwetter, D. J. (2004). Teaching creativity in engineering. International Journal of Engineering Education 20 801-808. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/monicaru/ Public/old%20stuff/For%20Dava/ Grad%20Library.Data/PDF/Liu%20%20Teaching%20Creativity%20in%20Engi neering%20Education-2903413761/Liu%20%20Teaching%20Creativity%20in%20Engineering%20Education.pdf Lois, H., Winner, E., Veenema, S., & Sheridan, K. M. (2007). Studio thinking: The real benefit s of visual arts education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Lumsdaine, M., & Lumsdaine, E. (1995). Thi nking preferences of engineering students: Implications for curriculum restructuring. Journal of Engineering Education 84 193204. Retrieved from http://www.innovationtoday.biz/pubs/ Thinking_Preferences_of_Engineering_Students.pdf Maxwell, J. A. (2004). Methods: What wi ll you actually do? In J. A. Maxwell, Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (pp. 95-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Merriam-Webster Online (2013). Dictionary and Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Online. Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved Ma rch 25, 2013, from http://www.merriamwebster.com. Olkun, S. (2003). Making connections: Improving spatial abilities with engineering drawing activities. International Journal of Math ematics Teaching and Learning 3 (1), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.cimt .plymouth.ac.uk/journal/sinanolkun.pdf

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 46 Santamarina, J. C., & Akhoundi, K. (1991). Findi ngs in creativity and relevance in civil Engineering. Journal of professional issues in engineering education and pract ice, 117 (2), 155-167. Retrieved from http://pmrl.ce.gatech.edu/papers/Santamarina_1991s.pdf Shuster, M. D. (2008). Th e arts and engineering. IEEE Control Systems Magazine 28 (4), 96-98. Retrieved from http://soliton.ae.gatech.edu/people/ptsiot ra/misc/Arts%20and%20Engineering%20(Shust er).pdf Stouffer, W. B., Russell, J. S., & Oliva, M. G. (2004). Making the strange familiar: creativity and the future of engineering education In Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, (pp. 20-23). Retrieved from: https://www.engr.wisc.edu/cee/f aculty/russell_jeffrey/004.pdf Tongco, M. D. C. (2007). Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 5 147-158. Torrance, E. P. (1987). Teaching for creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.). Frontiers in creativity research: Beyond the basics 189-215. Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited. Retrieved from http://cpsb.com/resources/downloads/ public/TeachingforCreaTorrance.pdf Torrance, E. P. (1995). Insights about creativ ity: Questioned, rejecte d, ridiculed, ignored. Educational Psychology Review 7 (3), 313-322. Retrieved from http://www.playthinklear n.org/Docs/Torrance95.pdf Voland, G. (1987). Orthographic Projection Part 1: Foundations. In M Jarpey (Ed.), Modern Engineering graphics & de sign (pp.83-162). St. Paul, MN : West Publishing Company.

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 47 Wulf, W.A. (1998, June). The urge ncy of engineering education reform. In Proceedings, [from the Conference on Realizing the New Paradigm for Engineering E ducation]. (pp. 28-30). Retrieved from http://www.-gateway.vpr.dr exel.edu/files/Egg_Education.pdf#page=32 Zare, B. Creativity differences between art and Engineering students. Retrieved from http://www.ipedr.com/vol25/41-ICEME2011-N20010.pdf n.d

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 48 List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Dad: Dr. Dennis Fallon. Illustration. Figure 2. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Dr. Keith Plemmons. Illustration. Figure 3. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Dr. John Murden. Illustration. Figure 4. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Screenshot of Website. Figure 5. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Screenshot of Gallery. Figure 6. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Screenshot of E-book Figure 7. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Scr eenshot of Pinterest Board. Figure 8. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Scr eenshot of Scoopit collection. Figure 9. Lallement, Kathryn. 2013. Screenshot of Blog

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PARALLELS IN ART A ND ENGINEERING 49 Author’s Biography Kathryn Lallement holds an Associate’s degr ee in Horticulture, a Bachelor’s in Studio Arts and graduated with honors to earn her Bachel or’s in French. Voted Teacher of the Year in 2009-2010, she’s a dedicated instructor of the arts at Pinewood Preparatory School in Summerville, S.C. Kathryn demonstrates her le adership skills by serving on the Curriculum Committee, Lower School Leadership board, and the SCISA committee for Pinewood. In 2010, she moved from lower school to teach high school and Advanced Placement. Kate believes that everyone has the ability to become an active learner and art can be a means of learning how to achieve that goal. Fascinated w ith the field of Engi neering and how art can boost creativity and innovation, her current research interests are with finding relationships found in Engineering and Art. Captivated by technology, she is also is inte rested in researching the role of technology in art-making and Engineering in the future. Outside of the classroom, Kate continues to work on her own art. She enjoys exploring positive and negative space with the subjects she por trays. Kate finds herself particularly drawn to the simplicity of the Asian line and aspires to bring that simplicity to her own work. She is inspired by the Asian arts, James McNeill Whistler, works by abstract expressionists Franz Kline and Wiliam de Kooning, and mode rn artist Shepard Fairey.

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