|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
This item is only available as the following downloads:
ABE129 Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 1 Carol J. Lehtola, Charles M. Brown, and William J. Becker2 1. This document is ABE129,one of a series of the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First published November 1992. Revised May 2000 and September 2007. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Carol J. Lehtola, Associate Professor and State Extension Safety Specialist; Charles M. Brown, Coordinator for Information and Publication Services; William J. Becker, Professor Emeritus, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean The Impact of Safety on Florida Agriculture Florida agriculture, including forestry and fishing, made an annual economic impact of $98 billion in 2004. More than 390,000 workers are directly employed in these industries in Florida, and another 380,000 people are employed in activities related to agriculture (Hodges 2006). The state's agricultural enterprises range from large citrus, vegetable and cattle operations to small family-operated farms. In spite of the popular images of agriculture, it is a highly mechanized, industrial profession with one of the highest injury and death rates among U.S. industries. The last study of death rates in Florida agriculture (Liller 2000) found 240 deaths from 1989 to 1998. In 2005, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2005a), reported that death due to injury in agriculture was 31.4 deaths per 100,000 full-time workers, which was the highest rate among all major occupational groups and an increase of 14% over 2004. Also in 2005, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 6,100 injuries per 100,000 full-time workers (BLS 2005b). Safety in Florida agriculture is challenging because: the state's agricultural enterprises are diverse, safety knowledge among workers varies, manual labor is used extensively, the climate creates year-round heat stress. Therefore, it is vital to assist the public in learning about OSHA documents related to agriculture. More information about the OSHA Standards and agricultural safety is available at the following Web sites: Florida AgSafe: http://www.flagsafe.ufl.edu OSHA Regulations: http://www.osha.gov/comp-links.html National Agricultural Safety Database: http://www.cdc.gov/nasd Overview This is a condensation of Standard 1910.142 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It contains standards relevant to temporary labor camps (often
Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 2 referred to as "migrant labor camps" or "seasonal farm worker camps"): siting, construction, sanitation requirements and other matters. This document is not intended to be totally inclusive but rather to highlight the information and requirements in the complete OSHA standard that owners and managers of all agricultural businesses should understand. Interested readers should see State of Florida Laws, Rules, and Regulations, which may be more stringent in certain areas. When there is a difference between federal and state regulations in any area, the more stringent regulation applies. Because of the seasonal nature of agriculture, there are times of the year during which a great deal of work is needed and other times when fewer workers are needed. These cycles vary from crop to crop and place to place creating an opportunity for workers that are willing to travel and live near worksites temporarily. In 2000, the Department of Health and Human Services began a project to estimate the number of both migrant and seasonal workers in the United States. The report for Florida, prepared by Alice C. Larson of Larson Assistance Services, found that there were over 286,000 workers and their families in Florida who were engaged in seasonal farm work. About 40% of these workers are migrant, which means that they travel and live near the worksite in the course of their work-year. Florida is a significant state for seasonal and migrant workers because of its numerous crops the Larson study listed 54 and because it is a so-called "sending state," which means that many migrant workers who travel circuits that take them into other states regard Florida as their home state. Usually these workers return to Florida for a significant part of the year. Work circuits for Florida's migrant workers take them to states along the Eastern Seaboard as far north as Maine and throughout the Southeast into the Midwestern states of Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. Other major sending states are Texas and California. Throughtout global history, there have been many cases in which migrant workers have suffered abuse in their working or living conditions. In the United States, federal and state laws have been passed in order to protect the safety and health of these workers, and OSHA Standard 1910.142 is one part of that effort. Site All sites used for camps must be adequately drained. They must not be subject to periodic flooding, nor located within 200 feet of swamps, pools, sink holes or other surface collections of water unless such quiescent water surfaces can be subjected to mosquito control measures. The camp must be located so the drainage from and through the camp will not endanger any domestic or public water supply. All sites must be graded, ditched and rendered free from depressions in which water may become a nuisance. All sites must be adequate in size to prevent overcrowding of necessary structures. The principal camp area in which food is prepared and served and where sleeping quarters are located must be at least 500 feet from any area in which livestock is kept. The grounds and open areas surrounding the shelters must be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition free from rubbish, debris, waste paper, garbage, or other refuse. Shelter Nothing in this section must be construed to prohibit "banking" with earth or other suitable material around the outside walls in areas subject to extreme low temperatures. Every shelter in the camp must be constructed in a manner which will provide protection against the elements. The floors of each shelter must be constructed of wood, asphalt, or concrete. All wooden floors must be of smooth and tight construction. The floors must be kept in good repair. All wooden floors must be elevated not less than one
Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 3 foot above the ground level at all points to prevent dampness and to permit free circulation of air beneath. All living quarters must be provided with windows the total of which must be not less than one-tenth of the floor area. At least one-half of each window must be so constructed that it can be opened for purposes of ventilation. All exterior openings must be effectively screened with 16-mesh material. All screen doors must be equipped with self-closing devices. Each room used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 50 square feet of floor space for each occupant. At least a 7-foot ceiling must be provided. Beds, cots or bunks, and suitable storage facilities such as wall lockers for clothing and personal articles must be provided in every room used for sleeping purposes. Such beds or similar facilities must be spaced not closer than 36 inches both laterally and end to end, and must be elevated at least 12 inches from the floor. If double-deck bunks are used, they must be spaced not less than 48 inches both laterally and end to end. The minimum clear space between the lower and upper bunk must be not less than 27 inches. Triple-deck bunks are prohibited. In a room where workers cook, live and sleep a minimum of 100 square feet per person must be provided. Sanitary facilities must be provided for storing and preparing food. In camps where cooking facilities are used in common, stoves (in ratio of one stove to 10 persons or one stove to two families) must be provided in an enclosed and screened shelter. Sanitary facilities must be provided for storing and preparing food. All heating, cooking and water heating equipment must be installed in accordance with State and local ordinances, codes and regulations governing such installations. If a camp is used during cold weather, adequate heating equipment must be provided. Water Supply An adequate and convenient water supply, approved by the appropriate health authority, must be provided in each camp for drinking, cooking, bathing and laundry purposes. A water supply may be deemed adequate if it is capable of delivering 35 gallons per person per day to the campsite at a peak rate of 2 1/2 times the average hourly demand. The distribution lines must be capable of supplying water at normal operating pressures to all fixtures for simultaneous operation. Water outlets must be distributed throughout the camp in such a manner that no shelter is more than 100 feet from a yard hydrant if water is not piped to the shelters. Where water under pressure is available, one or more drinking fountains must be provided for each 100 occupants or fraction thereof. Common drinking cups are prohibited. Toilet Facilities Toilet facilities adequate for the capacity of the camp must be provided. Each toilet room must be located so as to be accessible without any individual passing through any sleeping room. Toilet rooms must have a window not less than 6 square feet in area opening directly to the outside area or otherwise be satisfactorily ventilated. All outside openings must be screened with 16-mesh material. No fixture, water closet, chemical toilet, or urinal may be located in a room used for other than toilet purposes. A toilet room must be located within 200 feet of the door of each sleeping room. No privy may be closer than 100 feet to any sleeping room, dining room, lunch area or kitchen. Where the toilet rooms are shared, such as in multifamily shelters and in barracks type facilities, separate toilet rooms must be provided for each sex. These rooms must be distinctly marked "for men" and "for women" by signs printed in English and in the native language of the persons occupying the camp, or marked with easily understood pictures or symbols. If the facilities for each sex are in the same building, they must be separated by solid walls or partitions extending from the floor to the roof or ceiling. Where toilet facilities are shared, the number of water closets or privy seats provided for each sex must be based on the maximum number of persons of
Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 4 that sex which the camp is designed to house at any one time, in the ratio of one such unit to each 15 persons, with a minimum of two units for any shared facility. Urinals must be provided on the basis of one unit or 2 linear feet of urinal trough for each 25 men. The floor from the wall and for a distance not less than 15 inches measured from the outward edge of the urinals must be constructed of materials impervious to moisture. Where water under pressure is available, urinals must be provided with an adequate water flush. Urinal troughs in privies must drain freely into the pit or vault, and the construction of this drain must be such as to exclude flies and rodents from the pit. Every water closet must be located in a toilet room. Each toilet room must be lighted naturally or artificially by a safe type of lighting at all hours of the day and night. An adequate supply of toilet paper must be provided in each privy, water closet or chemical toilet compartment. Privies and toilet rooms must be kept in a sanitary condition. They must be cleaned at least daily. Sewage Disposal Facilities In camps where public sewers are available, all sewer lines and floor drains from buildings must be connected to them. Laundry, Handwashing and Bathing Facilities Laundry, handwashing and bathing facilities must be provided in the following ratio: handwash basin per family shelter or per six persons in shared facilities; shower head for every 10 persons; laundry tray or tub for every 30 persons; slop sink in each building used for laundry, hand washing and bathing. Floors must be of smooth finish but not slippery materials; they must be impervious to moisture. Floor drains must be provided in all shower baths, shower rooms or laundry rooms to remove waste water and facilitate cleaning. All junctions of the curbing and the floor must be coved. The walls and partitions of shower rooms must be smooth and impervious to the height of splash. An adequate supply of hot and cold running water must be provided for bathing and laundry purposes. Facilities for heating water must be provided. Every service building must be provided with equipment capable of maintaining a temperature of at least 70 F during cold weather. Facilities for drying clothes must be provided. All service buildings must be kept clean. Lighting Where electric service is available, each habitable room in a camp must be provided with at least one ceiling-type light fixture and at least one separate flooror wall-type convenience outlet. Laundry and toilet rooms and rooms where people congregate must contain at least one ceilingor wall-type fixture. Light levels in toilet and storage rooms must be at least 20 foot-candles at 30 inches from the floor. Other rooms, including kitchens and living quarters, must be at least 30 foot-candles at 30 inches from the floor. Refuse Disposal Fly-tight, rodent-tight, impervious, cleanable or single service containers, approved by the appropriate health authority must be provided for the storage of garbage. At least one such container must be provided for each family shelter and must be located within 100 feet of each shelter on a wooden, metal or concrete stand. Garbage containers must be kept clean. Garbage containers must be emptied when full but not less than twice a week.
Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 5 Construction and Operation of Kitchens, Dining Halls and Feeding Facilities In all camps where central dining or multiple family feeding operations are permitted or provided, the food handling facilities must comply with the requirements of the "Food Service Sanitation Ordinance and Code," Part V of the "Food Service Sanitation Manual," U.S. Public Health Service Publication 934 (1965). A properly constructed kitchen and dining hall adequate in size, separate from the sleeping quarters of any of the workers or their families, must be provided in connection with all food handling facilities. There must be no direct opening from living or sleeping quarters into a kitchen or dining hall. No person with any communicable disease may be employed or permitted to work in the preparation, cooking, serving or other handling of food, foodstuffs or materials used in any kitchen or dining room operated in connection with a camp or regularly used by persons living in a camp. Insect and Rodent Control Effective measures must be taken to prevent infestation by and harborage of animal or insect vectors or pests. First Aid Adequate first aid facilities approved by a health authority must be maintained and made available in every labor camp for the emergency treatment of injured persons. Such facilities must be in the charge of a person trained to administer first aid and must be readily accessible for use at all times. Reporting Communicable Disease It is the duty of the camp superintendent to report immediately to the local health officer the name and address of any individual in the camp known to have or suspected of having a communicable disease. Whenever there occurs in any camp a case of suspected food poisoning or an unusual prevalence of any illness in which fever, diarrhea, sore throat, vomiting or jaundice is a prominent symptom, it will be the duty of the camp superintendent to report immediately the existence of the outbreak to the health authority by telegram, telephone, electronic mail or any method that is equally fast. Changes to the Standard Water Supply -In September 2005, a reference to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for drinking fountains was removed from this OSHA standard. The ANSI standard was drafted in 1942 and had been withdrawn in 1972. [70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005] Reporting Communicable Disease -In January 2005, OSHA amended the means of reporting from "by telegram or telephone" to "telegram, telephone, electronic mail or any method that is equally fast" to allow for changes in communications methods. [70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005] n References For more information pertaining to Field Sanitation, please visit http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/OA120. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2005(a). "Workplace Injuries and Illnesses in 2005." Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Labor. News, October 19, 2006. USDL 06-1816. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2005(b). "Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2005." Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Labor. News, August 10, 2006. USDL 06-1364. Hodges, Alan W., Mohammad Rahmani, and W. David Mulkey. 2006. "Economic Impacts of Agricultural, Food, and Natural Resources Industries in Florida in 2004." Gainesville, Florida: Florida Cooperative Extension Service. IFAS Publication FE680 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE680. Larson, Alice C. 2000. Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Enumeration Profiles Study: Florida.
Temporary Labor Camps OSHA Standard 1910.142 6 Washington, D.C., Department of Health and Human Services. Liller, Karen D., A. Noland, and Carol J. Lehtola. 2000. An Analysis of Injury Deaths on Florida Farms for Years 1989 Through 1998. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 6 (2): 131.