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Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole Production in Florida

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Material Information

Title: Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Santos, B.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1/1/2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS710"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003479:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003479/00001

Material Information

Title: Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole Production in Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Santos, B.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1/1/2012

Notes

Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "January 2012"
General Note: "HS710"

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003479:00001


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Page 143 Chapter 12. Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole Production in FloridaB.M. Santos, P.J. Dittmar, R.N. Raid and S.E. Webb BOTANYNomenclature Family Asteraceae (Compositae) Lettuce Lactuca sativa Endive Cichorium endiva Escarole Cichorium endiva Origin Lettuce is native to the eastern Mediterranean basin. Endive is believed to have originated in Egypt. Related Species Other vegetable crops in the Asteraceae family are globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, radicchio, witloof chicory, salsify, cardoon, and dandelion.VARIETIESCrop varieties for commercial production are shown in Table 1.SEEDING AND PLANTINGPlanting dates and seeding information are given in Table 2.FERTILIZER AND LIMEOn mineral soils with subsurface or sprinkler irrigation and no mulch, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients and 25 to 50% of N and K2O in bed. Band remaining N and K2O in one or two applications during middle growth period. For mulched crops with subsurface irrigation, broadcast all P2O5, micronutrients, and 20 to 25% of N and K2O in bed. Band remaining N and K2O in grooves in bed surface (one band for twin row beds). For mulched, drip-irrigated crops, incorporate all P2O5, micronutrients and up to 20 to 25% of N and K2O in bed. Inject remaining N and K2O according to schedules in circular 1181 (Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv.). Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for lettuce, endive and escarole on mineral soils are given in Table 3. For organic soils, band all P2O5 3 to 4 inches beneath rows in the bed. Broadcast all K2O and micronutrients. About 50 lbs/A of supplemental N might be needed during cool, winter weather, or after leaching rain. Soil test results and fertilizer recommendations for lettuce, endive, and escarole on Histosol soils are given in Table 4.PLANT TISSUE ANALYSISPlant tissue analysis information for lettuce, endive and escarole is given in Table 5. The analysis was done at the 8-leaf stage, using the oldest undamaged leaf. Table 1. Lettuce, endive and escarole varieties for commercial and local production. Type VarietyLettuce Crisphead Gator Raleigh Gulfstream Romaine (green) Concept Terrapin Kalura Snappy Medallion Romaine (red) Outredeous Rosalita Green Leaf Green Saladbowl Tropicana Green Star Two Star Red Leaf Galactic Red Saladbowl New Red Fire Vulcan Oakleaf (green) Royal Oak Oakleaf (red) Ferrari Summer Crisp (red) Cherokee Boston Florida Butter Crisp Margarita Ermosa Bibb Floribibb Endive Frisan Salad King Marcant Escarole Full Heart NR 65 Twinkle2012-2013

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Table 2. Seeding and planting information for lettuce, endive, and escarole. Planting dates Crisphead Butterhead Romaine Endive EscaroleNorth Florida Sept Oct; Jan Feb Sept Oct; Jan Feb Aug Oct; Jan Feb Aug Oct; Jan Feb Aug Oct; Jan Feb Central Florida Sept Feb Sept Feb Aug Feb Aug Feb Aug Feb South Florida Sept Feb Sept Feb Sept Mar Sept Mar Sept MarSeeding informationDistance between rows (in) 18 30 18 30 18 30 18 30 18 30 Distance between plants (in) 8 12 9 12 14-16 14-16 Seeding depth (in) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 Seed per acre (lb) 1-3 1-3 2-4 3-4 3-4 Days to maturity from seed170 95 60 80 60 80 60-80 60-80 Plant populations2 (acre) 43,560 38,720 29,040 24,891 24,8911 These crops also can be transplanted and achieve faster maturity.2 Populations based on closest between and within row spacing.Vegetable Production Handbook Page 144 IRRIGATIONCrops in the lettuce group require consistent levels of water for ET (see Chapter 3, Principles and Practices of Irrigation Management for Vegetables, Tables 4 to 6) near reference demand levels (see Chapter 3, Table 3) throughout the rapid growth and final development periods. Reductions in available water during these growth periods can result in reduced leaf development. Root systems may be very shal low, thus requiring frequent, steady applications of water during low rainfall, high demand periods.HYDROPONIC PRODUCTIONLettuce production in small growing units is increasing becoming popular alternative for home and community gardens around the state. In most cases, the crop is grown hydroponically with diverse soilless media in vertical staked pot or horizontal trough systems. The most common soilless media are perlite and coconut coir, which could be used pure or in mixed proportions of each. Some of the advantages of using these media are: a) reduced soilborne disease incidence and thus no need for soil fumigation/dis infection; b) increased nutrient and water retention capacity in comparison with sandy and loamy soils; c) possibility for reusing the media over multiple seasons. Among the disadvantages of these are: a) relatively elevated cost of production, and b) potential for initial nitrogen sequestra tion when using new batches of coconut coir due to an ele vated carbon:nitrogen ratio. There are diverse hydroponic fertilizer solutions that could be used to produce lettuce and growers and home owners willing to adopt this system should consult publications similar to the ones presented below. For protected agriculture production see http://www. hos.ufl.edu/protectedag or http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu/ SantosHortProgram/International.htm. Nutrient solution formulation for hydroponic (perlite, rockwool, NFT) tomatoes in Florida (http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu/CV216). Design suggestions and greenhouse management for vegetable production in perlite and rockwool media in Florida (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CV195 ). Keys to successful tomato and cucumber production in perlite media ( http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HS169 ).WEED MANAGEMENTHerbicides labeled for weed control in lettuce, endive and escarole are listed in Table 6.DISEASE MANAGEMENTChemicals approved for disease management are listed as follows: Lettuce Table 7 Endive and Escarole Table 8.INSECT MANAGEMENTInsecticides approved for use on insects attacking let tuce, endive and escarole are listed in Table 9.

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Page 145 Table 3. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for lettuce, endive, and escarole on 4-foot beds on mineral soils.1Target pH N lb/A2VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P2O5 2K2O (lb/A/crop season)Crisphead lettuce 6.5 200 150 120 100 0 0 150 120 100 0 0 Leaf lettuce 6.5 150 150 120 100 0 0 150 120 100 0 0 Endive, Escarole, Romaine 6.5 200 150 120 100 0 0 150 120 100 0 01 See Chapter 2 section on supplemental fertilizer application and best management practices, pg 11.2 Seeds and transplants may benefit from applications of a starter solution at a rate no greater than 10 to 15 lbs/acre for N and P 2O5, and applied through the plant hole or near the seeds.Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Table 4. Soil test and fertilizer recommendations for crisphead and leaf lettuce, endive, escarole, and romaine on Histosols. Target pH = 6.0 and N rate = 0 lb/A for all crops. P and K index and fertilizer ratesP index 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 P2O5 (lb/A) 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 K index 50 80 110 140 170 200 K2O (lb/A) 200 140 80 50 0 0 Table 5. Plant tissue analysis at 8-leaf stage for lettuce, endive, escarole, and romaine. Dry wt. basis. N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn B Cu Mo Status Percent Parts per millionCrisphead Deficient <4.0 0.4 5.0 0.8 0.3 0.3 50 20 25 15 5 0.1 Adequate range 4.0 -5.0 0.4 -0.6 5.0 -7.0 0.8 -2.0 0.3 -0.5 0.3 -0.8 50 -150 20 -40 25 -50 15 -30 5 -10 0.1 -0.4 High >5 0.6 7.0 2.0 0.5 0.8 150 40 50 30 10 0.4 Endive Deficient <4.5 0.45 4.5 0.8 0.25 0.3 50 15 30 25 5 0.1 Adequate range 4.5 6.0 0.45-0.8 4.5 -6.0 0.8 4.0 0.25 -0.60 0.3 -0.8 50 150 15 -25 30 -50 25 -35 5 10 0.1 -0.4 High >6.0 0.8 6.0 4.0 0.6 0.8 150 25 50 35 10 0.4 Escarole Deficient <4.2 0.45 5.7 0.8 0.25 0.3 50 15 30 20 4 0.1 Adequate range 4.2 5.0 0.45 -0.6 5.7 -6.5 0.8 -2.2 0.25 -0.35 0.3 -0.8 50 -150 15 -25 30 -50 20 -30 4 6 0.1 -0.4 High >5.0 0.6 6.5 2.2 0.35 0.8 150 25 50 30 6 0.4 Romaine Deficient <5.0 0.35 5.0 0.8 0.25 0.3 50 15 20 30 5 0.1 Adequate range 5.0 6.0 0.35-0.8 5.0 -6.0 0.8 -3.0 0.25 -0.35 0.3 -0.8 50 -150 15 -25 20 -50 30 -45 5 -10 0.1 -0.4 High >6.0 0.8 6.0 3.0 0.35 0.8 150 25 50 45 10 0.4

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Page 146 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 6. Chemical weed control lettuce and leafy vegetables. Active ingredient lb. ai/A Trade name Product/A Crops Weeds Controlled / Remarks*** PREEMERGENCE *** Benefin 1.2 (Balan) 2.0 Lettuce Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply before seeding or transplanting. Incorporate with cultivation or irrigation into the top 2 to 3 inches of the final bed. Bensulide 5 6 (Prefar) 4 E 5 6 qt. Leafy vegetables Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Incorporate with cultivation or irrigation. Do not use on spinach or Swiss chard. Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2.0 EC up to 2 fl. oz. (Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a burndown herbicide before planting. Glyphosate (various formulation) Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down. Consult label for individual product directions. Imazethapyr 0.016 0.031 (Pursuit) 2 1 2 fl. oz. Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Broadleaf weeds. Apply in fields with 40% organic matter or greater. Do not apply more than 2 applications per crop. A maximum of 4 ounces of product may be used per crop season. Should be applied in 2 or more gallons of water per acre. Potential for rotational crop damage is highly variable. Label is a Third-Party registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without having a signed authorization and waiver of liability agreement is a misuse of the product. PHI 30 days. Paraquat 0.5 1.0 (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 2 4 pt. (Firestorm) 3SL 1.3 2.7 pt. Lettuce Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. Do not make more than 3 application/year. Pelargonic acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown before planting. Pronamide 1.0 -2.0 (Kerb) 50 WP 2.0 4.0 lb. Head lettuce, Endive, EscaroleCertain annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Overhead irrigate with 1 to 2 inches following applications. Observe rotational restrictions to other crops. Not recommended for soils with high organic matter. PHI 55 days. Pyraflufen 0.0008 0.003 (ET Herbicide) 0.5 2.0 fl. oz. Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown 1 day prior to planting. Include an NIS at 0.25% or COC at 1.0% to the spray solution. Trifluralin 0.5 (Treflan, Trifluralin) 4 EC 1.0 pt. (Treflan) 4 L 1.0 pt. (Trifluralin) 10 G 5 lb. Endive, Escarole, Radicchio Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as preplant incorporated to mineral soils only. *** POSTEMERGENCE *** Carfentrazone up to 0.031 (Aim) 2.0 EC up to 2 fl. oz. (Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz. Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf weeds. Use a hooded/shielded sprayer to direct spray to the row middles only. Use a crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfac tant. PHI 0 days. Clethodim 0.094 0.125 0.07 0.125 (Select) 2 EC 6 8 fl. oz. Leaf lettuce Emerged annual and perennial grass weed. For repeat application, minimum of 14 days between applications. PHI 14 days. Clethodim 0.094 0.125 0.07 0.125 (Arrow) 2 EC 6 8 fl. oz. (Select Max) 1 EC 9 16 fl. oz. Leafy vegetables Emerged annual and perennial grass weed. For repeat application, minimum of 14 days between applications. PHI 14 days.

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Page 147 Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Table 6. Continued. Active ingredient lb. ai/A Trade name Product/A Crops Weeds Controlled / Remarks*** POSTEMERGENCE *** continued Imazethapyr 0.016 0.031 (Pursuit) 2 1 2 fl. oz. Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Broadleaf weeds. Apply in fields with 40% organic matter or greater. Apply postemergence after 3-4 true leaf stage. Do not apply more than 2 applications per crop. A maximum of 4 ounces of product may be used per crop season. Should be applied in 2 or more gallons of water per acre. Potential for rotational crop damage is highly variable. Label is a Third-Party registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without having a signed authorization and waiver of liability agreement is a misuse of the product. PHI 30 days. Pelargonic acid (Scythe) 4.2 EC 3 10% Leafy vegetables Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a directed or shielded spray to row middles. Sethoxydim 0.19 0.28 (Poast) 1.5 EC 1.0 1.5 pt. Head/leaf lettuce, endive, radicchio Emerged grass weeds. Do not exceed 3.0 pt./A/season. Include a crop oil concentrate at 2 pt. per 5 to 20 gallons of water. Head lettuce and radicchio PHI 30 days. Leaf lettuce and endive PHI 15 day.Table 7. Lettuce fungicides and other disease management products. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM1 (copper compounds) Many brands available: Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, Cueva, Kocide 3000, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Stretch, Tenn Cop, Top Cop w/ Sulfur 1 Varies by product from 4 hrs to 2 days Bacterial blight, Downy mildew M2 (sulfur) Many brands available: Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Top Cop w/ Sulfur 1 1 Downy mildew, Powdery mildew Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray. M3 (maneb) Many brands available: Maneb 75DF, Maneb 80WP, Manex, Maneb 80WP, Manzate Pro-Stick Fungicide (ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) 10 1 Downy mildew, Powdery mildew M3 Defiant 75WP (thiram) 5.3 oz/ 100 lbs of seed 1 Damping off Seed treatment only. 2 Enclosure 4F (iprodione) 2 pt 6 pt 14 1 Rhizoctonia bottom rot, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. 2 Iprodione 4L AG (iprodione) 2 pt 6 pt 14 1 Rhizoctonia bottom rot, Sclerotinia drop See label for details.

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Page 148 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 7. Continued. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry2 Nevado 4F (iprodione) 2 pt 6 pt 14 1 Rhizoctonia bottom rot, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. 2 Rovral 4F (iprodione) 2 pt 6 pt 14 1 Rhizoctonia bottom rot, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. 3 Procure 480SC (fludioxinil) 8 fl oz 18 fl oz 0 0.5 Powdery mildew See label for details. 3 Rally 40WSP (myclobutanil) 5 oz 20 oz 3 1 Powdery mildew Supplemental label. See label for details. 3 Sonoma 40WSP (myclobutanil) 5 oz 20 oz 3 1 Powdery mildew See label for details. 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb seed 1 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only. See label for details. 4 Apron XL LS (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl. oz./ 100 lb seed Pythium seedling blight See label for details. 4 Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl) 8 pt 1 Pythium seedling blight Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions. 4 Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam) 2 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for details. 4 Ridomil Gold GR (mefenoxam) 40 lb 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for details. 4 Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam) 0.25 pt 1.0 pt 7 2 Downy mildew Must be applied in a tank-mixture with full rate of another downy mildew registered product 4 Sebring 2.65ST (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 1 Pythium damping off Seed treatment only. 4 Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam) 4 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting. 7 Endura 70WG (boscalid) 11 oz 22 oz 14 0.5 Lettuce drop, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis rot See label for details. 9 & 12 Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil/fludioxonil) 14 oz 56 oz 0 0.5 Alternaria Basal rot Septoria Gray Mold Powdery mildew Sclerotinia Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications. See label for details. 12 Cannonball 50WP (fludioxonil) 0.5 oz 1.5 lb 14 0.5 See label for details.

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Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Page 149 Table 7. Continued. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry11 Amistar 80DF (azoxystrobin) 5 oz 20 oz 0 4 hrs Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin) 16 oz 64 oz 0 0.5 Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) 15.4 fl oz 2.88 qt 0 4 hrs Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Reason (fenamidone) 8.2 fl oz 24.6 fl oz 2 0.5 Downy mildew Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 12 Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil) 0.16 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 0.5 Various seedling diseases Seed treatment only. 13 Quintec (quinoxyfen) 6 fl oz 24 fl oz 1 0.5 Powdery mildew Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. See label for details. 14 Botran 5F (dichloran) 0.6 qt 3.2 qt 14 0.5 Botrytis rot, Sclerotinia diseases See label for details. 15 Acrobat 50WP (dimethomorph) 6.4 oz 32 oz 0 0.5 Downy mildew See label for details. 15 Forum (dimethomorph) 6 fl oz 30 fl oz 0 0.5 Downy mildew Must be applied as a tank-mix with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. 21 Actigard 50WG (acibenzolar) 1 oz 4 oz 7 0.5 Downy mildew Apply preventatively. See label for details. 27 Curzate (cymoxanil) 5 oz 30 oz 3 0.5 Downy mildew Must be applied as a tank-mix with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action. 27 & 11 Tanos (cymoxanil/famoxadone) 8 oz 24 oz 3 0.5 Downy mildew See label for details. 28 Previcur Flex (propamocarb) 2 pt 8 pt 2 0.5 Downy mildew See label for details. 28 Promess (propamocarb) 2 pt 8 pt 2 0.5 Downy mildew See label for details. 33 Aliette 80WDG (fosetyl Al) 5 lb 35 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. 33 Legion 80WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lb 20 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. 33 Linebacker WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lb 20 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides.

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Page 150 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 7. Continued. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry33 Monoand di-Potassium salts of phosphorous acid (See individual labels) including: Alude, Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Prophyt, Phostrol, Rampart, Reveille, Topaz (potassium phosphite) Phorcephite (potassium phosphate/ Potassium phosphite) 0 4 hrs Downy mildew Do not exceed 6 appl/ crop. Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. See label for foliar, root dip and irrigation application details. 40 Forum (dimethomorph) 6 fl oz 30 fl oz 0 0.5 Downy mildew Do not apply alone in sequential applications 40 Revus 250SC (mandipropamid) 8 fl oz 32 fl oz 1 4 hrs Downy mildew Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications. 43 Presidio 4L (fluopicolide) 4 fl oz 12 fl oz 2 0.5 Downy mildew Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of different mode of action. Do not exceed two sequential applications. See label for soil applications. P Regalia (Extract of Reynoutria Sachalinenesis) 0.5% v/v 7 4 hrs Powdery mildew Begin applications preventatively. Spray volumes should be 50-100 GPA. NC Actinovate AG (Streptomyces lydicus) 12 oz 0 1 hr Alternaria, Fusarium, Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia Apply to soil through irrigation, as a seed treatment, to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Armicarb 100 (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot, Septoria leaf spot, Gray mold See label for details. NC Companion L (Bacillus subtilis GB03) 1 gal 0 4 hrs Damping off Botrytis, Fusarium, Powdery mildew, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia Can be applied in field, greenhouse, or hydroponically. See label for details. NC Contans WG (Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08) 6 lbs 4 hrs Sclerotinia diseases Apply to soil surface and incor porate prior to, at planting, or at transplanting. NC Kaligreen (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 1 4 hrs Powdery mildew See label for details. NC Milstop (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 4 hrs Downy mildew Powdery mildew See label for details. NC NutraPic (Chloropicrin) 500 lb 5 days Soilborne fungi Nematodes DANGER. Soil fumigant. Restricted use pesticide. See label for details.

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Page 151 Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Table 7. Continued. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Min. Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryNC Oxidate (hydrogen dioxide) 1:100 dilution 0 0 See label for details. NC PlantShield HC (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2) 5 oz 0 Damping off See label for details. NC Cease (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt/100 gal mix 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop Apply to soil through irrigation, or to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC RootShield Granules (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-22) 12 lb/A field 1.5 lb/Cu Yd greenhouse 0 Damping off Apply in-furrow in field or incorporate in soil mix for greenhouse. See label for details. NC Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. NC Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. NC Sil-Matrix (Potassium silicate) 4 qts 10 gal 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew Apply at a rate of 2-4 qt/100 gal water NC Soilgard 12G (Gliocladium virens strain GL-21) 0 Damping off Root diseases See label for details. NC Sonata (Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew See label for details. NC Sporatec (clove oil, rosemary oil, and thyme oils) 1.5 qt 0 0 Botrytis gray mold, Powdery mildew Sporatec is a concentrated oilbased product. It requires the use of an approved adjuvant to improve spreading and sticking. OMRI listed NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum and T. gamsii) 3 oz/ 1000 ft of row 1 hr Various soilborne diseases Apply up to 7 days before planting. For organic production. NC TerraClean (Hydrogen dioxide) 1 gal/ 1000 gal of water 0 Various soilborne diseases Apply as a soil treatment prior to or after planting NC Trilogy (Neem oil) 4 hrs

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Page 152 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 8. Escarole and Endive fungicides and other disease management products. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryM1 (copper compounds) Many brands available: Basic Copper 53, Champ DP, Champ Formula 2, Kocide 3000, NuCop DF, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF 1 Varies by product from 4 hrs to 2 days Bacterial blight, Downy mildew M2 (sulfur) Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W 1 1 Downy mildew, Powdery mildew Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray. M3 (maneb) Many brands available: Maneb 75DF, Maneb 80WP, Manex, Maneb 80WP Fungicide (ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) 10 1 Downy mildew, Powdery mildew M3 Defiant 75WP (thiram) 5.3 oz/ 100 lbs of seed 1 Damping off Seed treatment only. 3 Procure 480SC (triflumazole) 8 fl oz 18 fl oz 0 0.5 Powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot See label for details. 4 Allegiance FL (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb seed 1 Pythium seedling blight Seed treatment only. See label for details. 4 Apron XL LS (mefenoxam) 0.64 fl. oz./ 100 lb seed 2 Pythium seedling blight See label for details. 4 Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl) 8 pt 2 Pythium seedling blight Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions. 4 Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam) 2 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for details. 4 Ridomil Gold GR (mefenoxam) 40 lb 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for details. 4 Sebring 2.65ST (metalaxyl) 0.75 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 2 Pythium damping off Seed treatment only. 4 Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam) 4 pt 2 Pythium seedling diseases See label for specifics regarding preplant incor porated applications and surface applications at the time of planting. 9 & 12 Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil/fludioxonil) 14 oz 56 oz 0 0.5 Alternaria Basal rot Septoria Gray Mold Powdery mildew Sclerotinia Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications. See label for details.

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Page 153 Table 8. Continued.Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest Reentry11 Amistar 80DF (azoxystrobin) 5 oz 20 oz 0 4 hrs Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin) 16 oz 64 oz 0 0.5 Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Quadris (azoxystrobin) 15.4 fl oz 2.88 qt 0 4 hrs Alternaria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 11 Reason (fenamidone) 8.2 fl oz 24.6 fl oz 2 0.5 Downy mildew Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action. 12 Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil) 0.16 fl oz/ 100 lb of seed 0.5 Various seedling diseases Seed treatment only. 14 Botran 5F (dichloran) 1.6 qt 3.2 qt 14 0.5 Botrytis rot, Sclerotinia diseases See label for details. 27 & 11 Tanos (cymoxanil/famoxadone) 8 oz 24 oz 3 0.5 Downy mildew See label for details. 33 Aliette 80WDG (fosetyl Al) 5 lb 35 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. 33 Legion 80WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lb 20 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. 33 Linebacker WDG (fosetyl-Al) 5 lb 20 lb 3 0.5 Downy mildew Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. 33 Monoand di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid (See individual labels) including: Alude, Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Prophyt, Phostrol, Rampart, Reveille, Topaz (potassium phosphite) Phorcephite (potassium phosphate/ potassium phosphite) 0 4 hrs Downy mildew Do not exceed 6 appl/ crop. Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides. See label for foliar, root dip and irrigation application details. 40 Revus (mandipropamid) 8 fl oz 32 fl oz 1 4 hrs Downy mildew Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications. 43 Presidio (fluopicolide) 3-4 fl oz 12 fl oz 2 0.5 Downy mildew Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of different mode of action. Do not exceed two sequential applications. See label for soil applications.

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Page 154 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 8. Continued. Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryP Regalia (Extract of Reynoutria Sachalinenesis) 0.5% v/v 7 4 hrs Powdery mildew Begin applications preventatively. Spray volumes should be 50-100 GPA. NC Actinovate AG (Streptomyces lydicus) 12 oz 0 1 hr Alternaria, Fusarium, Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia Apply to soil through irrigation, as a seed treatment, to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Armicarb 100 (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot, Septoria leaf spot, Gray mold See label for details. NC Cease (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt/100 gal mix 0 4 hrs Sclerotinia Apply to soil through irrigation, or to foliage as a spray. See label for details. NC Contans WG (Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08) 6 lbs 4 hrs Sclerotinia diseases Apply to soil surface and incorporate prior to, at planting, or at transplanting. NC Kaligreen (potassium bicarbonate) 3 lb 1 4 hrs Powdery mildew See label for details. NC Milstop (potassium bicarbonate) 5 lb 4 hrs Downy mildew Powdery mildew See label for details. NC Oxidate (hydrogen dioxide) 1:100 dilution 0 0 See label for details. NC PlantShield HC (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2) 5 oz 0 Damping off See label for details. NC Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 6 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. NC RootShield Granules (Tricoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-22) 12 lb/A field 1.5 lb/Cu Yd greenhouse 0 Damping off Apply in-furrow in field or incorporate in soil mix for greenhouse. See label for details. NC Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713) 3 lb 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Sclerotinia drop See label for details. NC Sil-Matrix (Potassium silicate) 4 qts 10 gal 0 4 hrs Powdery mildew Apply at a rate of 2-4 qt/100 gal water NC Soilgard 12G (Gliocladium virens strain GL-21) 0 Damping off Root diseases See label for details.

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Table 8. Continued. Page 155 Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Fungicide Group1 Chemical Maximum Rate/Acre Minimum Days to Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens Remarks2Applic. Season Harvest ReentryNC Sonata (Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808) 4 qt 0 4 hrs Downy mildew, Powdery mildew See label for details. NC Sporatec (clove oil, rosemary oil, and thyme oils) 1.5 qt 0 0 Botrytis gray mold, Powdery mildew Sporatec is a concentrated oil-based product. It requires the use of an approved adjuvant to improve spreading and sticking. OMRI listed. NC Tenet WP (Trichoderma asperellum and T. gamsii) 3 oz/ 1000 ft of row 1 hr Various soilborne diseases Apply up to 7 days before planting. For organic production. NC TerraClean (Hydrogen dioxide) 1 gal/ 1000 gal of water 0 Various soilborne diseases Apply as a soil treatment prior to or after planting NC Trilogy (Neem oil) 4 hr

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Vegetable Production Handbook Page 156 Table 9. Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking lettuce and other leafy greens (nonBrassica). Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesActara (thiamethoxam) 1.5-5.5 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not use if other 4A insecticides have been or will be used. Admire Pro (imidacloprid) 4.4-10.5 fl oz 12 21 aphids, leafhoppers, thrips (foliage feeders), whiteflies 4A Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per year. Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests) 11 Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse. OMRI-listed2. *Agri-Mek SC (abamectin) 1.75-3.5 fl oz 12 7 en carmine spider mite, Liriomyza leafminers, twospotted spider mite en 6 No more than 2 sequential applications. Must be used with an adjuvant (but not binder sticker types). Not for use on leafy vegetables grown for transplant. *Ambush 25W (permethrin) 6.4-12.8 oz 12 1 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, leafhoppers, leafminers 3 Do not apply more than 2.0 lb ai/ acre per season. (128 oz) *Asana XL (0.66 EC) (esfenvalerate) 4.8-9.6 fl oz 12 7 beet armyworm (aids in control), cabbage looper, Heliothis spp. 3 Head lettuce only. Do not apply more than 0.35 lb ai. per acre per season. Assail 30SG (acetamiprid) 2.0-4.0 oz 12 7 aphids, whiteflies 4A Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 5 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days. Avaunt (indoxacarb) 2.5-6.0 oz 12 3 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm 22 Do not apply more than 24 ounces of product per acre per crop. Aza-Direct (azadirachtin) 1-2 pts, up to 3.5, if needed 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed. Azatin XL (azadirachtin) 5-21 fl oz 4 0 aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies un Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. *Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin) 0.8-3.2 fl oz 12 0 beet armyworm (1st and 2nd instars), cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, potato leafhopper, saltmarsh caterpillar, thrips, vegetable weevil, yellowstriped armyworm 3 Maximum amount per acre per season: 12.8 fl oz. Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin) 1.6-3.2 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies (suppression) 4A Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Rates above 2.1 oz are on supplemental label. Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin) 4.8 -6.4 oz (soil application) 12 Apply at planting aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies (suppression) 4A Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid) 2.0-2.8 oz 12 0 aphids, plant bugs 9C Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/ acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels. Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars (will not control large armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed.

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Page 157 Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Table 9 Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesBotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana) WP: 0.5-2 lb/100 gal ES: 0.5-2 qts/100 gal 4 0 aphids, thrips, whiteflies -May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides. *Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin) 2.1-6.4 fl oz 12 7 head lettuce, 3 cilantro and coriander aphids, armyworms, carmine mite, corn earworm, cucumber beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, leafhoppers, loopers, Lygus spp., saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bug spp., twospotted spider mite, whiteflies 3 Head lettuce only. Confirm 2F (tebufenozide) 6-8 fl oz 4 7 armyworms, cabbage looper, gar den webworm 18 Do not exceed 56 ounces of product per acre per season. Coragen (rynaxypyr) 3.5-7.5 fl oz 4 1 beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, leafminers, suppression of whitefly nymphs 28 Can be applied by drip chemigation, to soil at planting or used as a foliar spray. Courier 40SC (buprofezin) en 9.0-13.6 fl oz 12 7 leafhoppers, planthoppers, whitefliesen 16 Insect growth regulator. Do not make more than 2 applications per season per crop or 4 per year. Allow 7 days between applications. See label for crop rotational restrictions. Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.25-1.5 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2. *Diazinon AG500 *Diazinon 50W (diazinon) 0.5-1 pt 0.5-1 lb 72 14 (foliar) aphids, leafminers 1B Do not apply more than once. Head and leaf lettuce only. *Diazinon AG500 *Diazinon 50W (diazinon) 1-2 qt, 1-4 qt for endive (escarole) 2-4 lb, 2-8 lb for endive (escarole) 72 head & leaf 96 endive (escarole) preplant cutworms, mole crickets, wireworms 1B See label. Head and leaf lettuce, endive (escarole) only. Dimethoate 4 EC (dimethoate) 0.5 pt 48 14 aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers 1B Leaf lettuce only, not for head lettuce. Also for endive (escarole). DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in greenhouse. OMRI-listed. Durivo (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole) 10-13 oz 12 30 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A, 28 May be applied using one of several soil application methods. Entrust (spinosad) 0.5-3 oz 4 1 armyworms, cabbage looper, leafminers, thrips 5 See label for resistance management recommendations. Do not apply more than 9 oz per acre per crop, or more than 3 times in 21 days. OMRI-listed2.

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Page 158 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 9 Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesExtinguish ((S)-methoprene) en 1-1.5 lb 0 0 fire ants 7A Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially. Fulfill (pymetrozine) 2.75 oz 12 7 bean aphid, green peach aphid, lettuce aphid, potato aphid, red lettuce aphid, suppression of whiteflies. 9B Do not exceed 5.5 oz product per acre per season. Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide) 4-16 fl oz 4 1 armyworms, cabbage looper, webworms 18 Do not apply more than 64 fl oz/ acre per season. Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki) 0.12-1.5 lb 4 0 most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms) 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2. Kryocide (cryolite) 8-20 lb 12 14 armyworms, cabbage looper, corn earworm, tobacco budworm un Do not apply more than 160 1b/ acre/season. For leaf and head varieties of lettuce. *Lannate LV; *SP (methomyl) LV: 1.5-3 pt SP: 0.5-1.0 lb 48 10, or 7 for lowest rates for lettuce only Lettuce: aphids, aster leafhopper, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, thrips, variegated cutworm Endive (escarole): beet armyworm 1A Head varieties: Do not apply more than 24 pt LV per acre per crop or 8 lb SP. Leaf varieties and endive (escarole): Do not apply more than 12 pt LV per acre/crop or 4 lb SP. *Larvin 3.2 (thiodicarb) en 16-30 fl oz 48 14 armyworms, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, tomato fruitworm, southern armyworm 1A Do not exceed 1.5 lb active ingredient per acre per season (60 fl oz). Malathion 8F (malathion) 1-2 pt, 2 pt for lettuce and endive (escarole) 12 7 head, endive, other leafy greens, 14 leaf lettuce aphids, cabbage looper, leafhoppers, mites 1B Can be used in greenhouse. Movento (spirotetramat) 4.0-5.0 fl oz 24 3 aphids, whiteflies 23 Do not apply more than 10 fl oz/ acre/crop. M-Pede 49% Soap, insecticidal 1-2% V/V 12 0 aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies -OMRI-listed2. *MSR Spray Concentrate (oxydemeton methyl) 2 pt 72 21 aphids, mites 1B For head lettuce only. *Mustang (zeta cypermethrin) 2.4-4.3 oz 12 1 aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, leafhoppers, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, whiteflies 3 A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Neemix 4.5 EC (azadirachtin) 4-16 fl oz 12 0en aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies un OMRI-listed2. Oberon 2 SC (spiromesifen) 7.0-8.5 fl oz 12 7 whiteflies 23 Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz. No more than 3 applications.

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Page 159 Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Table 9 Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1NotesOrthene 97 (acephate) 0.5-1.0 lb 24 21 aphids, armyworms (excluding beet armyworm), aster leafhopper, cabbage looper 1B Head lettuce only. Platinum Platinum 75 SG (thiamethoxam) 5.0-11 fl oz 1.66-3.67 oz 12 30 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), whiteflies 4A Maximum = 11 oz/acre or 3.67 oz/ acre (75 SG) per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides. *Pounce 25 W (per methrin) 6.4-12.8 oz 12 1 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, leafhoppers, leafminers, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm 3 Do not apply more than 1.0 lb ai/ acre per season for leafy vegetables other than lettuce (maximum of 0.8 lb ai/acre) *Proaxis Insecticide (gamma-cyhalothrin) 1.92-3.84 fl oz 24 1 Aphids(1), armyworm, beet armyworm(2), cabbage looper, corn ear worm, cutworm, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, green cloverworm, leafhoppers, meadow spittlebug, southern armyworm, spider mites(1), stink bugs, tobacco budworm, vegetable weevil (adult), whiteflies(1)3 Head and leaf lettuce only.(1)Suppression only.(2) First and second instars only. Do not apply more than 2.4 pints per acre per season. *Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) 2.4-4.8 oz 12 7 beet armyworm, corn earworm, fall armyworm, Liriomyza leafminers (suppression), loopers, tobacco budworm 6 Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotation to another product with a different mode of action. Provado 1.6 F (imidacloprid) 3.8 oz 12 7 aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies 4A Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides. PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins) 4.5-18 fl oz 12 0 Aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies, others 3 Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential. Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2. Radiant SC (spinetoram) 5-10 fl oz 4 1 armyworms (not yellowstriped), cabbage looper, corn earworm, Liriomyza leafminer, thrips 5 Maximum of 6 applications, no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.. Requiem 25EC (extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides) 2.0-4.0 qt 4 0 green peach aphid, suppression of Liriomyza leafminers, potato aphid, turnip aphid, whiteflies un Sevin 80S, XLR, 4F (carbaryl) 80S: 0.63-2.5 lb XLR, 4F: 0.5-2.0 qt 12 14 armyworms, aster leafhopper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, Lygus bugs, spittlebugs, stink bugs, tarnished plant bug 1A Repeat as needed, up to 5 times, at least 7 days apart. Sun Spray 98.8%, JMS Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, others Oil, insecticidal 3-6 qts/100 gal H2O (JMS) 1-2 gal/100 gal 4 0 leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies -Organic Stylet-Oil and Saf-T-Side are OMRI-listed2. Synapse WG (flubendiamide) 2.0-3.0 oz 12 1 armyworms, loopers 28 Do not apply more than 9.0 oz/ acre per season. *Telone C 35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin) See label 5 days See label preplanten symphylans, wireworms en -See supplemental label for use restrictions in south and central Florida. *Telone II (dichloropropene)

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Page 160 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 9. Continued. Trade Name (Common Name) Rate (product/acre) REI (hours) Days to Harvest Insects MOA Code1Notes*Thionex 50W (endosulfan) 1.5-2.0 lb 96 14 armyworms, cabbage looper, green peach aphid, leafhoppers, whiteflies 2 Head lettuce no more than 2 applications after thinning. Remove wrapper leaves at harvest. Leaf lettuce no more than 2 applications per season. It is unlawful to use this product after July 31, 2012. Trigard (cyromazine) 2.66 oz 12 7 leafminers en 17 Limited to six applications for head lettuce and five applications for other leafy vegetables. Trilogy (extract of neem oil) 0.5-2.0% V/V 4 0 aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies un Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed. Venom Insecticide (dinotefuran) foliar: 1.0-3.0 oz soil: 5.0-7.5 oz 12 foliar 7 soil 21 Foliar: brown stink bug, cucumber beetle, flea beetle, grasshopper, green stink bug, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid, southern green stink bug, whiteflies Soil: suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid, leafhoppers, leafminers, whiteflies 4A Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season (foliar) or 12 oz per acre per season (soil). Do not use both application methods. See supplemental label. Vetica (flubendiamide and buprofezin) 12.0-17.0 fl oz 12 7 armyworms, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, green cloverworm, imported cabbageworm, suppression of leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, suppression of whitefly 28, 16 Do not apply more than 3 times per season or apply more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Same active ingredients as Synapse, Coragen, and Courier. Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole) 4.0-7.0 oz 12 7 aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, whiteflies 4A, 28 Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season. *Warrior II (lambda-cyhalothrin) en 0.96-1.92 fl oz 24 1 aphids(1), armyworms, beet army worm(2), cabbage looper, corn ear worm, cutworms, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, southern armyworm, spider mites(1), spittlebugs, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, vegetable weevil, whiteflies(1) 3 Head and leaf lettuce only. Do not apply more than 0.3 lb ai/acre per season. (1) Suppression only. (2) 1st and 2nd instar larvae only. Xentari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai) 0.5-2.0 lb 4 0 caterpillars 11 Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

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Chapter 12: Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida Page 161 Table 9. Continued. The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions. 1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 6.1 August 2008. 1A. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action) 1B. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action) 2A. GABA gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action) 3. Sodium channel modulators (nerve action) 4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action) 5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators (nerve action) 6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action) 7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation) 9B and 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers 10. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes 12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism) 15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation) 16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation) 17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation) 18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation) 22. Voltage dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action) 23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation) 28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action) un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action2 OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production. Restricted Use Only.