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Sweetpotato Production in Florida

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Title:
Sweetpotato Production in Florida
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Fact Sheet
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Olson, S.M.
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University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
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"January 2012"
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"HS738"

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Material Information

Title:
Sweetpotato Production in Florida
Physical Description:
Fact Sheet
Creator:
Olson, S.M.
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

Acquisition:
Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status:
Published
General Note:
"January 2012"
General Note:
"HS738"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
IR00003520:00001


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Page 309 Chapter 22. Sweetpotato Production in FloridaS.M. Olson, M.L. Lamberts, P.J. Dittmar, S. Zhang and S.E. Webb BOTANYNomenclature Family Convolvulaceae Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas Origin Originating in tropical America, the sweetpotato was cultivated by pre-Inca farmers. Related species Water convolvulus, water spinach, and kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), both upland and aquatic types, are grown as leafy vegetables in the tropics. This crop is illegal in Florida due to the noxious weed potential in fresh waterways. The tops of sweetpotato, especially varieties with short internodes, are sometimes used as a substitute for water convolvulus.VARIETIESSweetpotato varieties grown in Florida include: Beauregard Covington Hernandez Jewel Picadito (Boniato)PLANTING AND SEEDINGPlanting dates and seeding information for sweet potato are given in Table 1.FERTILIZER AND LIMEBroadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 25 to 50% of N and K2O before planting. Better fertilizer efficiency might result by banding P2O5 and micronutrients when beds are made. Sidedress remaining N and K2O by banding in side of bed in one or two applications before vines cover sides of beds. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for sweet potato on mineral soils are given in Table 2.PLANT TISSUE ANALYSISPlant tissue analysis information for sweetpotato is given in Table 3. The analysis was done before initiation of root enlargement, using the most recently matured leaf.IRRIGATIONSweetpotato water requirements (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables, Table 4 to 6) increase from 20% of ETo during early growth to 60% of ETo during rapid growth and root enlargement (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables Table 3). Proper water manage ment is essential for optimum root sizing.Water requirements and subsequent irrigation requirements may be reduced to 70% of ETo during the last few weeks of growth. 2012-2013 Table 1. Planting information for sweetpotato. Planting datesNorth Florida Mar June Central Florida Feb June South Florida Dec Sept (orange fleshed types) Year-round (boniato/batatas types)Planting informationDistance between rows (in) 36 48 Distance between plants (in) 10 12 Planting depth (in) 3 4 Transplants needed per acre 9,000 15,000 Days to maturity from transplant 85 130 Plant populations (acre) 9,000 15,000

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 310 Table 3. Plant tissue analysis for sweetpotato just before roots begin to enlarge. Dry wt. basis. N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn B Cu Status Percent Parts per millionDeficient <3.0 0.2 2.0 0.5 0.25 0.2 40 40 25 25 5 Adequate range 3.0 -4.0 0.2 -0.3 2.0 -4.0 0.5 -1.8 0.25 -0.5 0.2 -0.4 40 -100 40 -100 25 40 25 40 5 10 High >4.0 0.3 4.0 1.8 0.5 0.4 100 100 40 40 10 Table 2. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for mineral soils for sweetpotato (beds on 36 to 42 inch centers).1Target pH N lb/A2VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P2O5 2K2O (lb/A/crop season)6.5 60 120 100 80 0 0 120 100 80 0 01 See Chapter 2 section on supplemental fertilizer application and best management practices, pg 11.2 Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P 2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds.Table 4. Chemical weed control in sweetpotato. Active Ingredient lb. a.i. / Acre Trade name Product / Acre Weeds controlled & remarks***PREPLANT *** Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2 EC or 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. Clomazone 0.49 0.75 (Command) 3 ME 1.3 2.0 pt. Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Use lower rates on coarse soils. Apply within 5 days of transplanting. DCPA 4.5 6 (Dacthal) W-75 6 8 lb. (Dacthal) 6 F 6 8 pt. Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply immediately after transplanting. May be applied as a layby later in the season for preemergence control. Flumioxazin 0.096 (Valor) 51 WDG 3 oz. Annual broadleaf weeds. Do not use on sweetpotato varieties other than Beauregard unless user has tested other varieties and found crop tolerance. Apply 2 5 days before transplant and minimize soil disturbance after application. Glyphosate Various formulations consult labels Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down. Consult label for individual product directions. Napropamide 1.0 2.0 (Devrinol) 50 DF 2 4 lb. Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply immediately after transplanting. If rainfall does not occur within 24 hours after application then incorporate or irrigate 2 to 4 inches deep. Pelargonic acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down treatment. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with soil residual compounds.

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Page 311 CULTURAL PRACTICESSoil Preparation Sweetpotatoes grow best when the soil is turned 2 to 3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot plant debris and reduce some nematode and disease problems. Soils in Miami-Dade County (except for marl soils) should be scarified or rock plowed prior to planting to improve drainage and increase available soil depth. Deep, sandy soils will always produce the best shaped and best looking sweetpotatoes. However, long periods of dry weather during the growing season reduce yields if supplemental irrigation cannot be supplied. Wet weather for extended periods can cause leaching of N and K, requiring the addition of more fertilizer than on heavier soils. More frequent applications of lesser amounts of fer tilizer are suggested for coarse textured soils. Soils with more than 2% organic matter are not well suited to sweetpotato production since they usually pro duce a large percentage of rough or cracked storage roots. Scurf and black rot fungi are more persistent in these soils than in those with less organic matter. In general, fields that have not been used for sweetpota toes in the last 2 to 3 years are preferred. Avoid fields that have been idle or have very high nematode populations. Bedding Plants are often established in rows on flat land (Fig. 22-3). During the cultivation process, ridges are formed down the rows of plants. However, beds can be formed ahead of time, especially when preplant fertilizers or pest control chemicals need to be applied to the soil before planting. Vines take root at all locations where vines are covered, providing additional sites for storage root forma tion. In locations where sweetpotato weevils are present, keeping the storage roots covered with soil helps to mini mize damage. Ridges also improve drainage and facilitate harvesting. Cover Crops Cover crops are not recommended immediately after sweetpotato production. Cultivation is needed after harvest to prevent feral plant establishment.WEED MANAGEMENTHerbicides labeled for weed control in sweet potato are listed in Table 4.DISEASE MANAGEMENTVirus diseases are the major group of pathogens affect ing sweetpotatoes, though many do not cause problems in the United States. Feathery mottle virus is the most common in the U.S. Losses due to infection are as much as 50% with incidences of single and multiple infections approaching 100% in a field. Since sweetpotatoes are vegetatively propagated, virus diseases can be carried from one planting to another in the propagules. Genetic resis tance to sweet potato viruses is not well documented.Chapter 22: Sweetpotato Production in Florida Table 4. Continued. Active Ingredient lb. a.i. / Acre Trade name Product / Acre Weeds controlled & remarks***POSTEMERGENCE*** Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2 EC or 1.9 EW up to 2 oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as hooded application to row middles only. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Contact with the leaves will cause injury. PHI 0 days. Clethodim 0.09 0.25 0.07 0.25 (Select, Arrow) 2 EC 6 16 fl. oz. (Select Max) 1 EC 9 32 fl. oz Perennial and annual grass weeds. Use higher rates under heavy grass pressure or larger grass weeds. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb. ai./A. Use a crop oil concentrate at 1% v/v in the finished spray solution. Select Max requires a NIS at 0.25% v/v. PHI 30 days. Fluazifop 0.1 to 0.25 (Fusilade DX) 2 EC 6 16 fl. oz. Perennial and annual grass weeds. Include a NIS at 0.25 0.5% v/v or COC at 0.5 1.0% v/v in the spray solution. PHI 55 days. Pelargonic acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a hooded application to row middles only. Contact with the leaves will cause injury. Sethoxydim 0.19 0.47 (Poast) 1.5 EC 1.0 to 2.5 pt. Controls growing grass weeds. A total of 5.0 pt. /A applied in one season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Unsatisfactory results may occur if applied to grasses under stress. PHI 30 days.

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 312 Common fungal and bacterial diseases of sweetpotatoes in the U. S. include: bacterial wilt and root rot, black rot, internal cork, pox or soil rot, rhizopus soft rot, scurf, sur face rot, circular spot, and wilt (stem rot).Effective disease control for sweetpotatoes is based on prevention. Most of the important diseases are caused by root pathogens or are capable of spreading systemically through the plant. It is generally not possible to restore the health of an affected plant once the disease can be detected. Since sweetpotatoes are vegetatively propagated, pathogens are easily transmitted in the planting stock. A crop rotation of at least 3 years is an important means of controlling dis eases. Table 5 outlines the chemicals approved for disease management in sweetpotatoes and yams.Physiological Disorders Hardcore and internal breakdown are the main physiological disorders affecting sweetpotatoes. Harvesting/Packing/Shipping Unlike most vegetable crops, sweetpotatoes do not have a definite stage where they are classified as mature since plants will continue to grow as long as there are green leaves. The crop should be harvested when it has produced the highest percentage of roots of the desired size. Sweetpotatoes should be harvested before killing frosts. Partial or complete freezing of the foliage is not likely to damage the crop unless soil temperature around the roots is less than 55F for several hours. Because of the sweet potato weevil, Florida is a quarantine state and potatoes may not be shipped through any of the southeastern states that grow sweetpotatoes.NEMATODE MANAGEMENTSweetpotatoes are frequently damaged by root-knot and reniform nematodes. Either may cause stunting and yield loss; root-knot nematodes in the tubers may cause cracking or internal dark lesions which severely reduce the value of the product. Several steps should be taken together to minimize nematode injury to sweetpotatoes. These include crop rotation; varietal resistance; nematode-free transplants; and nematicides. Crop Rotation There are usually not as many root-knot or reniform nematodes where the preceding crop was a grass or small grain. Most vegetable crops are among the worst crops to precede sweetpotatoes, from the standpoint of building up hazardous nematode populations. Field corn may be better than most vegetables. Do not plant sweetpotatoes in the same field in successive years.NEMATODE-FREE TRANSPLANTSDo not take nematodes or other soil-borne problems to the field by planting contaminated plants. If plants must be propagated from suspect soil, use un-rooted cuttings to avoid carrying potential problems into the field. Nematicides Where damaging levels of nematodes exist, the nema ticides listed in Table 6 should reduce losses if applied as directed. Before application of a nematicide, carefully read and follow the label.INSECT MANAGEMENTWeevils are the main pest of sweetpotato. In the United States, the sweetpotato weevil is of major concern. Larvae are reared primarily in storage roots and can be transported from one location to another, unnoticed. Their damage to storage roots makes them unmarketable. Resistance is not well-documented. Selecting pestfree propagules for planting is one method of control and minimizing adult weevil access to storageroots by keeping them well-covered with soil is another. Keeping fallowed fields free of feral plants and maintaining good sanitation in packing and storage buildings is also recommended. Other pests identified in the U.S. include: southern potato wireworm, the tobacco wireworm, the banded cucumber beetle, the spotted cucumber beetle, the elongate flea beetle, the pale-striped flea beetle, white grub, and sweetpotato flea beetle. Such findings are similar to those of the other root and tuber crops, once production has become extensive in a particular region and scientific attention is available to investigate pest problems. Fortunately, good levels of genetic resistance are available for these insect groups. To supplement this resistance, various chemical pesticides can be used for insect control in sweetpotatoes. These are listed in Table 7.

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Chapter 22: Sweetpotato Production in Florida Page 313 Table 5. Sweet Potato fungicides and other disease management products. Fungicide Group Chemical Max. Rate / Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM2 Micro Sulf (sulfur) 5 lb/treated acre 0 1 Septoria leaf spot Do not use within 2 weeks of an oil spray treatment M2 Microthiol Disperss (sulfur) 10 lb 1 Leaf spot, powdery mildew Do not use within 2 weeks of an oil spray treatment 1 Mertect 340-F (thiabendazole) 107 fl oz/100 gal water 0 0.5 Black rot, Scurf, Root rot Dip seed roots for 1-2 min 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/100 lb. seed 1 Pythium damping-off Seed treatment 4 Apron XL (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed 0 2 Pythium damping-off See label 4 Metestar 2E AG (metalaxyl) See label 14 2 Phytophthora, Pythium root rot See label 4 Ridomil Gold EC Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam) 2 pt/treated acre 0 2 Pythium, Phytophthora root rot Apply in water or liquid fertilizer & incorporate into top 2 inches of soil 4 Sebring 2.65 ST (metalaxyl) 0.75-1.5 fl oz per 100 lb of seed 1 Pythium, Phytophthora spp. Seed treatment. See label 4 Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam) 4 pt 0 2 Pythium, Phytophthora root rot Apply as a broadcast soil application at preplant or as a sur face application at planting 7 Endura (boscalid) 10 oz 20 oz 10 0.5 Sclerotinia white mold See label 9 Scala SC (pyrimethanil) 7 fl oz 35 fl oz 7 0.5 Early blight, Botrytis leaf spot See label 9 & 12 Switch 62.5WG (cyprodinil; fludioxonil) 14 oz 56 oz 7 0.5 Alternaria leaf blight, Powdery mildew Alternate with another labeled fungicide for 2 applications after 2 applications of Switch WG 11 Aftershock Evito 480SC (fluoxastrobin) 3.8 fl oz 22.8 fl oz 7 0.5 Alternaria, Phytophthora Limit to 6 applications per season 11 Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin) 16 oz 48 oz 0 0.5 White rust (Albugo spp.) Alternate with other labeled fungicides after each application 5.73 oz/14 gal water per 1000 sq ft of plant bed Sclerotinia blight Spray 0.6 qt/100 gal for spray and root dip Rhizopus Rot See label 11 Headline (pyraclostrobin) 12 oz treated acre 1.18 lb/ treated acre 3 0.5 Various See label See label 11 Heritage (azoxystrobin) 10.5 oz/ treated acre 2 lb/treated acre 0 4 hrs Diseases including Alternaria leaf spot See label Do not apply directly to water except as specified on the label 11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) Various, See label Various, See label See label 4 hrs Various soil-borne diseases. See label See label

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Page 314 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 5. Continued. Fungicide Group Chemical Max. Rate / Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest Reentry11 Reason 500SC (fenamidone) 8.2 fl oz 16.4 fl oz 14 Alternaria blight, White rust Do not make more than 1 application before alternating with a registered fungicide having a different mode of action 11 & 3 Quadris TOP (azoxystrobin; difenoconazole) 14 fl oz 55.3 fl oz 14 0.5 Alternaria blight, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot, Rust Make no more than 2 consecutive applications; Adding adjuvant may enhance the efficacy 12 Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil) 0.16 fl oz/100 lb seed 0 0.5 Seed decay, dampingoff, seedling blight caused by soil pathogens Not effective against Pythium spp.; Tank mix with others for Pythium control 12 Scholar Fungicide (fludioxonil) 8-16 oz in 100 gal of water for post-harvest dip applications; 8 oz in 7-25 gal of water for low volume applications 0 0.5 Post-harvest rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer Post-harvest treatment; Do not make more than 1 postharvest application 12 Scholar SC (fludioxonil) In-line dip/ drench, 16-32 fl oz/100 gal of water In-line aqueous or fruit coating spray application, 16 fl oz/200,000 lb of sweet potatoes 33 Phorcephite (potassium phosphite) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Pythium, Phytophthora spp. and others. See label Limit to 6 applications 33 Rampart (potassium phosphite) See label 0 4 hrs Pink rot, Late blight Pythium, Phytophthora spp. and others See label 33 Allude (potassium phosphite) 1.25 qt 0 4 hrs Pink rot, Pythium leak See label 33 Fosphite fungicide (potassium phosphite) See label 0 4 hrs Control many diseases See label Do not apply foliarly to plants treated with copper based compounds at less than 20 day intervals unless instructed to do so 33 Fungi-Phite (potassium phosphite) Various, See label 0 4 hrs Pythium, Phytophthora root rot See label

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Chapter 22: Sweetpotato Production in Florida Page 315 Table 5. Continued. Fungicide Group Chemical Max. Rate / Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest Reentry40 Revus (mandipropamid) 5.5-8 fl oz 32 fl oz 14 4 hrs Phytophthora spp. Make no more than 2 consecutive applications; adding adjuvant is recommended. 43 Presidio Fungicide (fluopicolide) 4 fl oz 7 0.5 Pink rot, Late blight For resistance management, tank mix with a labeled fungicide having a different mode of action 44 Cease (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Black root/crown rot See label 44 Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Black root/crown rot, Early blight Refer to label P Regalia (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis) 4 pt 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew, Gray mold, Early blight, Black root/ crown rot Tank mix with other registered fungicides when disease pressure is high NC Armicarb 100 Fungicide (potassium bicarbonate) 5 oz/100 gal water 0 4 hrs Alternaria, Septoria leaf spot, Botrytis gray mold See label NC Milstop (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 0 1 hr Botrytis gray mold, Penicillium spp., Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot See label NC Sonata (Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Early blight, Powdery mildew, White mold Can be used alone or in alternating pray programs or tank mixes NC Sporatec (rosemary oil, clove oil, thyme oil) 2.0 pt 0 0 Black root rot, Early blight, Powdery mildew Use of a spreader and/or penetrating adjuvant improves product performance NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum ICC 012, Trichodema gamsii ICC 080) Various rates (See label) 0 1 hr Various soil pathogens See label NC Trilogy (neem oil) 2 lb/100 gal water per treated acre 0 4 hrs Various, see label Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system Table 6. Approved nematicides for sweetpotato. Product When to apply Application pattern Incorporation depth RateMocap 10G 2 to 3 weeks preplant Row, 12 to 15 inch band 4 to 8 inches with rotary hoe, tiller, etc., or by bedding over the band 30 to 40 lbs/A or 2.4 to 3.2 lbs/1000 ft of row (min. row spacing 42 ins) Mocap 10 G 2 to 3 weeks preplant Broadcast 4 to 8 inches deep 60 to 80 lbs/A Mocap EC 2 to 3 weeks preplant Broadcast 4 to 8 inches deep 1 to 1.33 gals/A Vydate L1Within 1 week before or at planting Broadcast or in furrow. Transplant drench 4 to 8 inches deep 2 to 3 gals/A broadcast or 1 to 2 gals/A in furrow1 Vydate L has registration for nematode control on potatoes only as a broadcast or in-furrow treatment. Foliar applications are registered for insect control only. For broadcast or in-furrow treatments, Vydate L should be applied in a minimum of 20 gallons of water. As a broadcast treatment thoroughly incorporate to a soil depth of 4 to 6 inches.

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Page 316 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 7. Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking sweet potatoes. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Actara (thiamethoxam) 1.5-3.0 oz 12 14 aphids, flea beetles, potato leafhopper 4A Toxic to bees. Do not use after Platinum. Admire Pro (imidacloprid) 4.4-10.5 fl oz soil 1.2 fl oz foliar 12 125 soil 7 foliar aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A One application to soil per season. If using as a foliar spray, no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season. Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) 0.5-2.0 4 0 armyworms, hornworms, loopers 11 Treat when larvae are small. *Agri-Mek SC (abamectin) 1.75-3.5 fl oz 12 14 Liriomyza leafminers, spider mites 6 Must be used with a non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading and/or penetrating adjuvant., not a binder sticker type adjuvant. Assail 30SG (acetamiprid) 1.5-4.0 oz 12 7 aphids, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Whiteflies not on label for sweet potatoes but are for other crops on label. No more than 4 applications per season. Avaunt (indoxacarb) 2.5-6.0 oz 12 7 cabbage looper 22 Do not apply more than 24 oz/acre per crop. Aza-Direct (azadirachtin) 1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2. Azatin XL (azadirachtin) 5-21 fl oz 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. *Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin) 0.8-2.8 fl oz 12 0 cutworms, cabbage looper, flea beetles, potato leafhopper, sweetpotato weevil adults 3 No more than 16.8 oz/acre per season. Belay (clothianidin) 9-12 fl oz 12 See note Aphids, corn wireworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, southern potato wireworm, sweetpotato weevil, tobacco wireworm, white grubs In-furrow or side-dress application, including chemigation up to 50% ground cover. Supplemental label expires on Oct. 2, 2012. Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid) 2.0-2.8 oz 12 7 aphids, plant bugs 9C Do not apply more than 8.4 oz per acre per season. Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars (will not control large armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2. BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana) WP: 0.5-2 lb/100 gal ES: 0.5-2 qt/100/gal 4 0 aphids, thrips, whiteflies -May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides. *Brigade 2 EC (bifenthrin) *Capture LFR 9.6-19.2 oz at-plant (soil); 3.2-9.6 oz at lay-by (soil); 2.1-6.4 oz (foliar) See label for rates for LFR. 12 21 cucumber beetles, flea beetles, sweetpotato weevil adults (foliar), whitefringed beetle adults, white grub adults, white grubs (layby), wireworm adults, wireworms (at-plant and lay-by) 3 No more than 2 foliar applications, at least 21 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb active ingredient per acre per season, including soil applications. Coragen (rynaxypyr) 3.5-5.0 fl oz 4 14 beet armyworm 28 Foliar only. No more than 4 applications per crop. Do not make more than 2 successive applications in a 30-day period. Do not apply more than 15.4 fl oz per acre per crop.

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Chapter 22: Sweetpotato Production in Florida Page 317 Table 7. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.25-1.5 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2. Diatect V; Diatect Multipurpose Insecticide II (diatomaceous earth + pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide) 1-6 lb 12 0 aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper en 3, -Diatect V is OMRI-listed2 (no piperonyl butoxide) DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Entrust (spinosad) 1-3 oz 4 7 armyworms, leafminers, Liriomyza, loopers, thrips 5 Do not make applications less than 7 days apart or apply more than 4 times per crop. Do not apply more than 6.5 oz/acre per crop. Esteem Ant Bait (pyriproxyfen) 1.5-2.0 lb 12 1 fire ants 7D Do not exceed a total of 0.109 lb pyriproxyfen per acre (all formulations, i.e., Knack IGR). Ant Bait contains 0.5% ai, or 0.10 lb at 2-lb rate. Extinguish ((S)-methoprene) 1.0-1.5 lb 4 0 fire ants 7A Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. Fulfill (pymetrozine) 2.75-5.5 oz 12 14 buckthorn aphid, green peach aphid, melon aphid, potato aphid 9B Allow a minimum of 7 days between applications. Do not exceed 11 oz/acre/season. Imidan 70 W (phosmet) 1.3 lb 4 days for seedbed treatment, 5 days for foliar 7 banded cucumber beetle, sweetpotato weevil, whitefringed beetle, suppression of white grub and wireworm 1B No more than 5 applications per season. Do not apply through irrigation system. Crop must be mechanically harvested. Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.12-1.5 lb 4 0 most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2. Knack IGR (pyriproxyfen) 8 fl oz 12 3 Whiteflies 7D Limited to two applications at least 14 days apart. Lorsban 15G, 75WG, *Advanced (chlorpyrifos) en See labels for rates 24 preplant broadcast treatment, 125 days before harvest flea beetles, sweet potato flea beetle, wireworms (Conoderus) 1B See label. Must be incorporated into soil.

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Page 318 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 7. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Malathion 8 F (malathion) 1-1.75 pt 12 3 leafhoppers, morning glory leafminer 1Ben *Mocap 15 G, *EC (ethoprop) See labels 48 preplant see label cucumber beetles, flea beetles, white grubs, wireworms 1B Two to three weeks before planting. Movento (spirotetramat) 4.0-5.0 fl oz 24 7 aphids, psyllids, whiteflies 23 Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season. M-Pede 49% EC Soap, insecticidal 1-2 % V/V 12 0 aphids OMRI-listed2. *Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.4-4.3 oz 12 1 cabbage looper, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, tarnished plant bug, vegetable weevil, whitefringed beetle (adult), yellowstriped armyworm; aids in control of aphids and beet armyworm 3 A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed. Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin) 4-16 fl oz 12 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2. Oberon 2SC (spiromesifen) 8-16 fl oz 12 7 twospotted spider mite, whiteflies 23 Maximum amount per crop: 32 oz/ acre. No more than 2 applications. Oil, insecticidal 1-2 gal/100 gal 12 Up to day of harvest leafminers, mites, whiteflies -Platinum Platinum 75SG (thiamethoxam) 5-8 fl oz 1.66-2.67 oz 12 Applied at planting aphids, Colorado potato beetles, flea beetles, potato leafhoppers 4A For most crops that are not on the label, a 120-day plant-back interval must be observed. To manage resistance, avoid using Actara or Provado in conjunction with Platinum. Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid) 3.5 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Limited to 3 applications. Radiant SC (spinetoram) 6-8 fl oz 4 7 armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, dipterous leafminer, loopers, thrips 5 Do not make more than 4 applications per year. Rimon 0.83 EC (novaluron) 6-12 fl oz 12 14 armyworms, loopers, other foliage feeding caterpillars, sweet potato leafminer, whiteflies 15 Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per season. Limited to two applications for whiteflies (12-oz rate). Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl) en 80S: 1.25-2.5 lb XLR, 4F: 1-2 qt 12 7 en corn earworm, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, sweetpotato hornworm, sweetpotato weevil (preplant dip), tortoise beetle, whitefringed beetle, yellowstriped armyworm 1A Do not apply more than 10 lb (80S) per acre per crop or 8 qt (4F, XLR). See label for preplant dip treatment. *Telone C-35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin) See label 5 days See label preplant symphylans, wireworms -See supplemental label for use restrictions in south and central Florida. *Telone II (dichloropropene)

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Chapter 22: Sweetpotato Production in Florida Page 319 Table 7. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Trilogy (extract of neem oil) 0.5-2.0% V/V 4 0 aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies un Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2. Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole) 4 oz 12 14 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, flea beetles, potato leafhopper 4A, 28 Do not exceed a total of 8 oz of product per acre per season. Voliam Xpress* (lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole) 5-9 oz 24 14 aphids, armyworms, crickets, cutworms, flea beetle adults, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, sweet potato vine borer, webworms, others 3, 28 Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per season. Xentari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions. 1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 6.1 August 2008. 1A. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action) 1B. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action) 2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action) 3. Sodium channel modulators (nerve action) 4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action) 5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators (nerve action) 6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action) 7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 9B and 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers 10. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes 12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism) 15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation) 16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation) 17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation) 18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation) 22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action) 23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation) 28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action) un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action2 OMRI-listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production. Restricted Use Only.