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Newspaper Classification: Classification to Accommodate International Newspapers Naomi Kietzke Young Principal Serials Cataloger George A. Smathers Libraries University of Florida
Why devise a classification system for newspapers at all? I t may at first seem foolish to devise a system for the classification of newspapers. Catalogers who look to the Library of Congress (LC) as a guide to practice will find only limited warrant for such a system. The AN schedule has been reserved in the Library of Congress Classification (LCC), but never developed or used. A description of LC practice may be found in the classification schedu les under AN: Domestic newspapers at the Library of Congress are arranged in checklists and on shelves as follows:  By state;  By city, town, etc.;  By important word in title. Eighteenth century newspapers are arranged by first word of title (ex cluding the initial article of the title);  By date Foreign newspapers at the Library of Congress are arranged in checklists and on the shelves as follows:  By country;  By city, town, etc.;  By first word in title (excluding the initial articl e of the title);  By date Additionally, PN4899 5650 has been reserved for the history and description of individual newspapers. classifying newspapers. It is true that print newspapers has dwindled significantly. And for current, print newspapers alone, an alphabetic arrangement might well suffice for all but the largest collections. Digital arch ives do not require a call number for sorting and retrieval. However, digitization projects have not yet approached anything like creating access for the entire corpus of newspaper production. Partially as a result of the Tasini decision ( N.Y. Times Co. v. Tasini, 533 U.S. 483, 505 (2001) ), m any digitized collections contain only some articles, omitting advertisements freelancer created articles and syndicated content. Furthermore, digitization projects are not yet practical in much of the developing world ( Loubser 2006), and there are doubts about the viability of digital formats for long term preservation. As Brown and Fenton (2006, p.65) contend: nature of the acidic hardcopy papers and in the digital repositories which need to be systematically backed up, refreshed and/or migrated to ensure their ongoing accessibility. Microfilm then becomes an integral step in the expanding future of newspaper digitisatio n programs Until and unless these shortc omings can be overcome, microfilm collections are likely to remain important for genealogists, social historians, and others seeking primary source material. Why this classification system: The existing situation The need for a new classification system for microfilm newspapers arose at the University of Florida when library renovations made it desirable to collocate several separate microform collections into a single location. Newspapers in these collections wer e classified in L ibrary of C ongress Classification (LCC), primarily the F schedule ; Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and a DDC like locally created Florida History classification system. Some papers were shelved by title, and some reels
that had scattered issues of various titles could only be used with the assistance of a curator. The collection managers of the Florida newspapers expressed a strong desire based on observed patterns of use, for all the newspaper microfilm to be she lved i n its own sequence L ibrary administration was strongly discouraging separate sequences of shelving within the collection, opting for a single A Z LCC sequence. T he only way we could avoid creating a separate sequence, or intershelving the newspaper film w ith other film in the same subject area was to create a sequence specifically for newspapers that would integrate seamlessly with the rest of the LCC materials in the collection. We decided that the best way to meet local needs was to de velop the AN schedu le, using a geographic hierarchical str ucture similar to that used in the MARC 752 field We had initially intended this classification system primarily for the Florida newspapers, although a few regional newspapers of national interest were included. (One title, the Wall Street Journal, was not integrated into this system, as it was considered more appropriate to shelve it with other business and finance periodicals than with general newspapers.) However, the Selectors in our area studies departments wante d us to expand the system so that it covered their materials as well. In order to expand the scheme to accommodate international papers, we adapted Table H8 from the LCC H schedule. This table arranged all regions and nations in a reasonably logical arr angement, although some areas (such as the Caribbean) were more compressed than what would be ideal, requiring decimal numbers, while in other places there were large gaps. Still, adapting an existing list was more expedient than creating a new one, and al find the desired country quickly. There are similar tables that could be used, but this one had a suitable degree of specificity for our needs. For US and Canadian titles each number has three Cutters : the first for the state or province, the second for the city or county, and the third for the title. City or county codes may be taken from the LCC G schedule, or derived according to the standard Cutter table. If the geogr aphic area a paper serves is not immediately evident, check the 752 field of the catalog record to identify it. See the examples below. Gainesville Sun, Gainesville, Florida AN2 designates the item as a US newspaper .F6 geographic Cutter for the state of Florida G2 geographic Cutter for the city ( can be derived from LCC G schedule) G35 title Cutter Edmonton Sun, Edmonton, Alberta AN10 designates the item as a Canadian newspaper .A3 geographic Cutter for province of Alberta E36 derived Cutter for Edmonton E37 title Cutter
The final Cutter is based on the first title cataloged (not necessarily the earliest title in the title history ) and retained for subsequent major changes in title as long as no mergers or splits were invol ved, in conformance with our general practice regarding serials. Chart One: Simple Merger with Major Changes Fort Pierce news (1906 1920) AN2.F6 F8 T72 St. Lucie County tribune (1905 1920) AN2.F6 F8 T7 Fort Pierce news tribune (1920 1959) AN2.F6F8 T75 News tribune (Fort Pierce, Fla.) (1959 1988) AN2.F6F8 T75 Fort Pierce tribune (1988 ) AN2.F6F8 T75 A unique call number is assigned to the merged title, but retained for the subsequent titles, because there are no further mergers and splits
Chart Two: Multiple Mergers with Major Changes Metropolis (Jacksonville, Fla.) (1887 1913) AN2.F6J2M47 Daily Florida union (1875 1883) AN2.F6J2F6 Florida daily times (1881 1883) AN2.F6J2F6 Florida metropolis (1913 1922) AN2.F6J2M47 Florida times union (Jacksonville, Fla : 1883) (1883 1897) AN2.F6J2F6 Daily Florida citizen (1893 1887) AN2.F6J2F5 Jacksonville journal (1922 1987) AN2.F6J2M47 Florida times union and citizen (1897 1903) AN2.F6J2F5 Florida times union (Jacksonville, Fla. : 1903) AN2.F6J2F5 the newspaper (if any exists apart from chronology) can be useful in determining possible titles to group together.
The problem of reels with scat tered issues of various titles was particularly difficult to solve. We classified these according to the state, with a final cutter of Z99, and added an additional holding record to the records for the relevant titles where possible. AN2 US newspaper .F6 Florida Z99 Miscellaneous titles Refinements and options Title selection Libraries may choose to C utter for title according to the first major word in the title after the name of the city when the name of the city is the first major word This would avoid creating long C utters when there are several newspapers cataloged for a given area beginning with the name of the city or locale. National newspapers For national newspapers, rather than interfiling them with local newspapers published in the same city, classify with the AN number for the country of publication then the Cutter .A1 then the title cutter This puts all national newspapers at the head of the sequence for their country of publication, but requires cataloger (or bibliographer) judg Christian Science Monitor (published in Boston, distributed nationwide) AN2 US newspaper .M4 Massachusetts B67 Boston C47 Title Alternatively AN2 US newspaper .A1 Cutter to force filing first C47 Title National Post (published in Toronto, distributed nationwide) AN10 Canadian newspaper .O6 Ontario T67 Toronto N38 Title Alternatively AN10 Canadian newspaper .A1 Cutter to force filing first N38 Title Expanding the scheme Collections that have a focus on a specific regions or countries may wish to create additional tables for the states, provinces, or subdivisions of that country, or they may wish to exploit the gaps in the existing schedule to integra te greater specificity at the top level classification number.
Works Cited Brown, Heather, and Andy Fenton. (2006) -preserving the past for the future -now," p.63 72 in Walravens, Hartmut, ed. International Newspaper Librarianship for the 21 st Century. (IFLA Publications 118) Mnchen : K.G. Saur Serials Librarian 55 (1/2) 210 226. Library of Con gress Classification Schedules, (A and H) in Walravens, Hartmut, ed. International Newspaper Librarianship for the 21 st Century. (IFLA Publications 118) Mnchen : K.G. Saur
Table 1: Regions an d Countries Append the number below to AN to create the base classification number. 2 United States* 10 Canada 10.25 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Islands 11 Latin America -General 15 Mexico 21 Central America -General 26 Belize. B ritish Honduras 31 Costa Rica 41 Guatemala 51 Honduras 61 Nicaragua 71 Panama 76 Panama Canal Zone 81 El Salvador 96 Bahamas 101 Cuba 111 Haiti 116 Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo 121 Jamaica 131 Puerto Rico 141 Virgin Islands of the United States 142 British West Indies. English Speaking Caribbean 142.5 Barbados 144 Leeward Islands -General 144.2 Anguilla 144.4 Antigua and Barbuda 144.6 Monserrat 144.8 Saint Kitts Nevis 145 Windward Islands General 145.3 Dominica
145.5 Grenada 145.7 Saint Lucia 145.9 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 146 Trinidad and Tobago 147 Netherlands Antilles. Dutch West Indies -General 147.5 Aruba 147.6 Bonaire 147.7 Curaao 147.8 Saba 147.85 Saint Eustatius 147.9 Saint Martin 148 French West Indies -General 149 Guadeloupe 150 Martinique 151 South America -General 161 Argentina 171 Boliv ia 181 Brazil 191 Chile 201 Colombia 211 Ecuador 230 Guianas -General 230.3 Guyana. British Guiana 230.5 Suriname. Dutch Guiana 230.7 French Guiana 231 Paraguay 241 Peru 251 Uruguay 261 Venezuel a 280 Europe and European Union General 280.5 European Economic Community countries 280.7 Eastern Europe. Central Europe
280.8 Commonwealth countries 281 Great Britain -General 285 England 290 Scotland 295 Wales 300.3 Ireland. Irish Republic 320 Austria 320.3 Czechoslovakia. Czech Republic 320.4 Slovakia 320.5 Hungary 320.9 Liechtenstein 340 France 340.5 Monaco 360 Germany Including West Germany 360.5 East Germany 390 Italy 390.3 San Marino 390.5 Malta 400 Benelux countries. Low countries General 401 Belgium 411 Netherlands 415 Luxembourg 430 Russia. Soviet Union. Former Soviet republics 430.2 Russia (Federation) 430.7 Belarus 430 .8 Moldova 430.9 Ukraine 435 Finland 439.6 Baltic States -General 439.7 Estonia 439.8 Latvia 439.9 Lithuania
440 Scandinavia General 441 Denmark 451 Iceland 461 Norway 471 Sweden 490 Spain 490 .3 Andorra 490.5 Gibraltar 491 500 Portugal 501 510 Switzerland 520 Balkan States -General 520.5 Albania 521 Bulgaria 531 Yugoslavia. Serbia and Montenegro Class here works on Yugoslavia as a whole during the period 1918 1992 as well as on the country of Serbia and Montenegro during the period 2003 2006. Class works about an individual republic or locality with the republic, regardless of time period covered. 536 Serbia 536.5 Montenegro 537 Slovenia 53 8 Croatia 539 Bosnia and Hercegovina 540 Macedonia (Republic) 550 Romania 550.5 Greece 550.7 Mediterranean Region. Southern Europe 550.8 Black Sea Region 551 Asia -General 556 Middle East. Near East -General 556.15 Caucasus -General 556.2 Armenia 556.3 Azerbaijan
556.4 Georgia (Republic) 556.5 Turkey 557 Cyprus 558 Syria 559 Lebanon 560 Israel. Palestine 560.5 West Bank 560.7 Gaza Strip 561 Jordan 562 Arabi an Peninsula. Arabia. Persian Gulf States -General 563 Saudi Arabia 564 Yemen Including the Yemen Arab Republic prior to 1990 564.5 Yemen (People's Democratic Republic). Southern Yemen. Aden (Colony and Protectorate) 565 Oman. Muscat and Oman 566 United Arab Emirates. Trucial States 567 Qatar 568 Bahrain 569 Kuwait 570 Iraq 570.2 Iran 570.22 Central Asia -General 570.23 Kazakhstan 570.24 Kyrgyzstan 570.25 Tajikistan 570 .26 Turkmenistan 570.27 Uzbekistan 570.3 South Asia -General 570.6 Afghanistan 570.7 Burma. Myanmar 570.8 Sri Lanka. Ceylon 570.9 Nepal
590 India 590.3 Bhutan 590.5 Pakistan 590.6 Bangladesh 590.8 South east Asia. Indochina Including French Indochina -General 600.3 Kampuchea. Cambodia 600.4 Laos 600.5 Vietnam 600.55 Thailand 600.6 Malaysia. Malaya 600.67 Singapore 600.68 Brunei 610 Indonesia 610.3 Timor Leste. East Timor 615 Philippines 621 East Asia. Far East -General 625 Japan 630.5 Korea Including South Korea 630.6 North Korea (Democratic People's Republic) 630.8 Outer Mongolia. Mongolian People's Republic 635 Chin a 641 Macau 646 Taiwan. Formosa 655 Hong Kong 666 Arab countries (Collective) 668 Islamic countries (Collective) 680 Africa Including Sub Saharan Africa -General 681 North Africa -General 682 Morocco 683 Algeria 684 Tunisia 685 Libya
686 Egypt. United Arab Republic 687 Sudan 688 Northeast Africa -General 688.9 Eritrea 689 Ethiopia 690 Somalia Including British and Italian Somaliland 691 Djibouti. French Territory of the Afars and Isas 692 Southeast Africa Including East Africa -General 693 Kenya 694 Uganda 695 Rwanda 696 Burundi 697 Tanzania. Tanganyika. Zanzibar 698 Mozambique 699 Madagascar. Ma lagasy Republic 700 Southern Africa -General 701 South Africa 702 Rhodesia Including Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) 703 Zambia. Northern Rhodesia 704 Lesotho. Basutoland 705 Swaziland 706 Botswana. Bechuanaland 707 Ma lawi. Nyasaland 708 Namibia. Southwest Africa 709 Central Africa. Equatorial Africa -General 710 Angola 711 Zaire. Congo (Democratic Republic) 712 Equatorial Guinea 713 Sao Tome and Principe 714 French speaking Equator ial Africa. French Congo 715 Gabon 716 Congo (Brazzaville). Middle Congo
717 Central African Republic. Ubangi Shari 718 Chad 719 Cameroon 720 West Africa. West Coast -General 720.5 Sahel 721 French speaking West Afric a 722 Benin. Dahomey 723 Togo 724 Niger 725 Cte d'Ivoire. Ivory Coast 726 Guinea 727 Mali 728 Burkina Faso. Upper Volta 729 Senegal 730 Mauritania 731 Nigeria 732 Ghana 733 Sierra Leone 734 Gambia 735 Liberia 736 Guinea Bissau. Portuguese Guinea 737 Western Sahara. Spanish Sahara 737.85 Atlantic Area. Atlantic Ocean islands General 738 Azores 738.3 Bermuda 738.5 Madeira Islands 738.7 Canary Islands 73 8.9 Cape Verde Islands 739 Saint Helena 739.3 Tristan da Cunha 739.5 Falkland Islands 739.6 Indian Ocean islands -General
739.7 Maldive Islands 739.9 Seychelles 740 Comoros 740.3 Mauritius 740.5 Runion 740. 7 Kerguelen Islands 740.8 Mayotte 750 Australia 830.5 New Zealand 830.7 Pacific Area. Pacific Ocean islands General 830.9 Melanesia 831 Trust Territory of the Pacific. Micronesia 831.2 Marshall Islands 831.3 Mariana Islands Including Northern Mariana Islands 831.4 Palau 831.5 Guam 832 Papua New Guinea 832.3 Kiribati. Gilbert Islands 832.33 Nauru 832.35 Tuvalu. Ellice Islands 833 Solomon Islands 834 New Caledonia 835 Vanuatu. New Hebrides 836 Fiji Islands 837 Tonga 837.5 Cook Islands 838 Samoan Islands -General 838 American Samoa 839 Samoa. Western Samoa 839.5 French Polynesia 840 Arctic regions -General 842.5 Greenland
842.7 Ant arctic regions *For the first cutter for these countries, see Table 2.
Table 2: Cutters for States and Provinces (from the Classification and Shelving Manual: Shelflisting) Alabama A2 Alaska A4 Arizona A6 Arkansas A8 California C2 Colorado C6 Connecticut C8 Delaware D3 Florida F6 Georgia G4 Hawaii H3 Idaho I2 Illinois I3 Indiana I6 Iowa I8 Kansas K2 Kentucky K4 Louisiana L8 Maine M2 Maryland M3 Massachusetts M4 Michigan M5 Minnesota M6 Mississippi M7 Missouri M8 Montana M9 Nebraska N2 Nevada N3 New Hampshire N4
New Jersey N5 New Mexico N6 New York N7 North Carolina N8 North Dakota N9 Ohio O3 Oklahoma O5 Oregon O7 Pennsylvania P4 Rhode Island R4 South Carolina S6 South Dakota S8 Tennessee T2 Texas T4 Utah U8 Vermont V5 Virginia V8 Washington (D.C.) W18 Washington (State) W2 West Virginia W4 Wisconsin W6 Wyoming W8 Canada (Provinces) Alberta A3 British Columbia B8 Manitoba M3 New Brunswick N5 Newfoundland N6 Northwest Territories N7 Nova Scotia N8 Nunavut N9
Ontario O6 Prince Edward Island P8 Quebec (Province) Q3 Saskatchewan S2 Yukon Territory Y8