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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00003100/00001
 Material Information
Title: Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Buttler, T.M.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1995
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication date: May 1991. Revised: September 1995."
General Note: "Circular 1011"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00003100:00001


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CIR1011 Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection1 T.M. Buttler, A.G. Hornsby, P.W.M. Augustijn-Beckers, L.B. McCarty, D.E. Short, R.A. Dunn, G.W. Simone2 1. This document is Circular 1011, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: May 1991. Revised: September 1995. 2. T.M. Buttler, A.G. Hornsby, and P.W.M. Augustijn-Beckers, Soil and Water Science Department; L.B. McCarty, Environmental Horticulture Department; D.E. Short and R.A. Dunn, Entomology and Nematology Department; and G.W. Simone, Plant Pathology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN GOLF COURSE MAINTENANCE Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on surface water and groundwater quality should motivate turf-golf course operators to select pesticides with the least potential to cause water quality problems. Many operators live in rural areas near where they and other operators grow turf, therefore, their personal water supply is susceptible to contamination. Unfortunately, information that allows operators to select pesticides less likely to affect water quality has not previously been readily available. Our purpose is to provide information that can help operators select pesticides that will have a minimum adverse impact on water quality. The procedure considers the soil properties of the application site, the mobility of pesticides in these soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will decrease chances of adversely affecting surface water and groundwater quality. Certain combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along with weather conditions) can pose a significant potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to identify and avoid these circumstances. Information contained in this report can help turf-golf course operators make better decisions about the pesticides that they use. This document in no way endorses any particular pest control product. All products must be used in accordance with the label. MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS PROCEDURE To effectively use this procedure you will need the following source materials: 1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides or other appropriate information sources that identify pesticides that control specific pests. 2. A copy of your county soil survey report to identify the soil types found in your fields. 3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled "[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting Pesticides" for your county, available from your county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 2 Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also available from your county Cooperative Extension Office. Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and determination of soil types and ratings for leaching and runoff of pesticides. IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT PESTICIDE SELECTION How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by many factors including properties of the pesticides and of the soil at the application site. Some of the factors that should be considered when selecting pesticides with minimal potential for water quality impacts are: Pesticide Properties 1) The organic carbon adsorption coefficient, Koc, describes the relative affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2) The biological degradation half-life, T 1/2, is a measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3) The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent, HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic toxicity, LC50, is a measure of the ability of the pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test species. Soil Properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a measure of the soils ability to allow water to percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is important for providing binding sites for pesticides, thus reducing their mobility and increasing their opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms. 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off the land surface. Management Practices 1) Pesticide application frequencies and rates determine the total amount applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the potential for contamination. 2) Application methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to transport by water. For example, if applied directly to the soil, there is a greater probability that more of the product will be available for leaching or runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product is incorporated into the soil, leaching may be the most important loss pathway. Pesticides applied to the foliage may be lost to the atmosphere, decomposed by sunlight, or absorbed by the foliage, thereby reducing the amount available for wash-off and transport to water bodies. Irrigation practices can also determine the loss pathways of pesticides. Pesticides often move with water, so the less excess water that is applied, the less potential there is for a pesticide to move past the crop root zone or to run off in surface water. Rainfall or overhead irrigation can wash off significant quantities of pesticides from foliage immediately after application. INDICES USED TO SELECT PESTICIDES Table 1 contains two important indices, the pesticide leaching potential (RLPI) and the pesticide runoff potential (RRPI). Both indices are relative. For a given soil, these indices rank the pesticides by their potential to move from the application site by the indicated pathway (leaching or runoff). The indices are based on the organic carbon sorption coefficient and degradation half-life values of each pesticide. Values for these parameters have been taken from scientific literature, technical manuals, and company product literature. Relative Leaching Potential Index The Relative Leaching Potential Index (RLPI) defines the relative attenuation (reduction in mass as it moves through the soil) of each pesticide in soil, and therefore its potential to leach to groundwater. Pesticides that are very mobile, for example, those that have Koc values less than 100 in sandy soils, or 50 or less in fine-textured soils should be used with caution. There is some uncertainty in the data used to calculate this index. However, since the values are relative they can still be used. It is important to realize that the smaller the RLPI value of a pesticide, the greater is its potential to leach.

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 3 Relative Runoff Potential Index The Relative Runoff Potential Index (RRPI) defines the relative immobility and availability of each pesticide in soil, and therefore its potential to remain near the soil surface and be subject to loss in the aqueous phase or sediment phase of runoff. There is some uncertainty in the data used to calculate this index. However, since the values are relative they can still be used. The smaller the RRPI value of a pesticide, the greater is its potential to be lost in runoff. Table 1 also contains information on the toxicity of pesticides to humans and aquatic species. This information can be used as a secondary consideration in the pesticide selection procedure. Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Equivalent The Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Equivalent (HALEQ) provides a measure of pesticide toxicity to humans. The lifetime health advisory level as defined by the USEPA is the concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse health effects over a lifetime of exposure (70 years), with a margin of safety. The values in Table 1 are the USEPA lifetime health advisory level, HAL, or an equivalent value, HALEQ (denoted by a superscripted asterisk), calculated using the same formula used by the USEPA (HALEQ = RfD x 7000), where RfD is the reference dose determined by the USEPA. For non-carcinogenic pesticides the calculated HALEQ should not differ by more than a factor of 10 from the values forthcoming from the USEPA. The HAL or HALEQ has units of micrograms per liter (g/l, or ppb). The smaller the value the greater is the toxicity to humans. Aquatic Toxicity The Aquatic Toxicity provides a measure of pesticide toxicity to aquatic species. The values given in Table 1 are the lethal concentrations at which 50% of the test species die (LC50 ). Unless otherwise noted by a lower case letter following the value, the test species was rainbow trout. The smaller the value the greater is the toxicity to aquatic species. Data for Koc, RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and aquatic toxicity are given for the active ingredient (common name) of a product. When using a product that is a mixture of two or more active ingredients use the RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity value for the most restrictive active ingredient in the mixture. Important Note: The information presented in Table 1 DOES NOT supersede or replace the information on the pesticide container label or product literature. PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PESTICIDES TO REDUCE ADVERSE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS A "Pesticide Selection Worksheet" is provided as a convenient way to organize the information needed to select pesticides to avoid water pollution by pesticides in a particular production or management unit. Instructions for using the worksheet are outlined below. The function of the worksheet is to match the soil leach and runoff ratings at the application site with the pesticide RLPI (leaching) and RRPI (runoff) indices and toxicity values given in Table 1. This will indicate the relative potential for pesticides to leach or run off from a particular site and consider the toxicity of the pesticides to humans or aquatic life if the pesticides leach into groundwater or if runoff enters surface impoundments or streams. The last two columns are for recording the turf-golf course operator's choices and reasons for selecting particular products. Our intent is to provide a decision support tool for the turf-golf course operator. The operator is responsible for making the final choice. The completed worksheet can serve as a permanent record of the selection process used and decision made by the operator. USING THE WORKSHEET 1. TARGET PEST: Correct identification of the pests that need to be controlled is essential! Check with knowledgeable experts and utilize competent diagnostic laboratories so that a proper diagnosis can

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 4 be made. Misdiagnosis results in the wasteful use of unnecessary pesticides and needless increases in production costs. List confirmed pests in column 1 of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. 2. RECOMMENDED PESTICIDES: Use the current IFAS Pest Control Guides, or other appropriate information sources to identify the pesticides that control the pests of concern. List these pesticides in column 2 of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. 3. PESTICIDE PROPERTIES: For each pesticide listed in column 2 on the Pesticide Selection Worksheet, copy the numeric value for Koc, RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity from Table 1 into columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. 4. SOIL PROPERTIES: Consult the County Soil Survey Report soil map sheets to locate your production fields and to identify the soils that occur in these fields. Use the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled "[Your County]:Soil Ratings for Selecting Pesticides" (available from your county Cooperative Extension Office) to determine the leaching and surface runoff rating of the soils in your fields. As you determine the soil leach rating and the soil runoff rating for each soil in each field, list the soil name, soil leach rating, and soil runoff rating in columns 8, 9, and 10, respectively, of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. 5. SELECTION OF PESTICIDES: Using information that you have compiled on the Pesticide Selection Worksheet, select appropriate pesticides using the selection criteria on page 4 to match soil and pesticide properties. The selection made can be recorded in column 11 and notes relating to the selection can be recorded in column 12. Notes: 1. If the pesticide product selected is a formulated mixture or a tank mix, each active ingredient must be considered. The most restrictive pesticide in the mixture will determine the choice. Trade names in Table 1 followed by (M) are formulated mixtures. 2. Sometimes there may not be a clear choice from among the alternative chemicals available to control a particular pest. In these cases, first order screening using the RLPI or RRPI only can suffice. 3. Depth to groundwater and local geohydrology may influence your final selection. Shallow groundwater is more vulnerable to contamination. Deep water tables with intervening impermeable geologic layers are much less vulnerable. 4. Distance to surface water bodies may also influence your final selection. Surface waters adjacent to or near the pesticide application site are more vulnerable to contamination than those further away. If surface runoff from the application site usually infiltrates into the soil off site before reaching a surface water body, then the HALEQ should be considered as the secondary screening index. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The development of this document was supported by the USDA/ES Water Quality Initiative Project #89EWQI-1-9134 and the Center for Natural Resources, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 5 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Fumigants Basimid G dazomet INC 10 E14 14 nd toxic Brom-O-Gas methyl bromideINJ 22 4 4 7 2.5 Terr-O-Gas (M) chloropicrin INJ 62 620620 nd nd Terr-O-Gas (M) methyl bromideINJ 22 4 4 7 2.5 Vapam metham sodiumINJ, INC 10 E14 14 nd 0.079 Fungicide ATO Maneb maneb x 2000 E285 7 40 1.9 Aliette fosetyl-aluminiumxx 20 2000>1,000 20000 428 Apron metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100 Banner propiconazole x 650 E59 13 100 1.3b Banol propamocarb x 27 nd nd nd 410

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 6 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Bayleton triadimefon x 300 115115 200 14 Chipco iprodione x 700 500102 300 6.7 Clean Crop Evade chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Clean Crop Mancozeb mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Clean Crop PCNB PCNB x 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox Clearys 3336 thiophanate-methyl x nd nd nd nd 20d Clearys PCNB PCNB x 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox ConSyst (M) thiophanate-methyl SPR 1830 E183054 600 11d ConSyst (M) chlorothalonil SPR 1380 46024 2 0.049 Curalin vinclozolin SPR 100 E50 50 200 52.5 Daconil chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Dow Elanco Broadway (M) fenarimol x 600 16 4 500 1.8 Dow Elanco Broadway (M) chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Duosan (M) thiophanate-methyl x 1830 E183054 600 11d Duosan (M) mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Echo chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 7 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Engage PCNB DREN CH 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox Fore WP mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Formec 80 mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Fungo thiophanate-methylxx 1830 E183054 600 11d Koban etridiazole xx 1000 E97 9 nd 4 Lesco Granular Turf Fcide triadimefon x 300 115115 200 14 Lesco Mancozeb mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Lesco Revere PCNB x 5000 E>2,0009 20 low Lesco Twosome (M) chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0 0.049 Lesco Twosome (M) fenarimol x 600 16 4 500 1.8 Manex(M) zinc x nd nd nd nd nd Manex(M) maneb x 2000 E285 7 40 1.9 Manicure chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Pace (M) mancozeb x 2000 E285 7 20 1b Pace (M) metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100 Penstar PCNB DREN CH 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 8 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Prodigy fosetyl-aluminumDREN CH SPR 20 2000>1, 000 20000 428 Protar flutolanil DREN CH nd nd nd nd 5.4 Protect T/O mancozeb SPR 2000 E285 7 20 1b Regal Consyst (M) chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Regal Consyst (M) thiophanate x nd nd nd nd 20d Revere PCNB DREN CH 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox Rubigan fenarimol x 600 16 4 500 1.8 Scott's Fcide II triadimefon x 300 115115 200 14 Scott's Fcide III triadimefon x 300 115115 200 14 Scott's Proturf chloroneb x 1650 126 4 90 >4200b Scott's Proturf Fluid iprodione x 1650 126 4 90 >4200b Scott's Pythium metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100 Sentinel Cyproconazole x 66 nd nd nd 19 Spotrete thiram x 670 44699 40 0.13 Subdue metalaxyl xx 50 7 7 400 >100

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 9 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Sys Tec 1998 thiophanate-methyl SPR 1830 E183054 600 11d Terraclor PCNB xx 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox Terramec chloroneb x 1650 126 4 90 >4200b Terraneb chloroneb x 1650 126 4 90 >4200b Terrazole etridiazole xx 1000 E97 9 nd 4 Thalonil chlorothalonil x 1380 46024 2 0.049 Touche' vinclozolin SPR 100 E50 50 200 52.5 Turfco Accost triadimefon x 300 115115 200 14 Turfside PCNB x 5000 E>2,0009 20 low tox Vorlan vinclozolin x 100 E50 50 200 52.5 Vorlan Flo vinclozolin x 100 E50 50 200 52.5 Herbicide 2 Plus 2(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox 2 Plus 2(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 10 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) AAtrex atrazine xx 100 16 16 3 4.5 Ace Lawn Weed Kill(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Ace Lawn Weed Kill(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Ace Lawn Weed Kill(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Asulox asulam sodium salt x 40 57 57 350 >5000 Avail glyphosate amine salt x 24000 E>2,0001 700 8.3 Balan benefin x 9000 >2,0002 2100 0.37b Banvel dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Basagran bentazon x 34 nd nd nd 510 Basamid dazomet x 10 E14 14 nd toxic Benefin Granular benefin x 9000 >2,0002 2100 0.37b Betamec bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Betasan bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Brom_O_Gas methyl bromidex 22 4 4 7 2.5 Brominal (M) bromoxynil octanoate ester 10000 E>2,00014 140 0.1 Brominal (M) bromoxynil butyrate x 1079 1540132 90 0.05

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 11 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Buctril bromoxynil octanoate ester 10000 E>2,00014 140 0.1 Bueno MSMA sodium salt x 7000 E388 1 nd 12b Calar CAMA x nd nd nd nd nd Chickweed Spurge(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Chickweed Spurge(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Chickweed Spurge(M) dichlorprop ester x 1000 E1000100 40 1.3 Chipco Turf Herbicide 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Clout MSMA sodium salt x 7000 E388 1 nd 12b Confront(M) triclopyr amine salt x 20 E4 4 200 148b Confront(M) clopyralid amine salt x 6 1 1 4000 1035 Crabgrass Preventer benefin x 9000 >2,0002 2100 0.37b DMA 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 DSMA Liquid DSMA x 7000 E388 1 nd >1000jb Dacamine 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Daconate MSMA sodium salt x 7000 E388 1 nd 12b

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 12 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Dacthal DCPA x 5000 500 2 4000 100a Devrinol napropamide x 700 10020 700 16.6 Dimension dithiopyr x nd nd nd nd 0.5 Dissolve(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Dissolve(M) MCPA acid x nd f(pH)nd nd 11 117 Dissolve(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Dowfume methyl bromidex 22 4 4 7 2.5 Finale glufosinate-ammonium x 100 E142142 3 320 Formula 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Gallery isoxaben x 1400 140 7 400 not tox Gramoxone Super paraquat dichloride salt x 1000000 E>2,0001 30 15 Halt pendimethalin x 5000 555 2 300 0.199b Halts bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Horizon fenoxaprop-ethyl x 9490 >2,00011 20 0.48 Horizon 2000 fluazifop-butyl x 3000 E143015 70 1.6 Illoxan diclofop-methyl x 16000 >2,0002 10 0.35

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 13 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Image imazaquin ammonium salt x 20 E pH7 3 3 2000 >100 Kerb pronamide xx 800 13320 50 72 Kleenup glyphosate amine salt x 24000 E>2,0001 700 8.3 Lesco Eight-One(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Lesco 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Lesco Eight-One(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Lesco TFC chlorsulfuron x 40 pH710 10 350 >250 Lesco Three-Way(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Lesco Three-Way(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Lesco Three-Way(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Lescogran bentazon x 34 nd nd nd 510 Lescopar(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Lescopar(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Lescopex mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Lescosan bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 14 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) MSMA MSMA sodium salt x 7000 E388 1 nd 12b Manage halosulfuron-methyl x nd nd nd nd Mecomec mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Mecoprop mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Pennant metolachlor x 200 22 22 100 2 Phenaban(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Phenaban(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Pre-M pendimethalin x 5000 555 2 300 0.199b Prefar bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Presan bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Princep simazine xx 130 21 21 1 2.8 Profume methyl bromideINJ 22 4 4 7 2.5 Prograss ethofumesate x 340 11398 nd >180 Prompt(M) bentazon x 34 nd nd nd 510 Prompt(M) atrazine x 100 16 16 3 4.5 Proturf Goosegrass(M) oxadiazon x 3200 533 5 40 >320

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 15 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Proturf Goosegrass(M) bensulide x 1000 E83 8 50 0.7 Purge atrazine xx 100 16 16 3 4.5 Quadmec(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Quadmec(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Quadmec(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Ronstar oxadiazon x 3200 533 5 40 >320 Round-Up glyphosate amine salt x 24000 E>2,0001 700 8.3 Rubigan fenarimol x 600 16 4 500 1.8 Sencor metribuzin xx 60 15 15 200 76 South Wdgrss Wdgrss pendimethalin x 5000 555 2 300 0.199b Super D II Weedone(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Super D II Weedone(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Super Trimec(M) dichlorprop ester x 1000 E1000100 40 1.3 Super Trimec(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Super Trimec(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Surflan oryzalin x 600 30083 400 3.26

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 16 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Team(M) oryzalin x 600 30083 400 3.26 Team(M) trifluralin x 8000 1330 2 5 0.041 Team(M) benefin x 9000 >2,0002 2100 0.37b Terrogas methyl bromidePRE, INC 22 4 4 7 2.5 Three-Way Selective(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Three-Way Selective(M) MCPA acid x nd f(pH)nd nd 11 117 Three-Way Selective(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Trex-San(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Trex-San(M) MCPA acid x nd f(pH)nd nd 11 117 Trex-San(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Trex-San(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Trex-San(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Trimec Encore(M) MCPA dimethylamine salt x 20 EpH78 8 11 nd Trimec Encore(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Trimec Encore(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 17 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Trimec Southern(M) MCPA acid x nd f(pH)nd nd 11 117 Trimec Southern(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Trimec Southern(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Trimec(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Trimec(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Trimec(M) dicamba salt x 2 1 1 200 28 Turf Kleen(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Turf Kleen(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Turflon triclopyr amine salt x 20 E4 4 200 148b Turflon II Amine(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Turflon II Amine(M) triclopyr amine salt x 20 E4 4 200 148b Turflon(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Turflon(M) triclopyr amine salt x 20 E4 4 200 148b VPC metam sodiumINC 10 E14 14 nd 0.079 Vantage sethoxydim x 100 EpH7200200 600 170

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 18 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Vapam metam sodiumINC 10 E14 14 nd 0.079 Versar MSMA sodium salt x 7000 E388 1 nd 12b Weed-B-Gon(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Weed-B-Gon(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Weedar 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Weedar MCPA MCPA acid x nd f(pH)nd nd 11 117 Weedestroy Tri-ester(M) 2,4-D esters/oil sol amines x 100 E100100 70 2 Weedestroy Tri-ester(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Weedestroy Triamine(M) dicamba salt x 2 11200 28 Weedestroy Triamine(M) MCPA dimethylamine salt x 20 EpH78 8 11 nd Weedestroy Triamine(M) mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox Weedmaster(M) dicamba salt x 2 11200 28 Weedmaster(M) 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100 Weedone 2,4-D dimethylamine salt x 20 E20 20 70 100

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 19 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Weedone DCP Herbicide(M) 2,4-D acid x 20 20 20 70 1.1 Weedone DCP Herbicide(M) dichlorprop ester x 1000 E1000100 40 1.3 Weedstroy mecoprop amine salt x 20 EpH79 9 7 low tox XL(M) oryzalin x 600 30083 400 3.26 XL(M) benefin x 9000 >2,0002 2100 0.37b Insecticide/Miticide Amdro Bait hydramethylnonx 730000 >2,0001 2 0.16 Crusade fonofos x 870 21728 10 0.02 Cythion malathion x 1800 >2,000555 200 0.2 Diazinon diazinon x 1000 E25025 1 0.09 Dipel bacillus thuringiensis x nd nd nd nd 95b Dursban chlorpyrifos x 6070 >2,0005 20 0.0071 Dylox trichlorfon x 10 10 10 900 0.4 Ethion ethion x 10000 666 1 4 0.5 Gramma-Mean lindane x 1100 27 2 0 0.027

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 20 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Lannate methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4 Logic Bait fenoxycarb x 1000 E>2,0001000 nd 1.6 Mavirik Aquaflow fluvalinate x 1000000 E>2,0001 70 0.0029 Mocap ethoprop x 70 28 28 0 13.8 Nudrin methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4 Oftanol isofenphos x 600 40 11 7 2d Orthene acephate x 2 6 6 30 730 Pounce permethrin x 100000 >2,0001 350 0.0041 Primicid pirimiphos-ethylx 300 E66 66 nd 0.22c Proxol trichlorfon x 10 10 10 900 0.4 Pydrin fenvalerate x 5300 1510 5 200 0.0006 Sevimol carbaryl x 300 300300 700 114 Sevin carbaryl x 300 300300 700 114 Talstar bifenthrin x 240000 >2,0001 100 0.00015 Trithion carbophenothion x 50000 >2,0001 1 nd Triumph isazofos xx 100 29 29 0 0.008 Turcam bendiocarb x 570 1140350 40 1.55

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 21 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) Nematicide Mocap ethoprop INC 70 28 28 0 13.8 Nemacur fenamiphos INC 100 20 20 2 0.11 Footnotes 1 Trade Name (M) indicates that the product is a mixture of two or more active ingredients 2 Application Type INC: incorporated INJ: injected PRE: preemergence x: applied to soil surface or foliage 3 Sorption Coefficient E: estimated G: educated guess 4 Relative Leaching Potential Index: (RLPI): Smaller number indicates greater leaching hazard 5 Relative Runoff Potential Index: (RRPI): Smaller number indicates greater runoff hazard 6 MCL, HAL or HALEQ Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), Lifetime Health Advisory Level (HAL); =Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent (HALEQ); 7 Aquatic Toxicity LC50: value is for rainbow trout 48 or 96 hour exposure time unless otherwize specified a=channel catfish b=bluegill d=goldfish j=fat head minnow

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 22 Table 1. Golf Course MaintenancePesticide Parameters for Selelcting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. Relative Losses Toxicity Application Type2 Sorption Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff MCL,HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC507 Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppm) (ppm) nd no data available

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Managing Pesticides for Golf Course Maintenance and Water Quality Protection 23 Table 2. Pesticide Selection Worksheet Landowner/Operator Name:___________________________________________________________County:_________________________________________________Date:__________ ______ Crop:__________________________________________________________Farm ID:_______________________________________Field ID___________________________Sheet____of______ Relative Losses Target Pest (1) IFAS Recommended Pesticides (2) Koc Value (3) Leaching RLPI (4) Runoff RRPI (5) MCL/HAL HALEQ (6) Aquatic Toxicity (7) Soil Type (8) Soil Leaching Rating (9) Soil Runoff Rating (10) Selected Pesticide (11) Comments (12) If the Koc value is 100 or less or if the RLPI value is 10 or less and the soil leach rating is high, then the pesticide has a high potential for leaching and should be used with extreme caution. Alternative pesticides and reduced rates should be considered if possible. Apply pesticide during periods with low potential for rainfall if possible.