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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003399/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sorghum Nematode Management
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Rich, Jimmy R.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Revised: December 2005 and June 2010."
General Note: "ENY-007"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003399:00001


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1 Jimmy R. Rich and Robert A. Kinloch2 1. This document is Fact Sheet ENY-007 (NG017), one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Revised: December 2005 and June 2010. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Jimmy R. Rich, professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology, North Florida REC, Quincy, FL and Robert A. Kinloch, associate professor (retired), Department of Entomology and Nematology, West Florida REC, Jay, FL, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Sorghum is a host for sting (Belonolaimus longicaudatus ), stubby root (Paratrichodorus spp.), lesion (Pratylenchus spp.), and ring (Criconemella spp.) nematodes. Damage from these nematodes to sorghum is usually not severe unless the crop has been monocultured for several years. Field corn and millet share many common nematode pests of sorghum. If these crops recently had a problem with nematodes in a specific field site, sorghum could possibly be affected if planted at the same location. However, sorghum's apparently greater tolerance to water stress than field corn makes it less sensitive to similar soil population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. The presence or potential for nematode problems in sorghum could be suggested by one or more of the following: 1) Cropping history of the field, e.g. two or more years production of sorghum, other grass crops or equally nematode-susceptible crops; 2) Above-ground symptoms including off-color and/or stunted sorghum in spots or large areas of a field; 3) Below-ground symptoms such as small knots on roots or stunted and swollen root tips. Above-ground symptoms of nematode injury could include stunting, thin stands, premature wilting under moderate heat or drought stress, and nutrient deficiency symptoms. Since nematode numbers can vary greatly within very short distances in the field, areas of stunted growth, yield reduction, and other above-ground symptoms of nematode damage vary greatly in shape, size, and distribution. Nematode problems of sorghum can only be determined accurately by nematode assay. Prior to taking samples, contact your county Extension agent for information concerning available sampling tools, shipment bags and proper procedures for submitting samples. Samples should not be taken when the soil is dusty dry or soggy wet. Two sampling strategies may be employed. A general survey should be performed every two to three years, and soil samples should be taken soon after the summer crop has been harvested. A soil core (1-inch wide by 8-10 inches deep) should

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Sorghum Nematode Management 2 be taken for each acre in a 10-acre block containing a uniform soil type and cropping history. The cores should be thoroughly mixed and a 1-pint sample placed in a sealed plastic bag and kept cool (not frozen) before immediate shipment to an advisory laboratory. In a more definitive strategy where a nematode problem is suspected, several soil cores from within and immediately around a poor growth site should be taken while the crop is still growing. Include portions of damaged roots with the soil sample. These samples should be collected and handled as described above. Ten acre sampling patterns; take 10 to 20 soil cores. Sorghum is more likely to be used as a nematode management tool in rotation with other crops than be the object of a nematode management program. Sorghum should not be used for rotation on land infested with sting, stubby-root and/or lesion root nematodes to which it is susceptible, however, it is an excellent crop to rotate with other crops to reduce numbers of several kinds of plant-parasitic nematodes. Most varieties of sorghum are moderate to poor hosts of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Sorghum is a non-host for soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nematodes. Hence sorghum is a good management tool in the production of cotton, peanut, soybean, and many vegetable crops. Nematicides have been approved for use in sorghum production (Table 1). We lack sufficient research data on sorghum to determine exacting nematode population level requirements for chemical treatments, but some very high levels of these nematodes may justify nematicide use. It is expected that the nematode population levels requiring economic threshold for treatment of sorghum will be higher than that for corn. As with other crops, the expense of chemical treatment is more easily justified if the crop is managed for very high yield than when being maintained at a low input level.

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Sorghum Nematode Management 3 Nematicides that may be used for the management of nematodes on grain sorghum. Counter 15G 7.0 oz. / 1000 ft. row in a 7-inch band and incorporated at planting. No more than 11.3 lb. / acre, regardless of row spacing. Counter 20G 5.2 oz. / 1000 ft. row in a 7-inch band and incorporated at planting. No more than 8.4 lb. / acre, regardless of row spacing. Temik 15G 7.5 oz. / 1000 ft. row in a 7-inch band; apply in the seed furrow at planting. No more than 7 lb. / acre, regardless of row spacing. Telone II 28 fl. oz. / 1000 ft. row/outlet via a single chisel to a soil depth of 12-14 inches. *Note: In addition to the Temik label, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has issued specific regulations governing the use of Temik including permitting requirements and application distances from water wells. For more information and permitting forms, go to: http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/onestop/aes/temik.html