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Page 261 Chapter 18. Radish Production in FloridaM. Ozores-Hampton, P.J. Dittmar, R.N. Raid, S.E. Webb and E.J. McAvoy BOTANYNomenclature Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Radish Raphanus sativus Origin Radish is believed to be native to China. Related Species Virtually every plant part is consumed across the vari ous vegetables in the Brassicaceae family. Other root crops are horseradish, turnip, and rutabaga. The stem is utilized from kohlrabi. Leaves of mustard, kale, collards, and watercress are food sources. Cabbage and Brussels sprouts vegetative buds are consumed, while the reproductive buds of broccoli and cauliflower are the plant parts used.VARIETIESEscala F1: Round roots with fine and strong foliage in difficult climates, red, very uniform in shape and size, medium top size. Fuego: Oval-round, deep scarlet red roots, tops medi um-short. R to For, T to Ar and Rs. Red castle: Globe, deep red, medium top size, matures in 25-28 days, very uniform root size and shape, medium upright tops, use for bunching, cello, slicing, excellent flesh quality with white interior, field tolerance to pithing. Red Satin F1: Globe, glossy red, medium top size, matures in 26-30 days, very uniform root size and shape, crisp flesh, excellent field holding ability with thick cuticle, medium tops, and field tolerance to pithing. Red Silk: Open pollinated, globe, red, medium top size, silky smooth shoulders, matures in 26-30 days, use for bunching, and excellent flesh quality with white interior, highly adaptable to Florida muck and similar growing con ditions, low pH soils. R to pithing, IR to Ar, For, Pb, and Rs. Rudi: Round roots, red, sturdy dark green foliage, slow to turn pithy, adapts to difficult weather or climates very well. Disease Key Black root (Ar = Aphanomyces raphani) Yellows (For = Fusarium ocysporum f.sp. raphani) Clubroots (Pb = Plasmodiophora brassica) Rhizoctonia scurf (Rs = Rhizoctonia solani) R Resistant IR Intermediate resistance T TolerantSEEDING AND PLANTINGPlanting dates and seeding information are given in Table 1.FERTILIZER AND LIMEFor mineral soils, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 25 to 50% of N and K2O. Topdress remaining N and K2O 10 to 15 days after seeding. Amount of P fertilizer should be satisfactory for up to three crops. K amount is for each crop. 2012-2013 Table 1. Seeding and planting information for radish. Planting datesNorth Florida Sept Mar Central Florida Sept Mar South Florida Oct MarSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 6 Distance between plants (in) 1 Seeding depth (in) 0.25 Seed per acre (lb) 10 20 Days to maturity from seed 20-30 Plant population1 (acre) 1 million +1 Population based on closest between and within row spacing.
Vegetable Production Handbook Page 262 For Histosol soils, broadcast all fertilizers. Supplemental N at a rate of 30 lbs/A might be needed in cool winter weather or after leaching rain. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for mineral soils are given in Table 2. Soil test and fertilizer recom mendations for Histosols are given in Table 3.IRRIGATIONRadish water requirements (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables Table 4 to 6) may be less than other root crops. Peak water use during rapid growth and development will be about 80% of ETo. Water requirements will decrease to around 75% of ETo during the latter stages of plant growth (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management of Vegetables Tables 3 to 6).WEED MANAGEMENTCarfentrazone (Aim) and glyphosate (various formulations) are registered for preplant burndown. Trifluralin (various formulations) and DCPA (Dacthal) are regis tered for preemergence weed control in mineral soils. Clethodim (Arrow, Select, Select Max) and sethoxydim (Poast) are registered for postemergence control of perennial and annual grass weeds. Preparing a good clean seedbed is very important in radish production. In many cases, the radish may emerge, grow, and be ready for harvest before competing weeds germinate and cause a problem in growth and harvest of the crop. Several herbicides are now being evaluated in the IR-4 system to establish tolerances for radish on muck soils as well as the Chinese radish (Daikon) on both organic and mineral soils.PLANT TISSUE ANALYSISPlant tissue analysis information for radish is given in Table 4. The analysis was done near harvest, using the most recently matured leaf.DISEASE MANAGEMENTChemicals approved for disease management in radish are shown in Table 5.INSECT MANAGEMENTTable 6 outlines the insecticides approved for use on insects attacking radish. Table 2. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for mineral soils for radish.1Target pH N lb/A2VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P2O5 2K2O (lb/A/crop season)6.5 90 120 100 80 0 0 120 100 80 0 01 See Chapter 2 section on supplemental fertilizer application and best management practices, pg 11.2 Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P 2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds. Table 3. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for Histosol soils for radish, with target pH = 6.5 and N rate = 0 lb/A. P and K index and fertilizer rate1P index 3 6 9 12 P2O5 (lb/A) 100 40 0 0 K index 50 80 110 140 K2O (lb/A) 100 40 0 01 Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P 2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds.
Page 263 Chapter 18: Radish Production in Florida Table 4. Plant tissue analysis near harvest for radish. Dry wt. basis.Status N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn B Cu Mo Percent Parts per millionDeficient <3.0 0.25 1.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 30 20 30 15 3 0.1 Adequate range 3.0-4.5 0.25-0.4 1.5-3.0 0.5-2.0 0.3-0.5 0.3-0.6 30-50 20-40 30-50 15-30 3-10 0.1 -2.0 High >4.5 0.4 3.0 2.0 0.5 0.6 50 40 50 30 10 2.0 Toxic >85 Fungicide Group Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM2 (sulfur) Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Top Cop w/ Sulfur 1 1 Powdery mildew Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray. M3 Defiant 75WP (thiram) 5.3 oz/ 100 lbs of seed 1 Damping off Seed treatment only. 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb seed 1 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only 4 Apron XL LS (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl. oz./ 100 lb seed 2 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only 4 Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam) 2 pts/ trtd acre 2 Pythium seedling diseases Downy mildew Apply at seeding in a 7-12 band on soil over seed furrow 4/M1 Ridomil Gold/Copper (mefenoxam/Copper hydroxide) 2 lb 8 lb 7 2 Downy mildew Limit of 4 applications per crop 4 Sebring 2.65ST (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 1 Pythium damping off Seed treatment only. 4 Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam) 4 pt 7 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting. 9 & 12 Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil/fludioxonil) 14 oz 28 oz 7 0.5 Powdery mildew Alternaria Make no more than 2 applications on radish. See label for details. 11 Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin) 16 oz 48 oz 0 0.5 Various (see label) Do not exceed 2 sequential and 3 total applications of Cabrio or other Qol fungicides. 11 Flint (trifloxystrobin) 4 oz 8 oz 7 0.5 Alternaria leafspot Septoria leafspot Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. 11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) 15.4 fl oz or 0.8 fl oz/1000 ft of row 3.75 qt 0 4 hrs Various (see label) Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total foliar applications of Quadris or other Qol fungicides. See label for soil applications. Table 5. Radish fungicides and other disease management products.
Page 264 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 5. Continued. Fungicide Group Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest Reentry11 Reason (fenamidone) 8.2 fl oz 24.6 fl oz 14 0.5 Downy mildew Pythium Alternaris leafspot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 12 Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil) 0.16 fl oz/ 100 lbs of seed 0.5 Various seedling diseases Seed treatment only. 33 Phosphonic fungicides (See individual labels) including: Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Rampart, Topaz (potassium phosphite) Phorcephite (potassium phosphite/ potassium phosphate) 3 qt 18 qt 4 hrs Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium Do not exceed 6 applications per crop. Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. See label for foliar, and irrigation application details. 43 Presidio (fluopicolide) 4 fl oz 12 fl oz 7 0.5 Pythium Cavity spot Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. P Regalia (extract of Reynoutria Sachalinenesis) 0.5% v/v 7 4 hrs Powdery mildew Downy mildew Begin applications preventatively. Spray volumes should be 50-100 GPA. NC Actinovate AG (Streptomyces lydicus) 12 oz 12 oz 0 1 hr Various (see label) Apply to soil through irrigation, as a seed treatment, to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Cease (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt/100 gal 0 4 hrs Black root Black crown rot Apply to soil through irrigation, or to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Contans WG (Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08) 6 lbs 4 hrs Sclerotinia diseases Apply to soil surface and incor porate prior to, at planting, or at transplanting. NC Kaligreen (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 1 4 hrs Powdery mildew Apply in a minimum spray volume of 25 GPA. NC NutraPic (chloropicrin) 500 lb 5 Soilborne fungi Nematodes DANGER. Soil fumigant. Restricted use pesticide. See label for details. NC Oxidate (hydrogen dioxide) 1:100 dilution 0 0 See label See label for details. NC Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Various (see label) See labels for details. NC Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Various (see label) See label for details. NC Serenade Soil (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Rhizoctonia Pythium Fusarium Verticillium Phytophthora See label for details. Soil treatment. NC Sil-Matrix (Potassium silicate) 4 qts 10 gal 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew Apply at a rate of 2-4 qt/100 gal water NC Soilgard 12G (Gliocladium virens strain GL-21) 10 lb/acre 1.5 lb/cu ft soil mix 0 Damping off Root diseases See label for details.
Chapter 18: Radish Production in Florida Page 265 Table 5. Continued. Fungicide Group Chemical (active ingredient) Maximum Rate / Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks Applic. Season Harvest ReentryNC Sonata (Bacillus pumilis strain QST 2808) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew For suppression or use as a preventative in a program with other registered fungicides. NC Sporatec (Clove, Rosemary, and Thyme Oil) 1.5 qt 0 0 Powdery mildew Sporatec is a concentrated oilbased product. It requires the use of an approved adjuvant to improve spreading and sticking. NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum and T. gamsii) 3 oz/ 1000 ft of row 1 hr Various soilborne diseases Apply up to 7 days before planting. For organic production. NC TerraClean (Hydrogen dioxide) 1 gal/ 1000 gal of water 0 Various soilborne diseases Apply as a soil treatment prior to or after planting NC Trilogy (neem oil) 2 gal 4 hrs Apply at a rate of 0.5% 1.0% in 25 to 100 gallons of water per acre or at 2 pt in a minimum of 5 gpa for low volume applications.
Page 266 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 6. Insecticides approved for use on insects attacking radishes. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Actara (thiamethoxam) 1.5-4.0 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not exceed 4 oz per acre per season. Use higher rate for whiteflies. Admire Pro (imidacloprid) 4.4-10.5 fl oz 12 21 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips (foliage feeding), whiteflies 4A Limited to one soil application. Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests) 11 Apply when larvae are small for best control. OMRI-listed2. *Asana XL (0.66 EC ) (esfenvalerate) 5.8-9.6 fl oz 12 7 armyworms, beetles 3 Do not apply more than 0.1 lb active ingredient per acre per season. (19.2 oz) Aza-Direct (azadirachtin) 1-2 pts, up to 3.5 if needed 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2. Azatin XL (azadirachtin) 5-21 fl oz 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. *Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin) 1.6-2.8 fl oz 12 0 cutworms, flea beetles, potato leafhopper 3 Do not consume tops. Maximum amount per acre per crop = 14.0 fl oz. Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid) 2.0-2.8 oz 12 3 aphids, plant bugs 9C Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate. Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars (will not control large armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2 BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana) WP: 0.5-2.0 lb/100 gal ES: 0.5-2 qt 100/gal 4 0 aphids, thrips, whiteflies -May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides. *Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin) 5.12-6.4 fl oz 12 21 aphids, beet armyworm, corn earworm, cutworms fall armyworm, fire ants, flea beetles, loopers, southern armyworm, spider mites, whiteflies 3 Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/ acre per season. Coragen (chlorantraniliprole) 3.5-5.0 fl oz 4 1 beet armyworm 28 Do not make more than 4 applications per acre per crop or a maximum of 15.4 fl oz per acre per year. Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.25-1.5 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2. *Diazinon AG-500, *50 W (diazinon) preplant AG500: 1-4 qt 50W: 2-8 lb 72en preplant cutworms, mole crickets, wireworms 1B No more than one application per year. DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.
Chapter 18: Radish Production in Florida Page 267 Table 6. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Entrust (spinosad) 1-2 oz 4 3 armyworms, dipteran leafminers, flea beetle, loopers, thrips 5 3 applications per year. No more than 6 oz per acre per crop. OMRIlisted2. Extinguish ((S)-methoprene) en 1-1.5 lb 4 0 fire ants 7A Slow acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially. Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide) 6-16 fl oz 4 14 armyworms, cabbageworm, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, webworms 18 Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre/season. Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.12-1.5 lb 4 0 most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2. Knack IGR (pyriproxyfen) 8 fl oz 12 3 whiteflies 7D Do not apply more than twice per growing season. *Lannate SP (methomyl) *LV 0.5 lb 1.5 pt 48 3 beet armyworm 1A SLN [24(c)] label for Florida. Lorsban 15G, 75WG, Advanced (chlorpyrifos) 15G: 3.3 oz per 1000 ft of row 75WG: 0.67 oz per 1000 ft of row Advanced: 5.5 pints 24 at planting preplant At planting: root maggot preplant application of Lorsban Advanced: billbugs, cutworms, grubs, symphylans, wireworms 1B One application per season. Malathion 5 EC (malathion) 1.5-2 pts 12 7 aphids, diamondback moth, flea beetles, leafhoppers 1Ben M-Pede 49% EC Soap, insecticidal 1-2% V/V 12 0 aphids, leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies -OMRI-listed2. *Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.4-4.3 oz 12 1 cabbage looper, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, tarnished plant bug, vegetable weevil, whitefringed beetle (adult), yellowstriped armyworm; aids in control of aphids and beet armyworm 3 A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed. Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin) 4-16 fl oz 12 0 aphids, armyworms, beetles, cat erpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies un Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2. Platinum 75SG (thiamethoxam) 5.0-6.5 fl oz 1.7-2.17 oz 12 at planting aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not exceed 6.5 fl Platinum or 2.17 oz 75SG per acre per crop. Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid) 3.5 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A One application per season. Radiant (spinetoram) 6-8 fl oz 4 3 armyworms, dipterous leafminers, loopers, thrips 5 Maximum of 3 applications per year.
Page 268 Vegetable Production Handbook Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl) en 80S: 0.63-2.5 lb XLR, 4F: 0.5 -2.0 qt 12 7 armyworms, aster leafhopper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetle, leafhoppers, stink bugs, tarnished plant bug 1A Do not apply more than a total of 7.5 lb or 6 qt per acre per crop. Sun Spray 98.8%, others Oil, insecticidal 1-2 gal/100 gal 4 0 aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies -*Telone C-35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin) See label 5 days See label preplant symphylans, wireworms en -See supplemental label for use restrictions in certain Florida counties. *Telone II (dichloropropene) Trilogy (extract of neem oil) 0.5-2.0% V/V 4 0 aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies un Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2. Xentari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions. 1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 6.1 August 2008. 1A. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action) 1B. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action) 2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action) 3. Sodium channel modulators (nerve action) 4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action) 5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators (nerve action) 6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action) 7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 9B and 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers 10. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes 12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism) 15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation) 16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation) 17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation) 18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation) 22. Voltage dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action) 23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation) 28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action) un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action2 OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production. Restricted Use Only. Table 6. Continued.