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Production of Major Asian Vegetables in Florida

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University of Florida Institutional Repository IFAS
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003483/00001

Material Information

Title: Production of Major Asian Vegetables in Florida
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Lamberts, Mary L.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS740"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003483:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003483/00001

Material Information

Title: Production of Major Asian Vegetables in Florida
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Lamberts, Mary L.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS740"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003483:00001


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Page 81 Chapter 8. Production of Major Asian Vegetables in FloridaM.L. Lamberts, E.J. McAvoy, D.D. Sui, A.J. Whidden and C.A. Snodgrass The term Asian Vegetable is a broad one which encompasses both the vegetables grown in the countries that comprise Asia and those eaten by people of Asian extraction or who like Asian cuisine. Since many of the vegetables which are described in this chapter are members of families that are covered in depth in other chapters in this volume, that information will not be duplicated.CRUCIFERSThis group (Tables 1a and 1b) includes primarily crops with edible leaves, with the exception of kohlrabi where the swollen stem is consumed and daikon which is an edible root. They can be grown on raised beds without mulch (or with mulch if it is cost effective) and with drip, overhead or subsurface irrigation. Fertilizer recom mendations for these crops are found in Chapter 7 under broccoli, cabbage or Chinese cabbage, except for daikon which is in Chapter 18. For pest control products, these crops are included in Crop Group 5 [Brassica (Cole) Leafy Vegetables]. The exception is daikon, which is in Crop Group 1 (Root and Tuber Vegetables) and is covered in Chapter 18. BOTANY Nomenclature Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Cabbage, flat Brassica oleracea var. capitata Chinese broccoli / gailan or gai lan / kailan or kai lan / flowering kale Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Chinese cabbage [includes: napa (tight headed) and chihili (semi-loose headed)]Brassica rapa var. pekinensis Chinese mustard (includes: bok choi Shanghai choi / baby bok choi, yuchoi / yuchoy / u-choi /choy sum Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes Oriental radish: Daikon (Japanese) / lobok or lo bok (Chinese) Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusCUCURBITSThis group (Tables 2a and 2b) includes, eaten either immature or mature, and several vegetables with edible tender stems and leaves. All can be grown on raised beds, with or without plastic mulch, and with drip, overhead or subsurface irrigation. Most of the crops are trellised, primarily to maximize space, minimize bud drop and fruit rot caused by over shading and exposure to soil moisture and diseases and promote straight fruit. Winter melon is the exception since it is generally too heavy to trellis. Fertilizer recommendations for cucumbers (Chapter 9) are applicable for fuzzy melon, long gourd, both luffas, bittermelon and snake gourd. Recommendations for watermelon (Chapter 9) should be followed for winter melon and chayote. With the exception of chayote, where the entire fruit is planted, these crops are started from seed and grown as transplants prior to being set in the field. For pest control products, these crops are included in Crop Group 9 (Cucurbit Vegetables). BOTANY Nomenclature Bittermelon (Chinese and Indian types) Momordica charantia Chayote Sechium edule Fuzzy melon (immature fruit) and winter melon (mature fruit) Benincasa hispida Long gourd (oopoh) Lagenaria siceraria Angled luffa (silk squash) Luffa acutangula Smooth luffa Luffa aegyptica (cylindrica) Snake gourd Trichosanthes cucumerina 2012-2013

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 82 Table 1a. Varieties of Asian Brassicas Crop VarietiesCabbage, flat Drumhead, KK Cross, KY Cross Chinese broccoli / gailan / flowering kale Green Lance Chinese cabbage napa (tight-headed) China Express, China Pride chihili [semi-loose headed] Michihili, Monument, Jade Pagoda Chinese mustard bok choi Canton Choice, Ching-Chiang, Hybrid Lucky choi, Long White, Short White Shanghai choi / baby bok choi Dynasty, Shanghai Green yuchoi / yuchoy / u-choi /choy sum Dwarf, Extra Dwarf, Kohlrabi Peking, Purple Oriental radish Daikon (Japanese): Everest, Hybrid Everest, Mikura Cross, Mino Early, Relish Lobok / lo bok (Chinese): Red MeatTable 1b. Seeding and Planting Information for Asian Brassicas Planting dates Chinese broccoli Chinese cabbages Chinese mustards DaikonNorth Florida Aug Feb Aug Feb Aug Feb SeptMar Central Florida SeptApr SeptApr SeptApr SeptApr South Florida SeptApr SeptApr SeptApr SeptAprSeeding informationNumber of rows/44-inch wide beds (6 ft centers) 3-4 2-3 4 3 (fall/spring) to 4 (winter) Distance between rows (in) 11 14 or 24 14 mustard 11 others (below) 11 Distance between plants (in) 3-5 14-18 12-18 mustard 8-12 Shanghai/choy sum 6-10 baby bok choy 2-4 u-choy 6-9 Seeding depth (in) 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.25 Seed per acre (lb) Days to maturity from seed Plant populations (acre) 116,160 18,671 29,040 mustard 43,560 Shanghai/choy sum 58,080 baby bok choy 174,240 u-choy 58,080

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Page 83 Chapter 8: Production of Major Asian Vegetable in Florida Table 2a. Varieties and Trellising Requirements of Asian Cucurbits Crop Varieties TrellisingBittermelon Chinese Bittermelon Indian Chinese: Hong Kong Green, Hybrid Bangkok Large, Japan Green Sprinkle, Taiwan Large Indian: Hybrid India Star NS, India Green Queen, India long Green Yes Chayote (short lived perennial) The seed is the viviparous fruit itself. There is some debate as to whether varieties remain true Yes Fuzzy melon Chiang Shin Joker, Seven Star Long Yes Long gourd Hybrid India Long, Hybrid Asia Short Yes Angled luffa Hybrid Green Glory, Lucky Boy, Summer Long Yes Smooth luffa Smooth Beauty, Smooth Boy Yes Snake gourd Extra Long Dancer, Hybrid Snaky, Long EX Yes Winter melon Hybrid Asia Sweet, Hybrid Red Doll, Hybrid Wonder Wax NoTable 2b. Seeding, Planting Information for Asian Cucurbits Planting dates Bittermelon Long gourd Angled luffa Smooth luffaNorth Florida Feb Apr; July Aug Feb Apr; July Aug Feb Apr; July Aug Feb Apr; July Aug Central Florida Jan Mar; Sept Jan Mar; Sept Jan Mar; Sept Jan Mar; Sept South Florida Sept Feb Sept Feb Sept Feb Sept FebSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 60 72 60 72 60 72 60 72 Distance between plants (in) 36 60 36 60 36 60 36 60 Seeding depth (in) Seed per acre Days to maturity from seed 80 100 Days to maturity from transplant Plant populations (acre) 2904 2904 2904 2904Planting dates Fuzzy melon Snake gourd Chayote1Winter melonNorth Florida Feb Apr; July Aug Feb Apr; July Aug Not recommended Feb 15 Apr 15 Central Florida Jan Mar; Sept Jan Mar; Sept Not recommended Jan 15 Mar 15 South Florida Sept Feb Sept Feb Sept Feb Dec 15 Mar 1Seeding informationDistance between rows (in) 60 72 60 72 60 72 72 108 Distance between plants (in) 36 60 36 60 36 60 36 72 Seeding depth (in) 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 Whole fruit is used should be covered half way 1.5 2.0 Seed per acre 2904 whole fruit Days to maturity from seed Days to maturity from transplant Plant populations (acre) 2904 2904 2904 1452-24201 Chayote flowers and sets fruit under short day conditions and lives for a few years, so it is not recommended for areas where freezing temperatures are likely to occur on an annual basis.

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 84LEGUMESThe Asian legume group (Tables 3a and 3b) includes fruits (usually known as pods), which are eaten at the immature stage, crop with edible immature seeds (green shell), and stem tips. The winged bean also has edible leaves and roots, though the latter do not appear to be cul tivated commercially in the Continental U.S. All the pole or indeterminate types can be grown on raised beds with out mulch using drip, overhead or subsurface irrigation. Fenugreek does not grow well in rocky soils, such as those found in Miami-Dade County. Pigeon peas are a semiperennial shrub in warmer areas. Many pigeon pea and winged bean varieties are short day and only flower during the fall. There are some day neutral varieties available of both crops. Fertilizer recommendations for pole beans are generally applicable to this group. All of these crops are started from seed, though winged beans require scarifica tion prior to planting. All the indeterminate types need some type of support, ranging from individual bamboo stakes to trellises. For pest control products, these crops are included in Crop Group 6 (Legume Vegetables [Succulent or Dried]), with the exception of pea shoots which are not in a crop group at present. BOTANY Nomenclature Cluster bean, Guar Cyamopsis tetragonolobus Edamame Glycine max Fenugreek, methi Trigonella foenum-gracum Hyacinth bean, lablab bean Lablab purpureus (Dolichos lablab, D. nigar, Lablab vulgaris) Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan Snow / snap (edible podded) pea Pisum sativum Winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Yard-long bean Vigna unguiculataSOLANUMSThe Asian solanum group (Tables 4a and 4b) includes three types of eggplant and birds eye pepper. Pea eggplant, which was discussed in previous editions of the Handbook, is on the Federal Noxious Weed list, so it has not included here. The harvestable product includes fruits which are eaten at the immature or mature stage. All can be grown on raised beds with or without plastic mulch and using either drip or subsurface irrigation. As with most eggplants, these types tend to be short-lived perennials, especially the Thai eggplant which is a relatively compact, stocky plant. They can be severely pruned and allowed to regrow if staking does not prohibit this operation. Fertilizer recommenda tions for eggplant should be used for the three types of eggplant, while those for peppers should be followed for birds eye peppers (Table 4c). These crops can be started from seed or transplants. All the indeterminate types need some type of support. BOTANY Nomenclature Oriental eggplant, Japanese / Chinese Solanum melongena Thai eggplant Solanum melongena Indian eggplant Solanum melongena Birds-eye pepper Capsicum frutescens though some say perhaps C. chinenseSEED SOURCESEvergreen Seeds, http://www.evergreenseeds.com/ Johnnys Selected Seed, http://www.johnnyseeds.com/ Kitazawa Seeds, http://www.kitazawaseed.com/ Known-you Seed Company, Ltd., http://www.knownyou.com/ Redwood City Seed Company, http://www.ecoseeds.com/ Sakata, http://www.sakata.com/Catalog.aspx Takii Seeds, http://www.takii.com/

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Page 85 Chapter 8: Production of Major Asian Vegetable in Florida Table 3a. Names, Life Cycle, Varieties and Trellising Requirements of Asian Legumes Crop Life cycle Varieties TrellisingCluster bean, Guar Annual Yes Edamame Annual Green Legend, Lucky Lion No Fenugreek, methi Annual No Hyacinth bean, lablab bean Annual Asia Purple, Asia White No Pigeon pea (a short-lived perennial) Short-lived perennial No Snow / snap (edible podded) pea Annual Mammoth Melting Sugar, Dou Miao Yes Winged bean Annual Youdou Yes Yard-long bean Annual Orient Extra Long, Stickless Wonder YesTable 3b. Seeding, Planting and Maturity Information for Asian Legumes Planting dates Cluster bean Fenugreek Edamame Hyacinth beanNorth Florida Mar Apr; Aug Mar Apr; Aug Mar Apr; Aug Mar Apr; Aug Central Florida Feb Mar; Aug Sept Feb Mar; Aug Sept Feb Mar; Aug Sept Feb Mar; Aug Sept South Florida Sept Apr Sept Apr Sept Apr Sept AprSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 24 9 20 24 20 Distance between plants (in) 6 2 3, thin to 4 (if only growing a small amount) 2 6 4 6 Seeding depth (in) 1 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 Seed per acre 43,560 348,480 156,820 78,409 Days to maturity from seed 90 120 Plant populations (acre)Planting dates Pigeon pea Snow / snap pea Winged bean Yard-long beanNorth Florida Jan Mar Mar July Central Florida Nov Feb Feb Aug South Florida Mar Apr Nov Feb Mar Apr Sept AprSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 24 36 30 36 (hand harvest) 8 10 (machine harvest) 36 28 36 Distance between plants (in) 24 36 1.2 2 8 2 4 Seeding depth (in) 1 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 Seed per acre Days to maturity from seed 180 (early varieties); 270 365 days (late varieties) 90 if day neutral varieties are used; SD otherwise 70 Plant populations (acre) 10,890 174,240 (hand) 21,7801 112,012

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Page 86 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 4a. Names, Varieties and Trellising Requirements of Asian Solanums Crop Varieties StakingOriental eggplant, Japanese / Chinese Japanese: Hybrid Mangan Chinese: Hybrid Purple Charm, Ma-Zu Purple Yes Thai eggplant this can be a short-lived perennial White: Hybrid White Ball Green: Green Beauty Purple: Hybrid Violet Prince Variegated: Hybrid Tiger Maybe Indian eggplant, dark & wine colored Hybrid Bharata Star, Hybrid Chu-Chu Yes Birds-eye pepper MaybeTable 4b. Seeding, Planting and Maturity Information for Asian Solanums Planting dates Eggplant Birds eye peper Japanese/ Chinese Thai IndianNorth Florida Feb Mar Feb Mar Feb Mar Aug 15; Feb Mar Central Florida Aug Sept; Jan Feb Aug Sept; Jan Feb Aug Sept; Jan Feb Aug Sept; Jan Mar South Florida Aug Feb Aug Feb Aug Feb Aug Feb Seeding informationDistance between rows (in) 36 72 36 72 36 72 36 48 Distance between plants (in) 18 40 36 60 18 40 10 24 Seeding depth (in) 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 Seed per acre to transplant (lbs) 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.5 Days to maturity from transplant Plant populations (acre) 9,680 9,680 4,840 17,500