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EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 1 EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE By ELLEN S. GOLDBERG A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 2 2013 Ellen S. Goldberg
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 3 Acknowledgements I wish to thank my family including my husband Mark, and my daughters Hannah and Livvy, who made it possible for me to undertake this personal jour ney and challenge of a lifetime to attend Graduate School My life is changed for the better with their help and inspiration I am equally indebted to my professors; in particular my committee memb ers Elizabe th Delacruz and Katerie Gladdys who have guided me along a path that has included both great personal growth as well as countless technical challenges, and the perfect environment for learning through other important revelations. I am grateful for their p atience and expert advice. Finally, I want to acknowledge my wonderful dog Zoe who I can truly say had my back throughout this process Although I may have put my friends and family on hold I was never lonely with my constant and loyal companion sitting next to me. She was the perfect critic never said a word.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS EXPLORING VISUAL AND M ATERIAL CULTURE By Ellen S. Goldberg December 2013 Chair: Elizabeth Delacruz Committee Member: Katerie Gladdys Major: Art Education Abstract My Capstone Project examined scholarly writings regarding how visual and material culture shapes us, and building on those writings, considers how we might investigate visual and material culture through art making and viewing. My inquiries included a search for learning materials an d curricula that facilitate inquiries about visual and material culture within an art education environment, and creation of my own learning materials. While researching this project, I found many content and image rich websites of artists, museums, educat ors, and activists. By utilizing selected information from these resources I have created a central l ocation/website to house materials associated with my topic for use by art educators and others who are interested. The project includes links to self cre ated activities and explorations, an ISSUU e magazine, several Pinterest boards, a questionnaire and survey, an d a link to my
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 5 Capstone paper. All these links can be accessed from my website ( http://www.invisibleculture.weebly.com ). My Capstone paper accompanying this research project first describes the challenge of examining imag ery and its messages and how we can further investigate images through a curriculum in visual culture art educatio n that includes active participat ion rather than mere spectatorship. In my literature review I discussed a uthors who have written about this topic and who support V isual C ulture A rt E ducation (VCAE) as a component of art education programs of study. I then described my me thodology that included my own inquiry based research into selected examples of visual and material culture Results of my study included suggested learning activities and explorations that consider some ways that images have been fashioned in advertisements from different cultures, and how such images served as insti gators of consumer culture. My Capstone paper concludes with some recommendations and insights about engaging visual and material culture using the learning materials I have cre ated for pre k through adult learners.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 6 Table of Contents Title .. 1 ...2 Acknowledgemen 3 UF Formatted 4 Table of Contents 6 .8 9 Purpose of Study, Research Questions, Ration ale, and .9 11 12 ... 18 Subject Matte 18 Data Collection Procedures and Instrum 19 ... 20 Limitation 2 0
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 7 21 Appropriation, Photo Manipulation 23 24 A Different Point of View: Advertisin 25 26 28 List of Fi gures and Figure 38 39 4 4 4 5 4 7
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 8 Introduction My students know that I have always insist ed on the inclusion of a large map of the w orld in my classroom, irrespective of the subject I ma y be teachi ng at the time. A few years ago one of my students was very excited abou t a map of the world that he recently purchased online for one cent and wanted to bring to class. When he brought the map in I h ad him place it onto the wall. at least exactly right Wrong or right, this one cent map (as we found later to have been printed in China, for the Chinese) placed the continent of Asia, including China, on the left side of t he map. Students were puzzled. This was not the way they had been brought up to see the world. They had a different perspective about the world. And as discovered m aps are printe d differently according to the hemisphere in which they are published and sometimes with time zones and different projections, and placement of heavier land masses in mind. Clearly, the view of perspective presented of the world exhibited on the map contradicted the view of the world that my students were used to seeing. I raise the topic of perspective in my classes to foster the learnin g and understanding of how people from diverse places and backgrounds may think and see thing s differently than we do. Visual culture, which includes images, advertisements, reproductions, artworks, and a whole array of human created visual cr eations, shapes how we all think about things. I believe that using a curriculum that engages visual and material culture study can help students unpack the layered meaning s of imagery that may be found in the media and elsewhere today. In the cas e presented in the par agraph above, with teacher assistance, my students were able to
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 9 understand through viewing a visual construction of culture, a map of the earth, how there may be more than one way to look at something. For me, the potential for develo pment of tolerance and understanding resulting from visual culture study is of utmost importance to students and their communities. Statement of the Problem Western society has generally become image saturated, over stimulat ed, consumer driven, and body centered (Stockrocki, 2011). Students are exposed to and heavily influenced by a culture of consumption, proliferated through textbooks, books, television, fashion, magazines, film, the Internet, music, social media and advert ising on a daily basis. How is it possible to develop individual core values when societal influences are so greatly skewed towards a culture of consumption? Young people are particularly vulnerable to the subtle messages that are conveyed through images emanating from consumer culture. Like Freedman (2003) I believe that a curriculum that includes the study of visual culture in and through art education has the potential to foster a sense of empo werment and self identification (so that stu dents have a better idea of who they are and where the y fit in the world or how they can come up with alternative models of identification ). Purpose of the Study Research Questions, Rationale, and Assumptions My purpose in stud ying and researching the topic e xplori ng visual and material c ulture was to investigate what has already been written and created in terms of curriculum and teaching materials relating to visual and material culture studies in art education Based on this research, I create d eight visual culture study oriented learning activities /explorations, a survey,
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 10 questionnaire, a w ebsite an ISSUU e m agazine and Pinterest boards that can serve as resource materials for students and others informed by this approach. The following research qu estions guided my investigation 1. How do we encounter and comprehend our consumer driven visual and material culture? What are the implications of these encounters? Why should we study advertising and mass produced im ages? 2. What sort of curriculum and m aterials exist to facilitate the learning about visual and material culture in an art education setting ? 3. What materials have yet to be created to assist in the engagement of this topic? I argue d in this research paper that the study of visual and material culture can empower students and adults to make better choices in life. My study has identified current materials and curricular practices that facilitate such goals. Through my own self p ublished work s now available online, I share with fellow art educators and others the impo rtance of this kind of teaching and availability of resource materials. Education has evolved and this evolution includes art education ( UNESCO 2006). Education in th e arts, particularly through a study of visual and material culture and its methods, facilitates awareness of cultural prod uctions and their influences. I believe that continued research and promotion of VCAE (Visual Culture Art Education) will result in its eventual adoption by educators, schools, and school syste m s I argue in this research paper that t he study of visual and material culture can empower students and adults to make more informed choices in life. My study has identified current materials a nd curricular art education
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 11 practices that facilitate such goals. Through my own self published works now available online ( http:www.invisibleculture.weebly.com ), I share with fellow art educators and others the importance of this kind of teaching and availability of resource materials. Definition of Terms Material Culture is a term used to describe the objects produced by human beings, including buildings, structures, monuments, tools, furniture, art and any other physical item s created by a society (Blandy & Bolin, 2003). Material culture is the main source of information about the past from which arch aeologists can make inferences ( http:// www.answers.com/topic/material culture ) V isual Culture is anything visually produced, interpreted or created by humans which has, or is given functional, communi cative, and/or aesthetic intent (Barnard, 1998). Visual culture also includes the traditional fine arts, as well as various forms of popular culture (Eisenhauer, 2006). It is also a form of social production or way in which to view and concern oneself with issues of gender, race, ethnicity, socio economics, politics, and community, based on the visual arts being vital to all societies (Freedman, 2003 ). VCAE (Visual Culture Art Education) is a complex, post modern pedagogy for teaching visual art. It submerges students in investigation into the overabundance of images taken f rom everyday life experiences. These images become the source of vis ual critical thinking exercises (Duncum, 2006, as cited in Pleszkiewicz, 2009) Bombardment is a recurring pronouncement through which subjects a nd objects are explicitly and im plicit l y defined through the barrage of media messages (Eisen hauer, 2006).
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 12 Culture Jamming is the remaking of commercially produced culture to reveal hidden meanings by appropriating brand logos, billboard ads, commercials and reconfiguring them to reveal th e underly ing assumptions and social cons equences promoted by these advertisements and in effec There are three types of Culture Jamming which include (a) commercial, (b) political, and (c) social ( http://hiddeninasnapshot.wordpress.com ) Appropriation is the practice of creating a new work by taking a pre existing image from another context and combining t hat appropriated image with new ones ( http://www.moca.org/pc/viewArtTerm.php?id=2 ) Literature Review My review of research and studies of visual and mate rial culture highlights work s of scholars who have been writing and researching about visual culture art education for over a dozen years. These include Kevin Tavin, Paul Duncum, Kerry Freedman, Doug Blandy, J. Ulbricht, Nancy Pauly, Pat Stuhr and others. Much work remains to incorporate visual culture study into k 12 art classroom learning before we can fully appreciate how its inclusion will bring new meaning to the study of art, visual images, and culture. The following themes stood lture study in the k 12 classroom. Advocating for Teaching Visual and Material Culture Duncum (2002) has been advocating the study of visual culture in art education for over a decade and feels that the diverse ways people deal with visual prod ucts of global
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 13 capitalism can be explained through VCAE. In explaining such an approach, Freedman (2000) asserted that teaching ar t from a social perspective includes the study of meaning, context and with a new definition of and emphasis on critique, an d according to Duncum (1999, as cited in Eisenhauer, 2006) can help students gain a more sophisticated understanding of visual culture and everyday aesthetic exp erience. In a slightly different direction, Bolin and Blandy (2003) have advocated the teaching of material culture which they state is even more appropriate for art education (than just studying visual culture) because it encompasses a broader range of endeavors and has a multi sensory aspect. Material culture differs from visual culture in that it includes more than just images, but includes interactions with furniture, toys, performance, music, religious studies, cultural anthropology, cemeteries, storytelling, fashion, science, shopping m alls, and theme parks (Kingery, 1996, as cited in Carrier, 2005). Alongside more traditional art education programs, learning about visual culture will result in the ability for students to make better choices, limit misunderstandings, and become empowered (Ulbricht, 2007). In such a curriculum, students are enc ouraged to engage in conversations about social justice, gender, race, and class, as well as the influence an d power of visual culture. Carrier (2005) observed that in a world where the visual has become dominant, art educators are advantaged over other educators. Through the use of a visual culture curriculum, teachers can promote the investigation and appreciation of objects, artifacts, remarked that this has been a substantial shift for teachers as they have had to learn about such things as television production and audience response, and other current aspects o f visual and
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 14 material culture. Teachers had not previously considered how the viewer negotiated meaning by linking images with cultural narratives (Pauly, 2003). This too has made the facilitation of this material challenging for all educators especially w hen dealing with students from many different backgrounds. A Paradigm Shift Visual culture study (sometimes expanded to include material culture and popular culture) represents a paradigm shift in k 12 art education theory and practice today. T he methods u sed in VCAE articulate ways of unpacking the nature of visual culture and its impact on our students. Some scholars have recommended encouraging students to examine images coming from every day experience, in their specific conte xts and then asking questions about the sources, nature, and purposes of such images (Duncum, 2002). Through this type of learning students learn to critique and deconstruct images through art practice, in order to understand how these images func tion in society (Ta vin, 2003) Pauly (2003) argued that students need to be guided in their worlds to become w iser consumers of their culture Ulbricht ( 2007) further observed that making connections between material culture and personal interpretation, and learning how this culture s hapes our lives, encourages students to be more reflective and empowered to understand the material world. For visual representations are sites of ideological struggle that can be as deplorable as they can be prais In his view the examination of that struggle is rightfully part of the agend a for art education today. The outcome for students through such curriculum will be learning how the culture that bombards us daily can be understood (Eisenhauer, 2006).
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 15 Finally, Freedman (2000) called for a focus in art education on more local and global communities and to be less concerned with the technical skills of art and to broaden the domain of art education. Construction of Meaning and Democracy marks key points in continuing trends the U.S. will become a plurality nation, where the non Hispanic white population remains the largest single group, but p. A20 ). Our country is experiencing increasing divers ity and this adds to the complexity of understanding our culture and that of others who hold different values. Wh y should we educate our children to become globally connected citizens, not just technologically, but mor ally as well? While human beings all o ver the world share much in common, we also have many differences. In that the visual arts are vital to all societies and that visual culture continues to expand as a realm of the visual arts (Freedman, 200 3 ), we need to continue to educate our students ab out the meanings of such imagery, and how it may have different meanings for people other than ourselves. V CAE advocates argue that i n a diverse cultural population meaning is depend ent upon the perspective of the audience. A healthy vital sustainable democracy requires a citizenry that is ed ucated a round cultural issues. Teachers are dealing with students from increasingly di verse backgrounds and need to consider the choice of images selected for inclusion i n the curriculum (Pauly, 2003). Students from various backgrounds need to be able to identify with others who have similar backgrounds and may look like them. Different
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 16 nationalities and ethnic groups, as well as gender and social groups interpret the same images in different ways (Duncum, 2002). S tudents are more apt to come into contact with others of different ba ckgrounds in a school setting. Because of this teachers are in a prime position to facilitate learning among a diverse group of students, which includes discuss ing the hidden meaning s beh i nd what have been termed cool products (Stokrocki, 2001). Stokrocki explains that people lead designer lives that are fashioned most powerful drug is the promise of belonging. She thinks teachers need to help students develop positive and artistic ways to respond to advertisers (2001). In order to understand how our consumer driven culture operates and to actively and critically engage it, students need to become literate about the ir own popular culture. Visual images teach us how to see, think, and create Images are identity making as For example, i n a curriculum inspired by postcards, Silverman (2007) found that through the making of postcards of place with teachers, they considered how history was recorded, and began to understand that perspective depended upon who was telling the story. Those who viewed these postcards saw a place through someone else t ime and place. It was necessary to become tolerant of unfamiliar culture by putting oneself in As a rt and artifact s take their meaning in relation to place the learning from specific material culture objects will be different depending up on where they are located and when,
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 17 why, and by whom they are studied, or used (Ulbricht, 2007). Learning to discern context can be addressed through the study of sacred objects like Stars of David or Christian crosses and how when they migrate from one culture or social group to another sometimes lose their religious significance (Carrier, 2005). But they can also take on other significance. A utilitarian object in one country c ould be considered an art piece in another. T hese ty pes of understandings enable students to at tain new perspectives that are many times based on the power of individuals and other cultural groups who may think differently than themselves. Summary When we examine art as v isual culture a focus on its cultural meaning rather tha n simply on its aesthetic value occurs (Freedman, 2000). Understanding the visual culture of spectives ca n lead to tolerance. From this perspective a dialogue between social groups, societ ies, and nations can be initiated The guiding principles for an art education that addresses this topic need to be focused on the meaning behind relevant images and visual representations of other social groups. The ideal outcome of a curriculum th at includes visual culture for students is the understanding of how a wide variety of images and visual cultural productions function. In d by the visual and material culture of the world. It is up to educators to utilize an assortment of images and examples of visual culture in their teaching. Building on this belief, my Capstone research includes creation of visual materials and learning a ctivities that can be used to promote understanding of visual culture both insi de and outside of the classroom.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 18 Methodology My study methods included a literature review of academic discourse about visual culture art education, a sear ch for sources and images that might be used as content in a visual culture study, my own visual inquiries into meanings of such images, and development of learning activities designed with the goal of facilitating the study of visual and material culture. Because there was so much imagery to examine the challenge became the selection, sorting, organization, and determination of what images would serve as good resource material and pra ctical information to inform learning experiences for an art curriculum that includes explorations into visu al and material culture study to expand and extend previous beliefs. Subject Matter My study involved examining writings about visual culture art education and searching for visual examples that might be included in visual culture study from a range of sources including photography, artwork, advertising, buildings, accessories, furniture, theme parks, toys, television, clothing, people, food and technology. I then sorted some of these sources into specific catego ries and created exploratory learning activities, and a questionnaire and survey. This materia l is now housed on my website (http://www.invisibleculture.weebly.com ) All research was conducted via the Internet, b ook s, and scholarly papers retrieved through the University of Florida Libraries. I created and stored m aterials on my computer using the programs Weebly, Adobe InDesign, Pinterest and Photoshop as well as Microsoft Word.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 19 Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation My re search and data collection were carried out over a three month peri od. As I used a visua l inquiry based approach my data was collected primarily from the Internet (Public Domain sites and other sites). I selected images with the goal of retrieving material from diverse cultural groups, material that I thought would be relevant to young people, and topics I wanted to explore in my learning explorations. I archived into Pinterest boards a variety of visually rich images that would be useful for sources for my pre designated topics. In th at there were infinite online res ources from which to choose I had to be highly selective in my search for the types of imagery I wanted to collect. I was also able to annotate each Pinterest collected image (pins) with information I had amassed These im ages also informed my ISSUU e magazine whi ch I created to offer a varie ty of visual explorations. The images used in my ISSUU e magazine were also intended as source images for eight learning activities that appear on my website. From my readings of writin gs about visual culture study and my examination of websites devoted to visual culture study, artist sites, and blogs I was able to extract information that I used in the writing of my eight learning activities. I also created a questionnaire for use afte r viewing a PBS video titled Hunting for Cool ( http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/view/ ). These activities and resources age ( http://invisibleculture.weebly.com/explorationsactivities.html ). My research questions guided me in my search, material selection for Pinterest, and text creation for my ISSUU e magazine and web based learning activities. The questionnaire
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 20 and survey appear in my appendices at the end of this paper as well as on my website My website served as my main collection receptacle for written information and links. My individ ual Pinterest boards were used as an online archive for most of my visual material that I also used in my ISSUU e m agazine and in my Capstone paper. Data Analysis Procedures I used m y website as a collection repository from which to organize and categorize my data. My data mainly consisted of notes from my readings of scholarly articles written about visual and material culture and websites and images that I found on the Internet. M y analysis occurred in the process of developing resource and primar y materials as I organize d and sorted information that I had critically reviewed and interpreted. I organized my data into written materi al much in the form of questions that became the content for my newly created instruments for viewing my researc h. As mentioned before, t hese included a website, Pinterest boards, an ISSUU e m agazine, as well as explorations and activities adaptable for a variety of learning levels, a questionnaire and a survey. All of these distribution centers interconnect with each other in order to provide easily accessible rich visual content with explanations, resources, a nd learning activities They are also adaptable for teachers to use with multiple age groups. Limitations M uch has been written on the subje ct of my research, but at present there is not as much curricular material created specifically for educators and students. The challenge was that all of this information was not located in one place so that the process of putting all of the
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 21 pieces together into a manageable pro duct was much like the creation of a quilt. I had to be very judicious in my selection of what to choose to read from the abundant reading materials that were available about my topic I was also hindered by not having a group of students t o research and involve in my activities and explorations Results My original research goals stated my interest in investigating how we encounter and comprehend visual a nd material culture through art making and viewing, and how learning activities might be fashioned t o include visual culture study. I wanted to find out what sort of curricula and primary materials already exist to use in a curriculum of visual and material in an art education and other settings. I also wanted to find out what materials might be missing and through my research develop educational guides and explorations to assist in teaching about visual and material culture. These explorations include investi gations into (a) how our own mass media subtly manipulates meanings through carefully composed imagery, and (b) how there are a variety of strategies for us to examine and respond to mass media advertising through visual culture study activities. Result s of my study include a variety of Pinterest boards that reflect a range of images collected online and that are organized thematically by topic of inquiry, and my website housing learning activities that I created and that links to all of my other source material (Pinterest boards and my ISSUU e publication ) My ISSUU publication presents selected topics of inquiry (visual explorations) from this project, along with images and links to source material.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 22 Pinterest boards I collected a plethora of source images for such investigations using multiple Pinterest boards. My collected images are organized under the following board names: Visual and Material Culture, Portraits, The Deceptive World of Photo Manipulation, Changin g Meaning through Appropriation, Introduction to Culture Jamming, Is it Fine Art or Imagery, Images for Visual and Material Culture Survey, Interactions with Visual a nd Material Culture, Advertising and Manipulation, and Artists Inspired by Global The mes. (See Figure 1 to view a screenshot of one of my Pinterest boards with examples of a wide array of visual and material culture imagery.) ISSUU e magazine. This image rich publication presents in book form a variety of questions about and explorations of visual and material culture. For the design of this magazine I taught myself the basics of Adobe InDesign and used my own aesthetic sensibilities that included a DIY approach to graphic layout and design of each of my ISSUU pages. I used a collage and layering style with juxtapositions to create quilt like, colorful, and textural layouts. This ISSUU e magazine is accessible at ( http://invisibleculture.weebly.com/issuu magazine.htm). (See Fi gure 2 to view a screenshot of an example of one of the pages from my ISSUU e magazine.) Topics in my ISSUU e magazine included the following: What is Visual and Material Culture? How does our Visual Culture Experience Shape Who we Are? How do we Interact with Visual Culture? How does Advertising Manipulate? How do we Consume? How can we Tell the Difference between what is Real, or Not? Using Cul ture Jamming for Change,
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 23 Fine Art or Visual Culture? A Different Point of View, and What is the Culture of our Youth Today? Learning activities housed on my website. I also created eight learning activities for visual culture study. These activities are a ccessible from my website that also provides links to all of my source material and other products created for this study (http://invisibleculture.weebly.com/explorationsactivi ties.html ) My eight learning activities address the following topics: Hunting for Cool, Self Portraits, Visual Culture Survey, Logo Looking and Ad Analysis, The Deceptive World of Photo Manipulation, Changing Meaning through Appropriation, Culture Jamming for Change, and Fine Art or Visual Culture? The following sections present some of the themes conveyed in the learning activities I have developed. Appropriation Photo Manipulation, and Propaganda We need to look carefully at photos and images in advertisements in publications and on billboards. With the advent of such software programs as Photoshop appropriation of imagery using techniques l ike photo manipulation and photo mont age are not only common place and easier to creat e, but the resulting images are highly believable. I was surprised to learn about the ways certain image s have been subtl y changed and then published in credible media in order to sway public opinion. Becau se of the use of modern technology we need to be more vigilant than ever when viewing imagery in all media and constructing its meaning. This is an important reason for facilitating inve stigations into the meanin g s of imagery in visual and popular culture with students today. (See Figure 3 to vi ew a screenshot of my Pinterest board
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 24 of images where meanings have been changed through appropriation .) Y oung people and youth culture itself are affected by the way they interpret media and visual imagery that may or may not be manipulated (See Figure 4 t o vi ew a screenshot of my Pinterest board that shows images .) Propaganda in the form of altered and appropriated photographs runs rampant in our society today and readily promotes stereotyping. Confronting those stereotypes with students is rightfully the business of education. et Away from ou r Consumer Culture but you can E ngage it K nowingly Everywhere we go we are bombarded with visual and material culture in the form of advertisements, and other product forms of consumerism. We are tempted daily to consume and because of what we see in the media we are lead to believe not only that this is t he way of our culture and how we should lead our lives, but that by consuming whatever is being hocked at the moment somehow our lives will be greatly enhanced, irr espective of the costs involved or the questionable messages and meanings implied. However, through learning about, and participation in an educational strategy known as Culture Jamming, we learn t hat we do indeed have choices. Logos and adve rtisements hold lots of power. Whether we care to admit it or not, certain corporate entities do control o ur tastes and we may not even realize that we have other choices, and need to learn to exercise them if we are to maintain a de mocratic society. Inquiries about where something come s from and who manufactured it need to be made. Images are not always what they appear to be, some images express inaccurate and questionable information and realities may be skewed through images. ( See Figure 5 to view a screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine that questions how we can tell if something is real, or not. )
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 25 Organizations and individuals who utilize these culture jam s reveal the rampant practice of misrepresentation in advertising and hold corporations accountable. Organizations like Adbusters and Negativland work to change the way corporations yield power thr ough the use of creative p ractices that utilize imagery and art media in the form of advertising or as political or playful imagery ( Adbusters 2013) ( See Figure 6 to view a screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine that presents examples of Culture Jamming and links to sites about this topic. ) A Different Point of View: Advertising in other Countries E xamining the advertising of other nations, societies, and social groups allowed me to learn how those who live in non Western cultures are also bombarded by the products of consumer media. ( See Figure 7 t o view a screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine with links to examples of ads from other countries and Figure 8 s creenshot of my Pinterest board of pictures of these ads from other parts of the world.) It would have never occurred to me that in Muslim countries there would be an ad for a bea uty contest for the most beautiful eyes. I also found a positive ad for Jihad in our own country, and ads for other product uses that were different than what is commonly accep table in Western culture. I discovered that we may have more in common with othe rs across the globe as they are subjected to the same alteration of photos in their advertising as we are in ours. Naturally, these ads are targeted at the populations of the particular countries whose populations maintain specific traditions. I did note t hat much of this advertising was also written in English, and was designed by agencies across the world, leading me to conclude that the ads are also being read by English speakers
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 26 who either reside in or are connected to these s ocieties and countries. Thr ough my research I concluded that some developing countries may have very little advertising, at least advertising that is widely accessible to other parts of the world, presumably because t heir populations are not as large of a consumer group as their w ea lthier counterparts. Because of this the demand for global products i n these countries may be less. Conversely, countries like China and India are now preparing for greater presence upon the global advertising stage (Seshadri, 2010). Final Thoughts A common sentiment expressed in my readings was that visual culture study is important for students to unpack the meaning of images in order to find what lies behind them. I nvestigations into meanings, methods, and purposes of images including advertising in our own society, as well as those of other societies will help consumers of all ages facilitate our visual and material culture as participants. In turn this inquiry will help students make more critically informed choices in their lives. Additionally the re is something to be learned by studying the artwork of culturally diverse people and societies. Visual Culture advocates argue that such study will create more discriminate citizens, and students who are self reflective learners who engage in higher orde r thinking and are investigators of their own culture. My research adds to the resources and strategies for studying visual and material culture through art viewing and making. (See Figure 9 to view a screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine that sho ws examples of images and objects of visual and material culture.) Though the information I studied and assembled, especially scholarly a rticles and books on this topic were important and informative, it now becomes a question of how to prepare teachers to
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 27 design a curriculum that effectively engages with visual and cultural imagery. Burkhart (2006) suggested that the material culture studied in a classroom should include integration, prior knowledge, analysis, contextualization, socio historical cultural perspectives, production, utility and symbolism, and cultural impact I similarly recommend the integration of resources and learning activities involving visual and material culture into art, social st udies and humanities curriculum in order to understand and confront the meanings of what we encounter each day. My website, Pinterest boards, ISSUU e magazine, and the other products of my research provide a point of reference for educators, students, and t hose interested in investigating the many facets of our visual and material culture. My learning activities and resources pose questions that involve the study of visual and material culture. I am happy to report that since creating my Pinterest boards, over 1 40 of my pins have been repined. I hope that my learning activities housed on my website and my e magazine are similarly useful to others wishing to include visual culture studies in their own teaching.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 28 Figures Figure 1. Screenshot of my Pinterest boards.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 29 Figure 2 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 30 Figure 3 Screenshot of my Pinterest board, Changing Meaning through Appropriation
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 31 Figure 4
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 32 Figure 5 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 33 Figure 6 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 34 Figure 7 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 35 Figure 8 Screenshot of my Pinterest board, A Different Point of View.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 36 Figure 9 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 37 Figure 10 Screenshot of my Pinterest board, Images for Visual and Material Culture Survey
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 38 List of Figures with Captions Figure 1 Sc reenshot of my Pinterest boards. Figure 2 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture. Figure 3 Screenshot of my Pinterest board, Changing Meaning through Appropriation Figure 4 Figure 5 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture. Figure 6 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture. Figure 7 Screenshot of page from my I SSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture. Figure 8 Sc reenshot of my Pinterest board, A Different Point of View Figure 9 Screenshot of a page from my ISSUU e magazine, Invisible Culture. Figure 10 Screenshot of my Pinterest board, Images for Visual and Material Culture Survey
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 39 References Adbusters (2013). [Website]. https://www.adbusters.org/ Retrieved from Art and Visual Culture (n.d.). [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.students.sbc.educ/lollis04/ArtandVisualCulture9.htm Ballengee Morris, C. & Stuhr, P. L. (2001). Multicultural art and visual cultural E ducation in a changing world. Art Education 54 (4), 6 13. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3/938987 Barker, K. (2010). Visual culture education: Critical pedagogy, identity formation and gen erative studio practice in art. Retrieved from http://scholarworks boisestate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=100 Barnard, M. (1998). Art, design, and v isual culture: An introduction London, England: Macmillan Blandy, D. & Bolin, P.E. (2003). Beyond visual culture: Seven statements of support for Material cul ture studies in art education. Studies in Art Education, 44 (3), 246 263. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1321012 Burkhart, A. (2006) Object lessons: Th inking about material culture. Art Education, 59 (2), 33 39 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27696134 Carrier, D. (20 05). Seeing cultural conflicts. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 39(3), 115 120. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/the_journal_of_aesthe tic_education/v039/39.3carrier.html
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 40 Cooper, M. (2012, December 12) Census officials citi ng increasing diversity, say U.S. will be [New York Times online ]. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/13/us/us will have no ethnic majority census finds.html?hp&_r=1& Darts, D. (2004). Visual culture jam: Art, peda gogy and creative resistance. Studies in Art Education, 45 (4), 313 327 Driscoll, D. L. (2011). Introduction to primary research: Observation, surveys, and interviews. In C. Lowe and P. Zemliansky, Writing spaces: Readings on writings, Vol. 2 Retrieved from http://www.driscoll introduction to primary research.pdf Adobe Reader Duncum, P. (2002). Clarifying visual culture art education. Art Education, 55 (3), 6 11. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3193995 Duncum, P. (2005). Visual culture and aesthetics of embodiment. International Journal of Education through Art, 1 (1), 9 19. Retrieved from https://content ebscohost com.1p.hscl.ufl.edu/pdf10/pdf/2005/16WE Eisenhauer, J. F. (2006). Beyond bombardment: Subjectivity, visual culture, and art educatio n. Art Education, 47 (2), 155 169. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3497106 Freedman, K. (2003). The importance of student artistic production to teaching visual culture. Art Education, 56 (2), 38 43. Freedman, K. (2000). Social perspectives in art education in the U.S.: Teaching visual culture in a democracy Studies in Art Education, 41 (4), 314 329. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1320676
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 41 Freedman, K. & Stuhr, P. L. (200 4 ). Curriculum c hange for the 21 st century: Visual culture in art e ducation In E. Eisner and M. D. Day (Eds.) Handbook of research and policy in art education ( pp. 815 828). Mahwah NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Garber, E., & Constantino, T. E. (2007). Social issues in art and visual /material culture education. In I. Bresler, International handbook of research in arts education (pp. 1055 10 70). Dordec ht, NL: Springer. Retrieved from http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/413/chp%3A10.1007%2F97 Garoian, C. R., & Gaudelius, Y. (2004). Th e spectacle of visual culture. Studies in Art Education, 45 (4), 298 312. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/13221066 Goldberg, E. (2013) Invisible Culture [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.invisibleculture.weebly.com Herbert, P. (1977). The color of words: An encyclopedic dictionary of ethnic bias in the United States (pp. 154 155). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Hidden in a Snapsho t (2008, November 25). Culture j amming [Web l og post]. Retrieved from http://hiddeninasnapshot.wordpress.com/2008/11/25/culture jamming providingreliefonsmokytimes/ MOCA ( 2010 ). Art Terms. [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.moca.org/pc/viewArtTerm.php?id=2 Nationa l Institutes of Health (2013). Best Practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences: The nature and design o f mixed methods research National Institutes of
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 42 Health Office of Behavioral an d Social Sciences Research [Web site]. Retrieved from http://obssr.od.nih.gov/mixed_methods_research Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2002, 2003). Answers. [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/material culture PBS Television (Producer). (2001). Frontline: Hunting for Cool http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/view/ Pauly, N. (2003). Interpreting visual culture as cultural narratives in teacher education. Studies in Art Education, 44 (3), 2 64 284. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/132103 Pleskiewicz, T.C. (2009). Art to empower: Designing and implementing a contemporary visual culture art education for urban elementary institutions with implications for classroom practice Urbana Champaig n, IL: University of Illinois. Retrieved from https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/ha ndle/2142/14717 Rees, E. (2012 ). Classroom to community: Self Se gregation in our schools [Webs ite]. Retrieved from http://classroom2community.blogspot.com/2012/04/self segregation in our schools.html Seshadri, V (2010). China, India offer marketers opportunities for scalable ideas. Ad Age Gobal News. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Ellen%20Tishman/Downloads/china_india_offer_marketers_opportunit ies_for_sca lable_ideas___global_news_ _advertising_age%20(1).htm
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 43 Silverman, J. (2007). A rt Education, 60 (6), 17 23. Retrieved from http://worldroom.tamu.edu/Presentations/Making%20History%20Come%20A live/Mak ing%20History%20Come%20Alive%20CD/Articles/Media%20Literacy/Postcards%20 from%20Another's%20Home.pdf Stokrocki, M. (2001). s hopping mall. Art Education, 54 (2), 18 23. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3193942 Tavin, K. M. (2003). Wrestling with angels, searching for ghosts: Toward a critical pedagogy of visual culture. Studies in Art Education, 44 (3), 197 213. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1321009 Ulbricht, J. (2007). Reflections on visual and material culture: An example from southwest Chicago. Studies in Art Education, 49 (1), 59 72. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25475854 UNESCO (March 2006). Road map for arts education. The world conference on arts education: Building creative capacities for the 21st century. Lisbon, Spain. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CLT/CLT/pdf/ Arts_Edu_R oadMap_en.pdf
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 44 Append i x A : Exploring Visual and Material Culture Questionnaire Activity I Questionnaire for use following the viewing of the first episode of the Merchants of Cool (February 27, 2001) You Tube video Hunting for Cool (10:04) accessible at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/view/ 1. What is popular now? 2. How many TVs do you have in you r home and how often are they in use ? 3. What is your favorite TV show? Favorite film? 4. What sorts of activities do you use your computer, iP ad, cell phone, or other personal electronic device s for? 5. What trends d o you and your friends follow ? 6. Do you think you are a trendsetter?
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 45 Appendix B : Exploring Visual and Material Culture Survey Activity III Survey Examining Visual and Material Culture (See Figure 10 to view a screenshot of my Pinterest board of images used for the survey.) Full survey with l etter identified i mages is accessible at http://invisibleculture.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/4/7/10479140/visual_and_material_cultlure_sur vey c.pdf Images without letters are accessible at Pinterest Board Images for Visual and Material Culture Survey http://www.pinterest.com/ellensgoldberg/images for visual and material culture survey/ 1. Which images given in this survey make you want to take a second look, and why? 2. In what ways do any of these images have universal appeal? 3. Which images show you something that you have never thought about? Explain. 4 Which images are most unbelievable to you, and why? 5 Which images make you think about gender (male/female) and gender stereotypes, and why? 6 Whi ch images give you some insight into other cul tures, and why?
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 46 7 Do you know any of the storie s behind any of these images? If yes, please explain 8. Which images are most familiar to you, and why? 9 Make up and write a caption her e for one of the images. Please label the caption with the
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 47 Author Biography Throughout my adult life I have worked in multiple realms of the art, design music, and education fields. I have held positions as a commercial product designer, museum educator, curator, marketing and public relations sp ecialist, and primary, secondary, college, and community art and design faculty member/facilitator. Additionally, I have been an entrepreneur and prize winning pract icing artist and craftsperson. My education in the arts consists of a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree from Syracuse University, as well as time spent at The Penland School of Crafts, NC, study with renowned artists, and courses at other universities and colleges in design, art, and history. My other career path has includ ed the teaching of Judaism and h olocaust in my community in adult enrichment programs, synag ogues, and religious schools. My education in this field consists of (a) studi es and certifications in a two year program at the Florence Melton Mini School of the Hebrew University (b) grad uate level seminars and institutes at the Center for Israel Education (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) and the Holocau st Museum of St. Petersburg, FL, (c) studies at the Co nser vative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, and (d) university level courses taken through Siega l College of Cleveland, OH. Currently I am a candidate for the Master of Arts degree in Art Education at the University of Florida.
EXPLORING VISUAL AND MATERIAL CULTURE 48