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This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an Article to be published in J ournal of Map and Geography Libraries 9(4 ) September 2013 which will be available online at: www.tandfonline.com/toc/wmgl20/9/ (DOI will be provided when available). Title : Geoliteracy through aerial photography: c ollaborating with K 12 e ducators to teach the National Geography Standards By: Carol Patterson McAuliffe, University of Florida Abstract : Geoliteracy is a necessary skill for the twenty first century By collaborating with K 12 educators geographic information librarians can play an important role in geoliteracy initiatives as well as gain knowledge and experience to benefit their home institutions. The newly released Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition pub lished in 2012, is a useful tool to bridge the gap between librarians and educators by providing a common framework for educational goals. While there is a wealth of resources within geospatial information collections, ae rial photography is particularly suitable for meet ing the needs of the K 12 educational community and can be linked directly to many of the national standards. This article provides six rationales for increasing the involvement of geographic information librarians in geoliteracy at all e ducational levels and demonstrates how twelve of the eighteen Geography for Life standards can be taught using aerial photography Keywords : g e oliteracy, s patial l iteracy, geographic information l ibrarianship, K 12 e ducation, National Geography Standards, a erial p hotography
Introduction For decades, libraries have been strong proponents of information literacy, and librarians in all types of libraries have played a prominent role as information literacy educators. A s a subset of this vital skill, geographic information literacy or geoliteracy, should now be similarly promoted by geographic information librarians. As denizens of the geographic community, these librarians not only are they responsible for promoting g eoliteracy to their core constituents but they are needed to provide educat ional support to those outside their walls, from primary and secondary school teachers to other information professionals. By doing so, they foster a more geographically l iterate a nd aware society as well as raise their own profiles within libraries and communities. S chool libraries have limited access to geospatial information collections. Even though more and more of these collections and related lesson plans are accessible online, they can be difficult to locate and K 12 teachers need additional training to bolster their confidence in using such resources (Maier and Jones 1999) With support and instruction from geographic information librarians, teachers ca n become equipped to utilize readily available geospatial information in their classrooms and lesson plans. This article will first highlight the need for geoliteracy education and show how involvement of geographic information librarians in K 12 schools is a mutually beneficial arrangement. Next it will provide a clear and structured way of teaching geoliteracy skills by way of the revised standards outlined in Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition (Heffron and Downs 2012). Finally, it will showcase aerial photog raphy collections to illustrate how geospatial information can be used to teach geoliteracy to K 12 students using the National Geography Standards. Geoliteracy: A Vital Twenty First Century Skill Geoliteracy has b een touted by many as a necessary skill for the twenty first century ( Bishop and Johnston 2013 ). eracy as a point of reference. Geoliteracy ( sometimes written as geo literacy) is often used interchangeably with spatial literacy within the literature. One study to describe the important skill (Nazari
and Webber 2011 ) While spatial literacy can be expanded to include an un derstanding of spa tial relationships outside of geographic location, many times i t is firmly grounded in the realm of geograp hy. According to Goodchild ( 2006 ) spatial literacy c an be described as the f orm of a map, understand and recognize the world as viewed from above, recognize and interpret patterns, know that geography is more than just a list of places on the earth's surface, see the value of geography as a basis for organizing and discovering inf Alternatively, one can look at the definition of information literacy to further define geoliteracy Information literacy is the ability to "recognize when information is need ed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information ( ACRL 1989 ) Using this definition as a base geoliteracy can then be defined as the ability to recognize when geographic information is needed and then to locate, evaluate, and use effect ively the needed geospatial information. Finally, t he National Geographic Education website Geo Literacy ( NGE 2013) simply states: literacy is the ability to use geographic understanding and geographi c reasoning to make No matter how it is defined geoliteracy makes critical thinking about human environment interactions a top priority. The twenty first century world is interconnected and globalized on a scale never seen before, which makes the study of these interactions even more important. It is imperative to understand the role geographic information plays in visualizing, evaluating, and ultimately solving many problems the world faces today Unfortunately, many students in the United States continue to sc ore poorly on geoliteracy tests ( NGS 2006; Guertin et al. 2012 ) This lack of geographic awareness leaves students without the necessary skills to meet the demands of the Information Age The National Research Council (NRC) r eport, Lear ning to Think Spatially (2006 ) states "without explicit attention to spatial literacy, we cannot meet our responsibility for equipping the next generation of students for life and work in the 21st Century." A number of national initiatives are being promoted to help raise awareness about the importance of ge oliteracy. Legislation titled geography education In addition, the National Geographic Society received a two year, $2.2 million grant from
the Nation Establishing a Road Map for Large Scale Improvement of K 12 Educatio n in the Geographical Sciences ( Foster 2011). The project brings together collaborators from both professio nal and modern, globally connected ( Foster 2011). of Alliances for Geographic Education, also known as Geographic Alliances. While extending to the national level, these are state alliances between geographers, geography faculty, and K 12 ed ucators. As shown above, there are numerous opportunities for geographic information librarians to get involved in geoliteracy education. The question s then become, why get involved and a re the results worth the effort? Moving beyond our borders: Why geographic information l ibrarians should be involved in K 12 education Geographic information librarians in academic and research libraries are more than just curators of geospatial collections. They regularly offer a wide variety of services from GIS (geo graphic information systems) consulting, course specific bibliographic instruction, community exhibits, and GIS Day celebrations all of which help increase aw areness of li brary services and collections. Sometimes these services, such as an annual GIS Day celebration, extend to the primary and secondary schools (Weimer, Olivares, and Bedenbaugh 2011) Some map libraries make the K 12 education community a priority. Theunissen (2007) reports that the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education at the Universit y of Southern Maine has a donor charged mandate to provide educational opportunities to all age groups. While the value of supporting K 12 education and geoliteracy is beginning to be recognized these cases of intense involvement are still fairly rare and it is far from being seen as a fundamental responsibility of most geospatial information librarians (Theunissen 2007). The main challenges facing librarians who want to extend the ir services to the K 12 community are shrinking budgets and limited time. Hope and Peterson (2002) speculate a reason for the lack of attention to K 12 and academic library relationships is because leaving little room for outside activities. T hey admit can require a large output of (Hope and Peterson 2002). Shires ( 2006) points out, b udget cuts to public and
academic libraries combined with growing demands for information are forcing academic librarians to reconsider While the challenges are daunting and represent impo rtant considerations, there is a lot of evidence pointing to the val ue of cross institutional collaborations. There are both practi cal and ideological reasons a geographic information librarian may decide to make geoliteracy education a priority. Based on a review of the literature and a summation of the various benefits librarians to become involved in geoliteracy education across all educational levels Rationale #1: Geographic information librarians are part of an educational community th at extends past the walls of their institution s There appears to be a consensus within the profession that to remain viable in the twenty first century, special collections need to broaden their reach beyond their (Theunis sen 2007). By restricting activities to home institutions it is impossible to take advantage of the benefits of collaboration inherent in multi institutional cooperative efforts (Maier and Jones 1999; McKinstry and Garrison 2001; Hope and Peterson 2002; Manuel 2005; Burhanna and Jensen 2006; Jackson and Hansen 2006; Bloodworth and Peterson 2011). The American A ssociation of School Librarians/ Association of College and Research Libraries' Blueprint for Collaboration ( AASL/ACRL 200 6 ) further provides examples of academic and K 12 collaborative efforts and explores 12 and post secondary teachers, faculty, and librarians share roles in helping students acquire information literacy skills effectively. Collaborative efforts that enhance the ability of these groups to fulfill t heir mission are imperative 2006 ) G eographic information librarians need to take a more active role in the geographic education community. G etting involved in g eoliteracy education in K 12 schools provides them the opportunity to
reaching out to g 2001 ). With foresight and proper McKinstry and Garrison 2001 ) Rationale #2: Geographic inform ation librarians have access to highly useful materials and knowledge bases that can be used to improve geographic education G eogr aphic information librarians in academic research libraries have access t o a wealth of information within their geospatial collections, both print and digital, as well as subject expertise with those collections. Among these collections are materials few middle and high schools have ready access to such as Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, old city street maps, t ravel guides as well as primary source materi als like aerial photographs (Manuel 2005; Bloodworth a nd Petersen 2011) Events such as 12 schools and academic libraries, public (Manuel 2005) In the role of subject expert and information professional their knowledge base and experience provide s a unique perspective which can make a lasting contri bution to geography education ( McKinstry and Garrison 2001 ) One multi institutional project betwe en the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the University of Houston Clear Lake (UHCL) worked to train area K 12 teachers in the use of shuttle imagery to enhance geography lessons. The staff at JSC sought out UHCL faculty because they understood the educational val ue o f their collection and felt it was being underutilized in that role. G eography education can be strengthened by interaction between preservice and inservice teachers and experts applying geographic By w utilization of a readily available and free resource through the internet of shuttle imagery, 2) teacher contact with scientists who use geographic knowledge daily in their work for NASA, 3) inc reased knowledge of other NASA It is clear g eographic information librarians possess an abundance of knowledge and resources that can be used in geography education at all levels. (Maier and Jones 1999)
Rationale #3: Geographic information librarians c an raise awareness of their collections both in their communities and within their institutions through educational opportunities. As mentioned earlier, many libraries are facing continuously tightening budgets. Whil e it can be difficult to justify new initiatives in this budgetary climate, it is important to remember that those same initiatives can help a library or collection survive during difficult times. Map libraries are specifically threatened due to a lack of knowledge about their specialized collections among higher administrators and decision makers. This awareness deficit must be overcome to effectively compete for funding. Education and collaboration opportunities can be particularly useful ways to enh ance the visibility of geospatial information collections, the services of a geographic information library, and work to restate the role of the library in the community ( Jackson and Hansen 2006). This is fully supported by literature studying collaborati ons between higher education libraries and K 12 educators. S tudies repeatedly show such collaborative efforts result in increased exposure for the collections and technology, improved community relations, enhanced public image, and emphasized the mportance in lifelong learning ( Hope and Peterson 2002; Burhanna and Jensen 2 006; Jackson and Hansen 2006). Furthermore, raising awareness of the need for geoliteracy education and its relevance to modern society increase s the general aware ness of the strategic importance of geospatial information collections as a valuable resource. Rationale #4: Geographic information librarians can gain new experiences that are applicable to problems facing users in their home institutions. While there i s a lot the profession can offer K 12 education, increased involvement in raising awareness of geoliteracy can have benefits at home institutions as well. First of all, information literacy skills are enhanced by collaborative relationships through shar ed res ources and continuous discussion. Because of the focus on standards and learning outcomes, collaborat ions with K 12 schools can serve as testing grounds for larger issues that need to be addressed such as improved ass essment of geoliteracy programs in higher education. Increasing involvement with the K 12 educational community allows
academic librarians to learn about different perspectives and experiences in dealing with similar problems, and Peterson 2002) In addition as the importance of geoliteracy and geospatial reasoning is further realized by educators and administrators at all educational levels, there is the increased likelihoo d geoliteracy can make its way into general e ducation requirements and core courses at the university level (Tsou and Yanow 2010). A solid foundation in geospatial reasoning gives students in many disciplines additional tools to handle the complex scienti fic and social questions facing society today (Guertin et al. 2012). The fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) are greatly enriched by the incorporation of geospatial tools and an increased spatial perspective (Wai, Lubinski, and Ben bow 2009; Newcombe 2010; Baker 2012 ). Furthermore, geoliteracy learning should be embedded into the undergraduate g eography curriculum and it should involve both the geography faculty and the geographic information librarian working together to create a c omprehensive geoliteracy plan (Kimsey and Cameron 2005) Geographic information librarians must also consider the needs of the fellow librarians at their institutions. Bishop geoliteracy, or spatial literacy, has emerged as a type of information literacy that librarians of all types need to understand in that geospatial data are sources of information Geographic information librarians can and should play a central role in the process, whether through input into LIS curr iculum development or through continuing education training for library professionals. Rationale #5: Geographic information librarians have a professional responsibility to participate in geographic education as well as a public mandate to provide service s to all public groups since many institutions and collections are publicly funded. Many collections of geospatial information contain materials that were produced by government agencies via public funds such as United States Department of Agriculture aer i al photography collections, United States
Geologic Survey topographic maps, Central Intelligence Agency country studies, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration nautical charts and anything received through the Federal Depository Library Program. In addition, geospatial information collections are often housed in publicly funded institutions. In a study surveying Florida academic libraries, Shires (2006) notes that services acad emic librarians in public and land grant institutions may, in fact, have a legal obligation to serve the schools There is an expectation that population, including K 12 schools ( Shires 2 006) Clearly, those academic libraries that participate in the Federal Depository Library Program and/or founded as land grant institutions have missions extending beyond service to their own students and faculty. Mandates can come from of good community ( Shires 2006) As such, b eing an active participant in geoliteracy education for the benefit of the community is a worthwhile endeavor in its own right G eographic information literacy profes sionals need to be less defined by place or teaching level and more col Jackson and Hansen 2006 ). In a 2001 interview, Patricia Breivik, a leader in bringing information literacy to how we see ourselves as a profession. Are we the keepers of the library, or do we have something to offer to the (quoted in Hope a nd Peterson 2002). Rationale #6: Geographic information librarians can increase their ability to receive additional funding through grants and nonprofit organizations. As library budgets dwindle, the pressure to br ing in outside funding rises. Improving K 12 education has long served as an admirable and highly fundable grant supported activity. There are many examples specifically relating to the collaboration between higher education and area schools, such as the Library Services and Technology (LSTA) and the Institute of Museum and Library Services
(Jackson and Hansen 2006) Both of these project s strengthened communication and collaboration among school and academic libraries to further meet the needs of stud ents. The National Science Foundation has shown increased interest in funding literacy projects involving STEM fields, an area where geolit eracy awareness has been shown to have a major impact (Bloodworth and Petersen 2011 ) collections can highlight this benefit when applying to funding agencies (Shires 2005) A framework for success: Using the National Geography Standards to structure geoliteracy initiatives The question then becomes, how can this cooperative effort be best accomplished ? While the answer is complex with many possible approaches and actions to be taken, the following takes a closer look at how the use of national standards can aid in communication and collaboration with K 12 schools. When collaborating with K 12 schools, it is important to understand the system in which they have to operate. They use curriculum standards and learning outcomes to provide organization and consistency to educational goals. Geographic information librarians can also benefit fr om using the National Geography Standards in their geoliteracy education in itiatives. Kimmel (1996) states nd For the same reason, geoliteracy education at the university level can be enhanced by using the National Geography S tandards ( Johnson 1995). When working across ed ucational levels, standards provide and Jensen 2006) By linking geospatial information collectio ns to these proven standards, geographic information librarians lend credibility to their educational roles and increase con fidence in their abilities when speaking with other geography educators. The first edition of Geography for Lif e: National Geography Standards w as published in October 1994 by the National Council for Geographic Education and ha s served as the basis for numerous states curriculum standards in geography and for many textbooks. While the original standards served well for many years, an update was
deemed necessary to reflect the changes in the way the world looks at and uses geogr aphy, notably the paradigm shift that has occurred with the widespread use of online mapping and GIS (Heffron 2012) The revised 2012 edition maintains consistency with the 1994 standards so th e state standards based on them will be easily connected to and still be supported by the new standards (Heffron 2012) The new edition expands on the original 18 standards by providing additional educational materials to teach geographic perspective and reasoning. Additionally, the wording of two standards was c hanged slightly. maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technologies, and spatial thinking to understand and communicate i representing he c oncept of Heffron 2012 ) Heffron (2012) suggests regional scale bi While there is a wealth of resources within geospatial information collections, aerial photography stands out as a pa rticularly useful resource for the needs of the K 12 community a nd one that links directly to many of the Geography for Life standards. Aerial photography, in this case, provides a proof of concept example. Using aerial photography collections to teach geoliteracy maintain student interest while providing a contextual setting to strengthen their ability to reason proportionally. Free, on demand, high resolution, large scale aerial photography provides both a bird's eye view of the world and a new perspective on one (Roberge and Cooper 2010 ) M any resource s in geospatial collections can be used to enhance geoliteracy education. Aerial photography, in particular, has a number of noteworthy attributes making it ideal for this purpose A erial photogr aphy has a long history of value and is use d in a wide array of fields utilizing geospatial info rmation Secondly, aerial photography is a primary source, a type of material highly sought after by teachers. Finally, while not every geospatial collection
has an aerial photog raphy collection onsite, aerial photographs are often targeted for digitization projects and many examples can be found online. A erial photography, when digitized and geo r eferenced, pairs well with GIS providing an extremely useful to ol when teaching students spatial reasoning skills. Historically, the United States Department of Agriculture has been one of the largest producers of aerial photography in the United States for the purpose of assist ing farmers in accurately assess ing their productivity as well as providing information on soil conservation. Today, aerial photography can provide a historical record for studying such things as land use change, landform change, demographic change, and habitat assessment. It can be used for community planning, environmental enforcement, industrial projects, transportation planning, creating base map Aerial photographs are the epitome of primary source materials. hentic student s to ask their own questions and form their own conclusions (Dennis 2001; Manuel 2005) This is particularly helpful when teaching information literacy since it focuses on developing reasoning and analyti cal skills M aps portray the physical and cultural landscape as interpreted by a cartographer. Cartographers make many decisions while creating maps that influence how the audience perceives the spatial information. In contrast, aerial photography captures the sur face of the Earth as it existed at t he time the photograph was taken This includes the physical terrain, as well as all buildings, bridges, roads, developed areas, and other man made features. In addition, the se features are shown with precision and acc uracy, which are often not replicated map s Aerial photography and other remote sensing products are increasingly available freely online for public use, making them easily accessi ble to teachers and students. Some g eovisualization sites li ke GoogleEarth even i nclude historic aerial photography layers. Plus, geo referenced aerial photographs can be downloaded and used in GIS which allows students to explore spatial relationships to an even greater degree. While these materials have been available online for some time, teachers have not been using them to their full capacity because they d o not feel they ha ve and Jones
1999). Furthermore, some websites that provide digital access to aerial photographs are difficult to navigate and require additional instruction on how to find materials Geographic information librarians can play an imp ortant role educating teachers o Jones 1999) As stated earlier, using the Nati onal Geography Standards improves communication with other educators. By applying this fra mework to aerial photographs, geographic information librarians can increase t eacher confidence in using this highly useful geospatial resource. In Geography for Life: National Geography Standards Second Edition ( Heffron and Downs 2012), K 12 curriculum in geogr aphic education has been grouped into six Essential Elements: The World in Spatial Terms, Places and Regions, Human Systems, Physical Systems, Environment and Society, and The Uses of Geography. Each Essential Element ha s a numbe r of standards associated with it for a total of 18 s tandards describing ntent of knowledge of geography (Heffron 2012) T o effectively and comprehensively teach all of these standards many types of geospatial resources should be utilized Aerial photography in particul ar, is a useful resource for teaching a number of the standards as demonstrated below. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS Standard 1 How to use maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technologies, and spatial thinking to understand and communicate i nformation Specific Application: Aerial photographs are primary geographic sources that can be used in geospatial technologies to enhance the analysis and communication of geospatial information. They can be compare d and contrast ed with other forms of ge o graphic representations and how they communicate different aspects of geospatial information.
Standard 3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface Specific Application: Aerial photographs provide opportunities to study spatial relationships and their influence on the surface of the Earth. They allow for combined studies of p hysical and human systems and the analysis of spatial patterns as they change over time. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: PLACES AND REGIONS Standard 4. Specific Application: Aerial photographs provide a detailed view of both the physical and human characteristics of a place. They differ from maps because there are no biases inherent in the photography. Standard 6. How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions Specific Application : Aerial photographs help students to think critically about their ideas regarding the world and how lif e experiences have influenced their perceptions. Aerial photographs provide students with an accurate view of th eir environment which they can use examine their own ideas and biases. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: PHYSICAL SYSTEMS The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface Specific Application: Aerial photographs are a primary source for observing how physical processes such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, droughts, and erosion change the patterns on the surface of the Earth over time The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth's surface
Specific Application: Aerial photographs provide a way to identify different types of ecosystems such as wetlands, hardwood hammocks, etc., and to observe cha nges in ecosystems over time as they are impacted by physical processes and human activity. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: HUMAN SYSTEMS Standard 9. The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface Specific Application: Students can learn about human systems by studying man made structures and other characteristics of human population and distribution in the photographic record. The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement Specific Application: Aer ial photographs show many processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement. They allow for in depth studies of human phenomena, such as urban sprawl. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY How human actions modify the physical environment Specific Application: Aerial photographs allow for the study o f how human actions, such as deforestation, urban development, and the construction of dams and canals, have significant impacts on the environment. How physical systems affect human systems Specific Application: Aerial photographs show the immediate impact of natural disasters on human populations They can show both specific regions affected and the full extent of the devastation caused by physical systems. ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY How to apply geography to interpret the past
Specific Application: The historic record is captured in aerial photography. This al lows students to interpret the past and explore historic sites and events in new ways How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future Specific Application: Aerial photography allows students to view what is on the ground now, develop ideas about what shaped the environment in the past, and how it will be shaped in the future. The following two examples further illustrate how aerial photography re lates to the National Geography Standards. Example 1: The Cross Florida Barge Canal : Ocklawaha River and the Rodman Dam The effort to create a canal traversing Florida, to save on travel time and shipping costs, has a long history After a number of failed attempts to gain the needed funding, the canal project officially broke ground in 1964. As part of the larger canal project the Rodman Dam was completed in 1968 on the Ocklawaha River, which r esulted in Lake Ocklawaha, also known as Rodman Reservoir. Citing environmental concerns, the project was halted in 1971 and was officially cancelled in 1991. While the Cross Florida Barge Canal Project is now defunct, the Rodman Dam remains though ther e are many ongoing campaigns to restore the Ocklawaha River to its previous state. Using aerial photography, it is easy Ocklawaha River over time. Figure 1 shows the natural flow of the river in 1964. The flood plains surrounding the river are clearly visible The same area shown in 1972 (Figure 2) shows the radical change that has occurred due to the building of the dam. The flood plain in the area of the dam is now completely underwater while certain p arts of the river are still exposed. This transitional period highlights the effect of human actions on the environment (Standard 14). Additionally, the imagery can be used to study rivers and flood plains (Standards 7 and 8) and to study the historical impact and future ramifications of the Rodman Dam and the Cross Florida Barge Canal Project (Standards 17 and 18).
FIGURE 1 Aerial photography image of Ocklawaha Rive r (Putnam and Marion County, Florida), 1964. FIGURE 2 Aerial photography image of Ocklawaha Rive r with the inclusion of the Rodman Da m and Reservoir (Putnam and Marion County, Florida), 1972
Example 2: Urban Growth in South Flo rida: Roosevelt Middle School, West Palm Beach, FL mendously in the later part of the twentieth century Between 1950 and 2000, the number of people living in the state period can be attributed to an increase in job opportunities, rec reational amenities, and the convenience of air conditioning (Smith 200 5 ) a major impact on the economy, culture, and natural env ironment 5 ) South Florida and Palm Beach County, in particular gained popularity as a retirement location The city of West Palm Beach showed almost 100% growth rate from 1950 to 1960 and substantial growth rates in the decades following as well ( P alm Beach County History Online 2013 ) S tudents currently attendin g Roosevelt Middle School can use aerial photography to view changes in West Palm Beach over the last 50 years. When the school was built in the 1990s, a reengineered Lake Mangonia can be seen to the east of I 95 (Figure 3). A erial photography from the same region in 1953 (Figure 4), challenges the students to examine their own impressions and perceptions of the areas in which they live (Standard 6). The change The development of the swamp lands on the west side of Lake Mangonia from 1950s to the 1990s can help students study urbanization and the effects of urban sprawl (Standard 12). Finally, the photographs provide a unique look into the past, allowing students to track changes over time, and gives the students the tools to try and predict future development (Standards 17 and 18).
F IGURE 3 Aerial photography image of Lake Mangonia (West Palm Beach, FL), 1995. FIGURE 4 Aerial photography image of Lake Mangonia (West Palm Beach, FL), 1953.
Conclusion Collaboration between K 12 schools and academic libraries is widely documented and the mutual benefits are generally acknowledged. A dditional research is required to quantify the advantages to geographic information librarianship as described b y the six rationales listed above The mutual benefits of multi institutional collaborations for geographic information libraries should correlate to higher usage statistics of geospatial collections, a raised profile and general awareness of geospatial collections and services at the library, an increase in geoliteracy initiatives at home institutions, and an increase in outside funding based on involvement in education at all levels. Each of these could be evaluated through additional research, thereby opening up numerous exciting areas for future study. Similarly, further resea rch is required to evaluate if the Geography for Lif e: National Geography Standards Second Edition are meeting the needs of educators and which geospatial resources and technologies are the best tools for teaching. W ith the intense focus on STEM fields, it would be helpful to take a closer look at how aerial photography can be used in conjunction with GIS to f urther enhance STEM education.
It is important to remember that while collaborating with K 12 educators is one way to become involved in furtheri ng geoliteracy education, it is certainly not the only way. Most states have Geographic Alliances who work to promote geoliteracy and fill state level geography curriculum needs. These groups actively welcome volunteer involvement from knowledgeable prof essionals within their state Professional organizations such as the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), the American Association of Geographers (AAG) and the American Geographical Society (AGS), offer scholarship and training opportunities as well as additional avenues for collaboration. The development of workshops and webinars for K 12 educators, school media specialists, geographers, and other librarians is another area wh ere geographic information librarians can lead in geoliteracy educ ation. Geographic information librarians have an important role to play in geoliteracy education, both at their home institutions as well as within K 12 school systems. By collaborating with educators, geographic information librarians can raise the prof ile of their collections and services while providing much needed knowledge of and access to a wide r ange of geospatial resources. It is vital that geography education is supported by th ose in the field of geography. As members of the geographic communit y, promoting geoliteracy goes beyond being a professional opportunity and moves into the realm of professional responsibility References AASL/ACRL (American Association of School Librarians / Association of College and Research Libraries) Task Force on the Educational Role of Libraries. 2006. Blueprint for Collaboration American Library Association http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/whitepapers/acrlaaslblueprint doi:abe13b88 6ff0 50d4 a5e5 c0f6773595f4. ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries). 1989. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). American Library Association http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential
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