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Spinach Production in Florida

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Title: Spinach Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Olson, S.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS735"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003482:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003482/00001

Material Information

Title: Spinach Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Olson, S.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS735"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003482:00001


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Page 269 Chapter 19. Spinach Production in FloridaS.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, S.E. Webb and R.N. Raid BOTANYNomenclature Family Chenopodiaceae Spinach Spinacia oleracea Origin Spinach is believed to be native to the Middle East in the general area of Iran. Related Species Beet and Swiss chard are the only other vegetables of significance in the Chenopodiaceae family. The most important economic plant in this family is the sugar beet.VARIETIESSpinach varieties grown in Florida include: Smooth leaf A&C #30 (H)1Space (H) Semi-savoy leaf Chinook II (H) Gladiator (H) Melody (H) Skookum (H) Tyee (H) Savoy leaf Ambassador (H) Hybrid 612 (H)1H = hybrid.SEEDING AND PLANTINGPlanting dates and seeding information are given in Table 1.FERTILIZER AND LIMEFor mineral soils, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 25 to 50% of N and K2O. Topdress remaining N and K2O about 2 to 3 weeks after seeding (see Table 2). For organic soils, broadcast all fertilizer before seed ing. Up to 30 lbs/A of N might be needed in cool, winter weather or after leaching rain. PLANT TISSUE ANALYSISPlant tissue analysis information for spinach is given in Table 3. The analysis was done 30 days after seeding, using the most recently matured leaf.IRRIGATIONInitial water requirements of spinach (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables Table 4 to 6) will be low (20% to 40% of ETo, see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables Table 3) until rapid leaf growth occurs. Water requirements rapidly increase to 95% of ETo and remain at or only slightly below that level through harvest. WEED MANAGEMENTHerbicides labeled for weed control in spinach are listed in Table 4.DISEASE MANAGEMENTInformation on managing diseases of spinach are listed in Table 5.INSECT MANAGEMENTTable 6 outlines the insecticides approved for use on insects attacking spinach. 2012-2013 Table 1. Seeding and planting information for spinach. Planting datesNorth Florida Sept Mar Central Florida Sept Mar South Florida Oct FebSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 12 36 Distance between plants (in) 2 6 Seeding depth (in) 0.5 Seed per acre (lb) 10 15 Days to maturity from seed 45 60 Plant population1 (acre) 261,1361 Population based on closest between and within row spacing.

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 270 Table 3. Plant tissue analysis for spinach 30 days after seeding. Dry wt. basis. Status N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn B Cu Mo Percent Parts per millionDeficient <3.0 0.3 3.0 0.6 1.0 0.3 50 50 50 20 5 0.1 Adequate range 3.0-4.5 0.3-0.5 3.0-4.0 0.6-1.0 1.0-1.6 0.3-0.6 50-150 50-100 50-80 20-40 5-10 0.1-1.0 High >4.5 0.5 4.0 1.0 1.6 0.6 150 100 80 40 10 1.0 Table 2. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for mineral soils for spinach.1Target pH N lb/A VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P2O5K2O (lb/A/crop season)6.5 90 120 100 80 0 0 120 100 80 0 01 See Chapter 2 section on supplemental fertilizer application and best management practices, pg 11.1 Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P 2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds.Table 4. Chemical weed control in spinach. Active Ingredient lb. a.i./A Trade name Formulation/A Weeds Controlled / Remarks*** PREPLANT / PREEMERGENCE *** Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2 EC or 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. Glyphosate0.3 1.0Various formulations consult labelsEmerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down. Consult label for individual product directions.Pelargonic Acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down treatment. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar applied herbicide with no residual con trol. May be tank mixed with soil residual compounds. *** POSTEMERGENCE *** Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2 EC or 1.9 EW up to 2 oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as hooded application to row middles only. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. PHI 0 days. Clopyralid 0.06 0.12 (Clopyr Ag) 3 EC 0.17 0.33 Certain broadleaf weeds. Do not exceed a total of 0.5 pt./A per growing season. Apply in the 2to 5leaf stage of crop growth. PHI 21 days. Clethodim 0.09 0.13 0.07 0.25 (Select, Arrow) 2 EC 6 8 fl. oz. (Select Max) 1 EC 9 16 fl. oz Perennial and annual grass weeds. Use higher rates under heavy grass pressure or larger grass weeds. Use a crop oil concentrate at 1% v/v in the finished spray volume. Nonionic surfactant with Select Max. PHI 14 days. Pelargonic Acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Direct spray to row middles. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with several soil residual compounds. Sethoxydim 0.19 0.28 (Poast) 1.5 EC 1.0 to 1.5 pt. Controls growing grass weeds. A total of 3.0 pts. /A applied in one season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Unsatisfactory results may occur if applied to grasses under stress. PHI 15 days.

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Page 271 Chapter 19: Spinach Production in Florida Table 5. Spinach fungicides and other disease management products. Fungicide Group1Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM1 (copper compounds) Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cuerva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Top Cop w/ Sulfur Varies by product from 4 hrs to 2 days Anthracnose Downy mildew White rust Cercospora spot M2 (sulfur) Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur 1 1 Cercospora spot Downy mildew Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray. M3 Defiant 75WP (thiram) 5.3 oz/ 100 lbs of seed 1 Damping off Seed treatment only. 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb seed 1 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only. See label for details. 4 Sebring 2.65ST (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb seed 1 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only. See label for details. 4 Apron XL LS (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl. oz./ 100 lb seed 2 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only. 4 Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl) 8 pt 2 Pythium seedling blight Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions. 4 Ridomil Gold EC or SL (mefenoxam) 2 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases Apply at seeding in a 7-12 band on soil over seed furrow. 4 Ridomil Gold GR (mefenoxam) 40 lb 2 Pythium seedling diseases 4 Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam) 0.25 pt 0.5 pt 21 2 Downy mildew, White rust Shank application. A total of two applications may be made. 4/M1 Ridomil Gold/Copper WP (mefenoxam/copper hydroxide) 2 lb 4 lb 21 2 Downy mildew White rust Follow Ridomil Gold EC at planting Apply no more than 2 foliar applications. 4 Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam) 4 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting. 9 & 12 Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil/fludioxonil) 14 oz 56 oz 7 0.5 Alternaria Powdery mildew See label. 11 Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin) 16 oz 48 oz 0 0.5 Downy mildew Limit is 3 appl./crop & alternate chemistry.

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Page 272 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 5. Continued. Fungicide Group1Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) 15.4 fl oz 3.75 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew Stemphylium leaf spot Alternate with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. 11 Reason (fenamidone) 8.2 fl oz 24.6 fl oz 2 0.5 Downy mildew White rust Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. 12 Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil) 0.16 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 0.5 Various seedling diseases Seed treatment only. 21 Actigard 50WG (acibenzolar) 0.75 oz 2.25 oz 7 0.5 Do not apply to young seedlings. 21 Ranman (cyazofamid) 2.75 fl oz 13.75 fl oz 0 0.5 White rust Do not make more than 3 sequential applications. 27 Curzate 60DF (cymoxanil) 5 oz 30 oz 1 0.5 Downy mildew Use only in combination with a broad spectrum protectant such as copper funicides 27/11 Tanos 50DF (cymoxanil/famoxadone) 8 oz 72 oz 3 0.5 Downy mildew Do not alternate or tank mix with another FRAC group 11 fungicide. 33 Monoand di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid (See individual labels) including: Alude, Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Prophyt, Phostrol, Rampart, Reveille, Topaz (potassium phosphite) Phorcephite (potassium phosphite/ potassium phosphate) 0 4 hrs Pythium, Downy mildew White rust Do not exceed 6 appl/ crop. Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. See label for foliar, root dip and irrigation application details. 33 Aliette80WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lbs 35 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew White rust Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides or adjuvants. 33 Legion 80WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lbs 35 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew White rust Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides or adjuvants. 33 Linebacker 80WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lbs 35 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew White rust Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides or adjuvants. 40 Revus 2.08F (mandipropamid) 8 fl oz 32 fl oz 1 4 hrs Downy mildew Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications. 43 Presidio 4L (fluopicolide) 4 oz 1 pt 2 0.5 Downy mildew White rust Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of a different mode of action. See label for rotational restrictions. P Regalia (Extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis) 1% v/v 12 qt 7 4 hrs Bacterial blight Begin applications preventatively. Spray volumes should be 50-100 GPA.

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Page 273 Table 5. Continued. Chapter 19: Spinach Production in Florida Fungicide Group1Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryNC Actinovate AG (Streptomyces lydicus) 12 oz 0 1 hr Alternaria Antracnose Botrytis Fusarium Pythium Phytophthora Rhizoctonia Sclerotinia Apply to soil through irrigation, as a seed treatment, to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Armicarb 100 (potassium bicarbonate) 10 lb 0 4 hrs Downy mildew See label for details. NC Cease (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt/100 gal mix 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop Apply to soil through irrigation, or to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Companion L (Bacillus subtilis GB03) 1 gal 0 4 hrs Alternaria Fusarium Soft rot Pythium Rhizoctonia Can be applied in field, greenhouse, or hydroponically. See label for details. NC Kaligreen (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Downy mildew Apply in a minimum spray volume of 25 GPA. NC Milstop (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Downy mildew Apply in a minimum spray volume of 25 GPA. NC NutraPic (Chloropicrin) 500 lb 5 Soilborne fungi Nematodes DANGER. Soil fumigant. Restricted use pesticide. See label for details. NC Oxidate (hydrogen dioxide) 1:100 dilution 0 0 Bacterial blight Botrytis Downy mildew Powdery mildew Rust See label for details. NC PlantShield HC (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2) 5 oz 0 0 Damping off Apply in-furrow or in transplant starter solution. NC RootShield Granules (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2) 12 lb/A field 1.5 lb/cu yd greenhouse 0 Damping off Apply in-furrow in field or incorporate in soil mix for greenhouse. See label for details. NC Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. NC Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Pink rot (Sclerotinia) See labels for details. NC Sil-Matrix (Potassium silicate) 4 qts 10 gal 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew Apply at a rate of 2-4 qt/100 gal water

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Page 274 Vegetable Production Handbook Fungicide Group1Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryNC Soilgard 12G (Gliocladium virens strain GL-21) 0 Damping off Root diseases See label for details. NC Sonata (Bacillus pumilis strain QST 2808) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew For suppression or use as a preventative in a program with other registered fungicides. NC Sporatec (clove oil, rosemary oil, and thyme oil) 1.5 qt 0 0 Powdery mildew Sporatec is a concentrated oilbased product. It requires the use of an approved adjuvant to improve spreading and sticking. OMRI listed NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum and T. gamsii) 3 oz/ 1000 ft of row 1 hr Various soilborne diseases Apply up to 7 days before planting. For organic production. NC TerraClean (hydrogen dioxide) 1 gal/ 1000 gal of water 0 Various soilborne diseases Apply as a soil treatment prior to or after planting NC Trilogy (Neem oil) 2 gal 4 hrs Apply at a rate of 0.5% 1.0% in 25 to 100 gall water/acre or at 2 pt in a minimum of 5 GPA for low volume appls.Table 5. Continued.

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Chapter 19: Spinach Production in Florida Page 275 Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Actara (thiamethoxam) 1.5-5.5 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not use if other 4A insecticides have been or will be used. Admire Pro (imidacloprid) 4.4-10.5 fl ozsoil 1.3 fl ozfoliar 12 21 soil 7 foliar aphids, leafhoppers, flea beetles (foliar) foliage-feeding thrips (soil), whiteflies 4A Limited to 10.5 fl oz per acre per season for soil application or 6.7 fl oz per acre per season for foliar applications. Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests) 11 Apply when larvae are small for best control. OMRI-listed2. *Agri-Mek SC (abamectin) 1.75-3.5 fl oz 12 7 carmine spider mite, Liriomyza leafminers, spider mites 6 No more than 2 sequential applications. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season. Must be mixed with a non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, but not a binder sticker type adjuvant. *Ambush 25W (per methrin) 6.4-12.8 oz 12 1 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, leafhoppers, vegetable leafminer 3 Do not apply more than 1.0 lb ai/ acre per season (5 applications at high rate). Assail 30SG (acetamiprid) 2.0-4.0 oz 12 7 aphids, whiteflies 4A Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 5 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days. Avaunt (indoxacarb) 3.5 oz 12 3 beet armyworm, cabbage looper 22 Do not apply more than 14 oz Avaunt per acre per crop. Aza-Direct (azadirachtin) en 1.0-2.0 pt, to 3.5 pt if needed 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leaf hoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellent, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2. Azatin XL (azadirachtin) 5.0-21.0 fl oz 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellent, insect growth regulator. *Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin) 0.8-3.2 fl oz 12 0 beet armyworm (1st and 2nd instars), cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, potato leafhopper, saltmarsh caterpillar, thrips, vegetable weevil, yellowstriped armyworm 3 Maximum of 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin) 1.6-3.2 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies (suppression) 4A Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. A supplemental label that expires July 15, 2012 covers rates above 2.1 oz for foliar applications. Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin) 4.8-6.4 oz (soil application) 12 Apply at planting aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies (suppression) 4A Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid) 2.0-2.8 oz 12 0 aphids, plant bugs 9C Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/ acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.Table 6. Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking spinach..

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Page 276 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 6. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars (will not control large armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2. BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana)en WP: 0.5-2.0 lb/100 gal ES: 0.5-2.0 qt/100 gal 4 0en aphids, thrips, whiteflies -May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides. Confirm 2F (tebufenozide) 6.0-8.0 fl oz 4 7 armyworms, cabbage looper, garden webworm 18 Do not exceed 56 ounces of product per acre per season. Coragen (chlorantraniliprole) 3.5-7.5 fl oz 4 1 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, leafminers, suppression of whitefly nymphs 28 Can be applied by drip chemigation, to soil at planting or used as a foliar spray. Courier 40SC (buprofezin) en 9.0-13.6 fl oz 12 7 leafhoppers, planthoppers, whitefliesen 16 Insect growth regulator. Do not make more than 4 applications per year or 2 applications per crop. Allow 7 days between applications. See label for crop rotational restrictions. Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.25-1.5 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2. *Diazinon AG500 *Diazinon 50W (diazinon) 2.0-4.0 qt 4.0-8.0 lb 72 preplant cutworms, wireworms 1B Do not make more than one soil application per year. DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Durivo (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole) 10-13 oz 12 30 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A, 28 May be applied using one of several soil application methods. One application per season. Entrust (spinosad) 0.5-3.0 oz 4 1 armyworms, cabbage looper, leafminers, thrips 5 Use no more than 9 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2. Extinguish ((S)-methoprene) en 1.0-1.5 lb 4 0 fire ants 7A Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially. Fulfill (pymetrozine) 2.75 oz 12 7 bean aphid, green peach aphid, lettuce aphid, potato aphid, red lettuce aphid, suppression of whiteflies 9B Apply when aphids first appear, before populations build to damaging levels. Two applications may be needed to control persistent aphid populations. Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide) 4.0-16.0 fl oz 4 1 armyworms, cabbage looper, webworms 18 Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season.

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Chapter 19: Spinach Production in Florida Page 277 Table 6. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.12-1.5 lb 4 0 most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2. *Lannate LV; *SP (methomyl) LV: 1.5-3.0 pt SP: 0.5-1.0 lb 48 7 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, variegated cutworm 1A Do not use more than 4 lb of SP, or 12 pt of LV per acre/season. Do not apply to seedlings less than 3 diameter. *Larvin 3.2 (thiodicarb) 16-30 fl oz 48 14 armyworms, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, southern armyworm 1A Do not exceed 60 fl oz per acre per season. Malathion 8 F (malathion) 1.5 pt 12 7 aphids 1Ben Movento (spirotetramat) 4.0-5.0 fl oz 24 3 aphids, whiteflies 23 Do not apply more than 10 fl oz/ acre/crop. M-Pede 49% EC Soap, insecticidal 1-2% V/V 12 0 aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, whiteflies -OMRI-listed2. *Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin) 2.4-4.3 oz 12 1 aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, ground beetles, leafhoppers, loopers, Lygus bugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, whiteflies, wireworm adults 3 A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin) 4-16 fl oz 12 0 aphids, armyworms, leafhoppers, leafminers, loopers, whiteflies un IGR and feeding repellant. OMRIlisted2. Oberon 2SC (spiromesifen) 7.0-8.5 fl oz 12 7 whiteflies 23 Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than three applications. Platinum Platinum 75 SG (thiamethoxam) 5.0-11 fl oz 1.66-3.67 oz 12 30 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies 4A Maximum = 11 oz/acre or 3.67 oz/ acre (75 SG) per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides. *Pounce 25 W (per methrin) en 6.4-12.8 oz 12 1 aphids, armyworms, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn ear worm, cutworms, fall armyworm, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, vegetable leafminer 3 Do not apply more than 0.6 lb ai/ acre per season (no more than 3 applications at highest rate). *Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) 2.4-4.8 oz 12 7 beet armyworm, corn earworm, fall armyworm, loopers, tobacco budworm, suppression of leafminers 6 Do not apply more than 28.8 oz/A per season. Provado 1.6 F (imidacloprid) 3.8 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Maximum of 19.0 fl oz per acre per season. Do not use with other 4A insecticides. Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins) 4.5-18 fl oz 12 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, whiteflies, 3 Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2

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Page 278 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 6. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Radiant (spinetoram) 5-10 fl oz 4 1 armyworms (not yellowstriped), cabbage looper, corn earworm, Liriomyza leafminer, thrips 5 Maximum of 6 applications, no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.. Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl) en 80S: 0.63-2.5 lb XLR; 4F: 0.5-2.0 qt 12 14 en armyworms, aster leafhopper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, Lygus bug, spittlebugs, stink bug, tar nished plant bug 1A Do not apply more than a total of 7.5 lb or 6 qt per acre per crop. Synapse WG (flubendiamide) 2.0-3.0 oz 12 1 armyworms, loopers 28 Do not apply more than 9.0 oz/acre per season. *Telone C-35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin) See label 5 days See label preplant symphylans, wireworms -See supplemental label for use restrictions in south and central Florida. *Telone II (dichloropropene) Trigard (cyromazine) 2.66 oz 12 7 leafminers 17 No more than 5 applications per crop. Trilogy (extract of neem oil) 0.5-2.0% V/V 4 0 aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies un Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2. Venom Insecticide (dinotefuran) foliar: 1.0-3.0 oz soil: 5.0-6.0 oz 12 foliar: 7 soil: 21 leafhoppers, leafminers, whiteflies 4A Use only one application method (soil or foliar, not both). Do not apply more than 6 oz/acre (foliar) or 12 oz/acre (soil) per season. Vetica (flubendiamide and buprofezin) 12.0-17.0 fl oz 12 7 armyworms, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, green cloverworm, imported cabbageworm, suppression of leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, suppression of whitefly 28, 16 Do not apply more than 3 times per season or more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Same active ingredients as Synapse, Coragen, and Courier. Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole) 4.0-7.0 oz 12 7 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, whiteflies 4A, 28 Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Xentari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

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Chapter 19: Spinach Production in Florida Page 279 Table 6. Continued. The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions. 1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 6.1 August 2008. 1A. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action) 1B. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action) 2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action) 3. Sodium channel modulators (nerve action) 4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action) 5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators (nerve action) 6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action) 7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 9B and 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers 10. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes 12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism) 15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation) 16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation) 17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation) 18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation) 22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action) 23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation) 28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action) un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action 2 OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production. Restricted Use Only.