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Okra Production in Florida

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Material Information

Title: Okra Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Santos, B.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS710"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003480:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003480/00001

Material Information

Title: Okra Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Santos, B.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS710"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003480:00001


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Page 163 Chapter 13. Okra Production in FloridaB.M. Santos, P.J. Dittmar, S.M. Olson, S.E. Webb and S. Zhang BOTANYNomenclature Family Malvaceae Okra Abelmoschus esculentus Origin Okra is native to northeastern Africa in the general area of Ethiopia and the Sudan. Related Species Okra is the only vegetable crop of significance in the Malvaceae family. Cotton is the most important economic crop in this family, but there are many widely used orna mental plants.VARIETIESVarieties of okra grown in Florida (H=hybrid): Annie Oakley II (H) Millionaire (H) Cajun Delight (H) North and South (H) Clemson Spineless Spike (H) Clemson Spineless 80 SEEDING AND PLANTINGSeeding and planting information for okra production in Florida is given in Table 1.FERTILIZER AND LIMEFor unmulched crops with subsurface or sprinkler irrigation, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 25 to 50% of the N and K2O before planting. Increased fertilizer effi ciency might result from broadcasting in the bed area only or by banding at planting. Remaining N and K2O should be banded in one or two applications during early plant growth. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for okra grown on mineral soils are given in Table 2. For mulched crops with subsurface irrigation, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 20 to 25% N and K2O in bed. Apply remaining N and K2O in a band in a groove 2 to 3 inches deep in bed center of twin-row crops. With sprinkler irrigation, incorporate all fertilizer in bed area. Leached N and K2O can be replaced by liquid fertilizer injection wheel. For drip-irrigated crops apply all P2O5, micronutrients, and up to 20 to 25% of N and K2O in bed. Inject remaining N and K2O through tube according to the sched ule given in Table 3.PLANT TISSUE ANALYSISPlant tissue analysis for okra is listed in Table 4. Testing was done during the early flowering period on the most recently matured leaf.IRRIGATIONOkra water requirements (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices of Irrigation Management for Vegetables Tables 4-6) are highest during rapid growth and development (100% of ETo) decreasing to 90% of ETo (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices of Irrigation Management for Vegetables, Table 3) during the final growth period. Root systems may be extensive on some typical deep sandy soils, thus allowing less frequent irrigation applications. Table 1. Seeding and planting information for okra in Florida. Planting datesNorth Florida Mar Jun Central Florida Feb Aug South Florida Jan Mar Aug OctSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 36 60 Distance between plants (in) 4 10 Seeding depth (in) 0.5 1.0 Seed per acre (lb) 6 81 Days to first harvest from seed 60 70 Plant population2 (acre) 43,5601 Assuming 80% germination.2 Population based on closest between and within row spacing. 2012-2013

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 164 WEED MANAGEMENTHerbicide labeled for weed control in okra are listed in Table 5.DISEASE MANAGEMENTThe chemicals approved for disease management in okra are listed in Table 6.INSECT MANAGEMENTTable 7 outlines the insecticides approved for use on insects attacking okra. Table 2. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for okra grown on 6-foot bed in twin-rows on mineral soils.1Target pH N lb/A VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P2O5K2O (lb/A/crop season)6.5 120 150 120 100 0 0 150 120 100 0 01 See Chapter 2 section on supplemental fertilizer application and best management practices, pg 11. Table 3. Fertilization recommendations for okra grown in Florida on sandy soils testing very low in Mehlich-1 potassium (K 2O) Production system Nutrient Recommended-Base fertilizationzRecommended-Supplemental fertilizationzTotal (lbs/A) Preplanty (lbs/A) Injectedx (lbs/A/day) Weeks after transplantingwLeaching rainr,sMeasured "low" plant nutrient contentu.rExtended harvest seasonu.s1-2 3-4 5-12 13Drip irrigation, raised beds, and polyethylene mulch (on deep sands or on soils with shallow Impermeable layer) N 120 0-40 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 n/a 1.5 to 2lbs/A/day for 7 dayst1.5 to 2 lbs/A/daypK2O 150 0-50 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 n/a 1.5 to 2 lbs/A/day for 7 dayst1.5 to 2 lbs/A/daypSeepage irrigation, raised beds, and polyethylene mulch (on soils with shallow impermeable layer) N 120 120v0 0 0 0 30 lbs/Aq30 lbs/At30 lbs/ApK2O 150 150v0 0 0 0 20 lbs/Aq20 lbs/At20 lbs/Ap z A=7,260 linear bed feet per acre (6-ft bed spacing); for soils testing "very low" in Mehlich 1 potassium (K 2O) Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds.y Applied using the modified broadcast method (fertilizer is broadcast where the beds will be formed only, and not over the entire field). Preplant fertilizer cannot be applied to double/triple crops because of the plastic mulch; hence, in these cases, all the fertilizer has to be injected.x This fertigation schedule is applicable when no N and K 2O are applied preplant. Reduce schedule proportionally to the amount of N and K2O applied preplant. Fertilizer injections may be done daily or weekly. Inject fertilizer at the end of the irrigation event and allow enough time for proper flushing afterwards.w For standard 13 week-long, transplanted okra crop.v Some of the fertilizer may be applied with a fertilizer wheel though the plastic mulch during the okra crop when only part of the recommended base rate is applied preplant. Rate may be reduced when a controlled-release fertilizer source is used.u Plant nutritional status may be determined with tissue analysis or fresh petiole-sap testing, or any other calibrated method. The "low" diagnosis needs to be based on UF/IF AS interpretative thresholds.t Plant nutritional status must be diagnosed every week to repeat supplemental fertilizer application.s Supplemental fertilizer applications are allowed when irrigation is scheduled following a recommended method (see Chapter 3 on irrigation scheduling in Florida). Supplemental fertilizations is to be applied in addition to base fertilization when appropriate. Supplemental fertilization is not to be applied "in advance" with the preplant fertilizer.r A leaching rain is defined as a rainfall amount of 3 inches in 3 days or 4 inches in 7 days.q Supplemental amount for each leaching rainp Plant nutritional status must be diagnosed after each harvest before repeating supplemental fertilizer application.

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Table 4. Plant tissue analysis at early flowering for okra. Dry wt. basis. N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn B Cu Status Percent Parts per millionDeficient <3.5 0.3 2.0 0.5 0.25 0.3 50 30 30 25 5 Adequate range 3.5-5.0 0.3-0.6 2.0-3.0 0.5-0.8 0.25-0.50 0.3-0.8 50-100 30-100 30-50 25-50 5-10 High >5.0 0.6 3.0 0.8 0.50 0.8 100 100 50 50 10Page 165 Chapter 13: Okra Production in Florida Table 5. Chemical weed control in okra. Active ingredient lb. ai/A Trade name Formulation/A Weeds Controlled / Remarks***PREEMERGENCE*** Carfentrazone up to 0.31 (Aim) 2 Ec or 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb. a.i./A per season. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. Flumioxazin Up to 0.128 (Chateau) 51 WDG up to 4 oz. Annual broadleaf weeds. Apply to row middles of raised plastic mulched beds that are at least 4 in. higher than the treated row middle and 24 inch bed width. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, INC.). Use without a signed authorization is a waiver of liability is a misuse of the product. Tank mix with a burn down herbicide to control emerged weeds. Glyphosate (various formulations) Emerged broadleaf and grass weed control. Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged weeds. Read label for amount of formulation allowed. Lactofen 0.25 0.5 (Cobra) 2 EC 16 32 fl. oz. Broadleaf weed control. Apply to row middles only with a shielded or hooded sprayer. A minimum of 24 fl. oz./A is required for residual control. Add a crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant for control of emerged weeds. Registration is through Third Party Registrations, Inc. (TPR, Inc.) and a copy of the label must be on hand at time of application. PHI 30 days. Mesotrione 0.19 (Callisto) 4 L 6 fl. oz. Apply to row middles only. Leave one foot untreated area or 6 on either side of the plant row. Injury risk is greatest on coarse textured soils (sand, sandy loam, or loamy sand). Apply as one preemergence application OR one postemergence application. Callisto will cause whitening of the okra. Paraquat 0.5 1.0 (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 2.0 4.0 pt. Emerged broadleaf and grass weed control. Apply one application before crop emergence. Do not exceed 8 pt./A per season. Pelargonic acid 3 10% (Scythe) 4.2 EC Broadleaf and grass weed control. Scythe is a contact, non-selective herbicide with no residual activity. May be tank mixed with trifluralin for soil residual activity. Consult label for rates and other information. Trifluralin 0.5 0.75 (Treflan, Trifluralin) 4 EC 0.5 1.5 pt. (Treflan, Trifluralin) 10 G 5 7.5 lb. Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Incorporate 4 in. or less within 8 hrs. Results in Florida are erratic on soils with low organic matter and clay contents. Note precautions against planting nonregistered crops within 5 months. ***POSTEMERGENCE*** Carfentrazone up to 0.31 (Aim) 2 EC or 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply to row middles only with a hooded sprayer. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb. a.i./A per season. Rates apply to mineral and muck soils. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. PHI 0 days. Glyphosate (various formulations) consult label Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply to row middles only with a hooded sprayer. PHI 14 days. Halosulfuron 0.024 0.05 (Sandea) 75 WG 0.5 1.0 oz. Broadleaf and purple/yellow nutsedge control. Apply to row middles of direct-seeded or trans planted okra. If plastic is used, prevent herbicide contact with the plastic. Do no apply more than 2 oz./A per 12-month period. PHI 30 days.

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Page 166 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 5. Continued. Active ingredient lb. ai/A Trade name Formulation/A Weeds Controlled / Remarks***POSTEMERGENCE*** continued Lactofen0.25 0.5(Cobra) 2 EC 16 32 fl. oz. Broadleaf weed control. Apply to row middles only with a shielded or hooded sprayer. A minimum of 24 fl. oz/A is required for residual control. Add a crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant for control of emerged weeds. One POST application may be made per growing season at 18 days after transplanting. Cobra contacting green folicage or fruit can cause excessive inury. Drift of Cobra treated soil particles onto plants can cause contact injury. Registration is through Third Party Registration, INC. and a copy of the label must be on hand at time of application. PHI 30 days. Mesotrine0.09(Callisto) 4 L 3 fl. oz. Broadleaf and grass control. Direct spray with hooded sprayer to minimize contact with okra plants. Okra must be at least 3 in. tall. Use a nonionic surfactant. Injury risk is greatest on coarse textured soils (sand, sandy loam, or loamy sand). Apply as one preemergence application OR one postemergence application. PHI 28 days. Paraquat0.5 1.0(Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 2.0 pt. Emerged broadleaf and grass weed control. Apply to row middles only and do not allow contact to okra plants. Limit of 2 applications after crop emergence. Do not exceed 8 pt./A preseason. PHI 60 days. Pelargonic acid3 10%(Scythe) 4.2 EC Broadleaf and grass weed control. Apply to row middles only with shielded sprayer. Sethoxydim0.19 0.28(Poast) 1.5 EC 1.0 1.5 pt.Grass weed control. Efficacy will be decreased if grass weeds are under stress. Include a crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil in the spray. PHI 14 days.

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Page 167 Chapter 13: Okra Production in Florida Table 6. Disease management for okra.Okra fungicides and other disease management products. Ordered by FRAC group according to mode of action. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Max. Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM1 Kocide 2000 (copper hydroxide) 3 lb 0 2 Anthracnose, Bacterial leaf spot, Leaf spots, Pot spot, Powdery mildew See label M1 Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide) 1.75 lb 0 2 Anthracnose, Bacterial leaf spot, Leaf spots, Pot spot, Powdery mildew See label M2 Cosavet DF (sulfur) 3-10 lb 1 Leaf spot, Powdery mildew May cause leaf burn if applied during high temperatures M2 Micro Sulf Microthiol-Disperss (sulfur) 10 lb 1 Leaf spot, Powdery mildew See label M2 Sulfur 90W (sulfur) 20 lb 1 Powdery mildew Apply in greenhouses M3 Defiant (thiram) 4.0 oz /100 lb seed 1 Damping off, Seed decay, Seedling blight Seed treatment M5 Echo 720 (chlorothalonil) 1.5 pt 3 0.5 Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery mildew See label M5 Bravo Weather Stik Chloronil 720 (chlorothalonil) 1.5 pt 12 pt 3 0.5 Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery mildew See label 3 Folicur 3.6-F (tebuconazole) 6 fl oz 24 fl oz 3 0.5 Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery mildew Apply in a preventative spray program 3 Monsoon 6 fl oz 24 fl oz 3 0.5 Cercospora leaf spot Apply in a preventative spray program Orius 3.6F (tebuconazole) Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery mildew 3 Rally 40 WSP (myclobutanil) 5 oz 20 oz 0 1 Powdery mildew Do not make more than 4 applications per season 3 Sonoma 40WSP (myclobutanil) 2.5-5 oz 20 oz 0 1 Powdery mildew Do not make more than 4 applications per season 3 Tebustar 3.6L Tebuzol 3.6F (tebuconazole) 6 fl oz 24 fl oz 3 0.5 Cercospora leaf spot For optimum control, tank mix with the lowest labeled rate of spray surfactant 3 Toledo (tebuconazole) 6 fl oz 24 fl oz 3 0.5 Cercospora leaf spot For optimum control, tank mix with the lowest labeled rate of spray surfactant 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/100 lb seed 1 Damping-off caused by Pythium, Phytophthora Seed treatment; Do not use with other seed treatment products without previous experience

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Page 168 Vegetable Production Handbook Fungicide Group1 Chemical Max. Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry4 Apron XL (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl oz/100 lbs seed 0 2 Pythium damping-off Seed treatment 4 Serbing 2.65 ST (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/100 lb seed 1 Phytophthora, Pythium damping-off Seed treatment; Do not use with other seed treatment products without previous experience 11 Heritage (azoxystrobin) 8.0 oz 2 lb 0 4 hrs Anthracnose, Powdery mildew See label 11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) 15.4 fl oz 61.5 fl oz 0 4 hrs Anthracnose, Powdery mildew, Seedling rot (Rhizoctonia) See label 33 Alude (potassium phosphite) 2 qt 0 4 hrs Damping-off, Root rot See label 33 Fosphite Fungicide (potassium phosphite) 3 qt 0 4 hrs Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia spp. See label 33 Fungi-phite (potassium phosphite) 2-4 qt (see label) 0 4 hrs Anthracnose, Bacterial and leaf diseases, Leaf spots, Phytophthora and Pythium spp. Powdery mildew See label 33 Rampart (potassium phosphite) See label See label 0 4 hrs Phytophthora spp. Pythium and others. (See label) See label 44 Serenade ASO Serenade MAX (Bacillus subtilis strain QST713) 6 pt 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew See label 3 lb 44 Serenade Soil (Bacillus subtilis strain QST713) 6 pt 0 4 hrs Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia See label P Regalia (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew Tank mix with other registered fungicides when disease pressure is high NC Armicarb 100 Fungicide (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 0 4 hrs Anthracnose, Leaf spot, Pod spot, Powdery mildew Do not apply through irrigation systems; Avoid tank mixing with highly acidic pesticides; Do not spray seed directly NC Milstop (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 0 1 hr Alternaria leaf spot, Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery mildew Do not apply through any irrigation systems NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum ICC 012, Trichodema gamsii ICC 080) Various rates (See label) 0 1 hr Various soil pathogens See label NC Trilogy (neem oil) 1.0% or 2 pt 0 4 hrs Alternaria, Anthracnose, Leaf spot, Powdery mildew See labelTable 6. Continued.

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Chapter 13: Okra Production in Florida Page 169 Table 7. Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking okra. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesAcramite-50WS (bifenazate) 0.75-1.0 lb 12 3 twospotted spider mite un One application per season. Admire Pro (imidacloprid) 7-14 fl oz 12 21 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, foliage feeding thrips, whiteflies 4A No more than 14 oz per acre. *Asana XL (0.66 EC) (esfenvalerate) 5.8-9.6 fl oz 12 1 cabbage looper, corn earworm, southern armyworm 3 Florida only. Avaunt (indoxacarb) 2.5-3.5 oz 12 3 beet armyworm, hornworms, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm 22 Maximum = 14 oz/acre per crop Aza-Direct (azadirachtin) 1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2. Azatin XL (azadirachtin) 5-21 fl oz 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. Beleaf 50SG (flonicamid) 2.0-2.8 oz 12 0 aphids, plant bugs 9C Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/ acre per season. *Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin) 2.1-6.4 fl oz 12 7 aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, leafminers, loopers, mites (broad, carmine, twospotted), stink bugs, thrips, whitefly 3 Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/ acre per season. BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana) WP: 0.5-2.0 lb/100 gal ES: 0.5-2 qt/100 gal 4 0 aphids, thrips, whiteflies -May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides. *Capture LFR (bifenthrin) 3.4-6.8 fl oz 12 at planting cutworms, flea beetle larvae, wireworms 3 Soil application at planting. Coragen (rynaxypyr) 3.5-5.0 fl oz 4 1 beet armyworm, corn earworm 28 Foliar only. Do not make more than 4 applications or apply more than 15.4 fl oz per acre per crop. Courier 40SC (buprofezin) 9.0-13.6 fl oz 12 1 immature stages of leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whiteflies 16 Make no more than 2 applications per crop cycle. Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.25-1.5 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2. Entrust (spinosad) 0.5-2.5 oz 4 1 armyworms, flower thrips, leafminers, loopers, other caterpillars, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm 5 Do not apply more than 9 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2. Esteem Ant Bait (pyriproxyfen) 1.5-2.0 lb 12 1 red imported fire ant 7C Apply when ants are actively foraging.

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Page 170 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 7. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesExtinguish ((S)-methoprene) 1.0-1.5 lb 4 0 fire ants 7A Slow acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially. Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide) 4-16 fl oz 4 1 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm 18 Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season. Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.12-1.50 lb 4 1 most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential OMRI-listed2. JMS Stylet-Oil (oil, insecticidal) 3-6 qts/100 gal 4 0 leafminers, mites, whiteflies -See label for tank mix cautions. Organic Stylet-Oil is OMRI-listed2. Kanemite 15 SC (acequinocyl) 31 fl oz 12 7 broad mite, twospotted spider mite 20B Two applications per year, at least 21 days apart. Knack IGR (pyriproxyfen) 8-10 fl oz 12 14 whiteflies (immatures) 7C Do not make more than 2 applications per season. Malathion 8F (malathion) 1.5 pt 12 1 aphids 1B Movento (spirotetramat) 4-5 fl oz 24 1 aphids, whiteflies 23 Do not apply more than 10 fl oz per acre per season. *Mustang (zeta cypermethrin) 2.4-4.3 oz 12 1 brown stink bugs, cabbage looper, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green stink bugs, hornworms, leafhoppers, plant bugs, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm 3 Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.3 lb ai/acre per season. Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin) 4-16 fl oz 12 0 aphids, armyworms, leafhoppers, leafminers, loopers, whiteflies un IGR and feeding repellant. OMRIlisted2. Portal (fenpyroximate) 2 pt 12 1 mites, including broad mites 21A Do not make more than two applications per season. Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid) 3.8-6.2 fl oz 12 0 aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not apply more than 19.2 oz per acre per year. Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins) 4.5-18 fl oz 12 0 Aphids, beetles, caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, mites, stink bugs, whiteflies, thrips, others 3 OMRI-listed2Radiant SC (spinetoram) 5-10 fl oz 4 1 armyworms, dipterous leafminers, hornworms, loopers, thrips, tomato fruitworm 5 Control of leafminers and thrips may be improved with an adjuvant. Requiem 25EC (Chenopodium ambrosioides) 2.0-4.0 qt 4 0 thrips, whiteflies -Apply before pests reach damaging levels. Sevin XLR, 4F, 80S (carbaryl) XLR, 4E: 1-1.5 qt 80S: 1.25-1.88 lb 12 3 corn earworm, stink bugs 1A Do not apply more than a total of 6 qt or 7.5 lb per acre per season. Synapse (flubendiamide) 2.0-3.0 oz 12 1 armyworms, hornworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm 28 Do not apply more than 9 oz/acre per season.

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Chapter 13: Okra Production in Florida Page 171 Table 7. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes*Telone C-35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin) See label 5 days See label preplant symphylans, wireworms -See supplemental label for use restrictions in south and central Florida. *Telone II (dichloropropene) See label Trilogy (extract of neem oil) 0.5-2.0% V/V 4 0 aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies 18B Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2. Vetica (flubendiamide and buprofezin) 12.0-17.0 fl oz 12 1 armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, garden webworm, suppression of leafhoppers and mealybugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, tomato hornworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, suppression of whiteflies 28, 16 Do not apply more than 3 times per season or apply more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Same active ingredients as Synapse, Coragen, and Courier. Use high rate for whiteflies and leafhoppers.The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 6.1 August 2008. 1A. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action) 1B. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action) 2A. GABA gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action) 3. Sodium channel modulators (nerve action) 4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action) 5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators (nerve action) 6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action) 7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 9B and 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers 10. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes 12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism) 15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation) 16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation) 17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation) 18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation) 22. Voltage dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action) 23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation) 28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action) un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action2 OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production. Restricted Use Only.