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ABE209 Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard 1910.303 1 Carol J. Lehtola, Charles M. Brown, and William J. Becker2 1. This document is ABE209, one of a series of the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 2000. Reviewed February 2008. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Carol J. Lehtola, assistant professor and Extension Agricultural Safety Specialist; Charles M. Brown, coordinator information/publication services; William J. Becker, professor emeritus; Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean The Impact of Safety on Florida Agriculture Florida agriculture, including forestry and fishing, made an annual economic impact of $53 billion in 1998. More than 81,000 people work on the 40,000 farms in the state, and more than 50,000 are employed in other activities related to agriculture. The state's agricultural enterprises range from large citrus, vegetable and cattle operations to small family-operated farms. From 1989 to 1998, there were approximately 240 deaths related to agriculture in Florida, according to data compiled by the Deep-South Agricultural Health and Safety Center. In addition, agriculture has one of the highest injury and death rates among U.S. industries. Safety in Florida agriculture is challenging because: the state's agricultural enterprises are diverse, safety knowledge among workers varies, manual labor is used extensively, the climate creates year-round heat stress. Therefore, it is vital to assist the public in learning about OSHA documents related to agriculture. More related information is available at the following Web sites: Florida AgSafe:
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard.... 2 Contents of OSHA Standard 1910.303 Section 1910.303(a) -Approval Section 1910.303(b) -Examination, Installation, and Use of Equipment Section 1910.303(c) -Splices Section 1910.303(d) -Arcing Parts Section 1910.303(e) -Marking Section 1910.303(f) -Identification of Disconnecting Means and Circuits Section 1910.303(g) -600 Volts, Nominal, or Less Section 1910.303(h) -Over 600 Volts, Nominal NOTE: Some sections of OSHA standards are labeled "Reserved." This label implies either that information has been deleted from the previous version of the standard or that additions to the standard are anticipated. Because standards often reference other standards, it is important that paragraph numbers remain consistent. Section 1910.303(a) -Approval The conductors and equipment required or permitted by this subpart shall be acceptable only if approved. Section 1910.303(b) -Examination, Installation, and Use of Equipment 1910.303(b)(1) -Examination. Electrical equipment shall be free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. Safety of equipment shall be determined using the following considerations: (i) -Suitability for installation and use in conformity with the provisions of this subpart. Suitability of equipment for an identified purpose may be evidenced by listing or labeling for that identified purpose. (ii) -Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection thus provided. (iii) -Electrical insulation. (iv) -Heating effects under conditions of use. (v) -Arcing effects. (vi) -Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, specific use. (vii) -Other factors which contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees using or likely to come in contact with the equipment. 1910.303(b)(2) -Installation and Use. Listed or labeled equipment shall be used or installed in accordance with any instructions included in the listing or labeling. Section 1910.303(c) -Splices Conductors shall be spliced or joined with splicing devices suitable for the use or by brazing, welding, or soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices shall first be so spliced or joined as to be mechanically and electrically secure without solder and then soldered. All splices and joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device suitable for the purpose. Section 1910.303(d) -Arcing Parts Parts of electric equipment which in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal shall be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material. Section 1910.303(e) -Marking Electrical equipment may not be used unless the manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product may be identified is placed on the equipment. Other markings shall be provided giving voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings as necessary. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved.
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard.... 3 Section 1910.303(f) -Identification of Disconnecting Means and Circuits Each disconnecting means required by this subpart for motors and appliances shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting means or overcurrent device, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. These markings shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. Section 1910.303(g) -600 Volts, Nominal, or Less 1910.303(g)(1) -Working Space about Electric Equipment. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Table 1. Table S-1. Working Clearances Nominal voltage to ground Minimum clear distance for condition (2) (ft) (a) (b) (c) 0 3 (1) 3 (1) 3 151 3 (1) 3 1/2 4 Footnote (1) Minimum clear distances may be 2 feet 6 inches for installations built prior to April 16, 1981. Footnote (2) Conditions (a), (b), and (c), are as follows: (a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides effectively guarded by suitable wood or other insulating material. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at not over 300 volts are not considered live parts. (b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. (c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace [not guarded as provided in Condition (a)] with the operator between. (i) -Working Clearances. Except as required or permitted elsewhere in this subpart, the dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts operating at 600 volts or less and likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive may not be less than indicated in Table S-1. In addition to the dimensions shown in Table S-1, workspace may not be less than 30 inches wide in front of the electric equipment. Distances shall be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. Concrete, brick, or tile walls are considered to be grounded. Working space is not required in back of assemblies such as dead-front switchboards or motor control centers where there are no renewable or adjustable parts such as fuses or switches on the back and where all connections are accessible from locations other than the back. (ii) -Clear Spaces. Working space required by this subpart may not be used for storage. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for inspection or servicing, the working space, if in a passageway or general open space, shall be suitably guarded. (iii) -Access and Entrance to Working Space. At least one entrance of sufficient area shall be provided to give access to the working space about electric equipment. (iv) -Front Working Space. Where there are live parts normally exposed on the front of
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard.... 4 switchboards or motor control centers, the working space in front of such equipment may not be less than 3 feet. (v) -Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, and motor control centers installed indoors. (vi) -Headroom. The minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panel-boards, or motor control centers shall be 6 feet 3 inches. NOTE: As used in this section a motor control center is an assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units. 1910.303(g)(2) -Guarding of Live Parts (i) -Except as required or permitted elsewhere in this subpart, live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more shall be guarded against accidental contact by approved cabinets or other forms of approved enclosures, or by any of the following means: (A) -By location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is accessible only to qualified persons. (B) -By suitable permanent, substantial partitions or screens so arranged that only qualified persons will have access to the space within reach of the live parts. Any openings in such partitions or screens shall be so sized and located that persons are not likely to come into accidental contact with the live parts or to bring conducting objects into contact with them. (C) -By location on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform so elevated and arranged as to exclude unqualified persons. (D) -By elevation of 8 feet or more above the floor or other working surface. (ii) -In locations where electric equipment would be exposed to physical damage, enclosures or guards shall be so arranged and of such strength as to prevent such damage. (iii) -Entrances to rooms and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts shall be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons to enter. Section 1910.303(h) -Over 600 Volts, Nominal 1910.303(h)(1) -General. Conductors and equipment used on circuits exceeding 600 volts, nominal, shall comply with all applicable provisions of paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section and with the following provisions which supplement or modify those requirements. The provisions of paragraphs (h)(2), (h)(3), and (h)(4) of this section do not apply to equipment on the supply side of the service conductors. 1910.303(h)(2) -Enclosure for Electrical Installations. Electrical installations in a vault, room, closet or in an area surrounded by a wall, screen, or fence, access to which is controlled by lock and key or other approved means, are considered to be accessible to qualified persons only. A wall, screen, or fence less than 8 feet in height is not considered to prevent access unless it has other features that provide a degree of isolation equivalent to an 8 foot fence. The entrances to all buildings, rooms, or enclosures containing exposed live parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 volts, nominal, shall be kept locked or shall be under the observation of a qualified person at all times. (i) -Installations accessible to qualified persons only. Electrical installations having exposed live parts shall be accessible to qualified persons only and shall comply with the applicable provisions of paragraph (h)(3) of this section. (ii) -Installations accessible to unqualified persons. Electrical installations that are open to unqualified persons shall be made with metal-enclosed equipment or shall be enclosed in a vault or in an area, access to which is controlled by a lock. If metal-enclosed equipment is installed so that the bottom of the enclosure is less than 8 feet above the floor, the door or cover shall be kept locked. Metal-enclosed switchgear, unit substations, transformers, pull boxes, connection boxes, and other similar associated equipment shall be marked with
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard.... 5 appropriate caution signs. If equipment is exposed to physical damage from vehicular traffic, suitable guards shall be provided to prevent such damage. Ventilating or similar openings in metal-enclosed equipment shall be designed so that foreign objects inserted through these openings will be deflected from energized parts. Table 2. Table S-2. Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space in Front of Electric Equipment Nominal voltage to ground Conditions (2a) (ft) (a) (b) (c) 601 to 2,500 3 4 5 2,501 to 9,000 4 5 6 9,001 to 25,000 5 6 9 25,001 to 75kV (1a) 6 8 10 Above 75kV (1a) 8 10 Footnote (1a) Minimum depth of clear working space in front of electric equipment with a nominal voltage to ground above 25,000 volts may be the same as for 25,000 volts under Conditions (a), (b), and (c) for installations built prior to April 16, 1981. Footnote (2a) Conditions (a), (b), and (c) are as follows: (a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides effectively guarded by suitable wood or other insulating materials. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at not over 300 volts are not considered live parts. (b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. Concrete, brick, or tile walls will be considered as grounded surfaces. (c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace not guarded as provided in Condition (a) with the operator between. 1910.303(h)(3) -Workspace about Equipment. Sufficient space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Where energized parts are exposed, the minimum clear workspace may not be less than 6 feet 6 inches high (measured vertically from the floor or platform), or less than 3 feet wide (measured parallel to the equipment). The depth shall be as required in Table S-2. The workspace shall be adequate to permit at least a 90-degree opening of doors or hinged panels. (i) -Working Space. The minimum clear working space in front of electric equipment such as switchboards, control panels, switches, circuit breakers, motor controllers, relays, and similar equipment may not be less than specified in Table S-2 unless otherwise specified in this subpart. Distances shall be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. However, working space is not required in back of equipment such as deadfront switchboards or control assemblies where there are no renewable or adjustable parts (such as fuses or switches) on the back and where all connections are accessible from locations other than the back. Where rear access is required to work on deenergized parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum working space of 30 inches horizontally shall be provided. (ii) -Illumination. Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about electric equipment. The lighting outlets shall be so arranged that persons changing lamps or making repairs on the lighting system will not be endangered by live parts or other equipment. The points of control shall be so
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems: General Requirements -OSHA Standard.... 6 located that persons are not likely to come in contact with any live part or moving part of the equipment while turning on the lights. Table 3. Table S-3. Elevation of Unguarded Energized Parts above Working Space Nominal voltage between phases Minimum elevation 601 to 7,500 8 feet 6 inches (1) 7,501 to 35,000 9 feet Over 35kV 9 feet + 0.37 inches kV above 35kV Footnote (1). Minimum elevation may be 8 feet 0 inches for installations built prior to April 16, 1981 if the nominal voltage between phases is in the range of 601 volts. (iii) -Elevation of Unguarded Live Parts. Unguarded live parts above working space shall be maintained at elevations not less than specified in Table S-3. 1910.303(h)(4) -Entrance and Access to Workspace Also see .302(b)(3). (i) -At least one entrance not less than 24 inches wide and 6 feet 6 inches high shall be provided to give access to the working space about electric equipment. On switchboard and control panels exceeding 48 inches in width, there shall be one entrance at each end of such board where practicable. Where bare energized parts at any voltage or insulated energized parts above 600 volts are located adjacent to such entrance, they shall be suitably guarded. (ii) -Permanent ladders or stairways shall be provided to give safe access to the working space around electric equipment installed on platforms, balconies, mezzanine floors, or in attic or roof rooms or spaces.