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ABE286 Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 1Carol J. Lehtola, Charles M. Brown, and William J. Becker2 1. This document is ABE286, one of a series of the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 2000. Reviewed February 2008. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Carol J. Lehtola, assistant professor and Extension Agricultural Safety Specialist; Charles M. Brown, coordinator information/publication services; William J. Becker, professor emeritus; Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, DeanThe Impact of Safety on Florida AgricultureFlorida agriculture, including forestry and fishing, made an annual economic impact of $53 billion in 1998. More than 81,000 people work on the 40,000 farms in the state, and more than 50,000 are employed in other activities related to agriculture. The state's agricultural enterprises range from large citrus, vegetable and cattle operations to small family-operated farms. From 1989 to 1998, there were approximately 240 deaths related to agriculture in Florida, according to data compiled by the Deep-South Agricultural Health and Safety Center. In addition, agriculture has one of the highest injury and death rates among U.S. industries. Safety in Florida agriculture is challenging because: the state's agricultural enterprises are diverse, safety knowledge among workers varies, manual labor is used extensively, the climate creates year-round heat stress. Therefore, it is vital to assist the public in learning about OSHA documents related to agriculture. More related information is available at the following Web sites: Florida AgSafe:
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 2Contents of OSHA Standard 1910.306 Section 1910.306(a) -Electric Signs and Outline Lighting Section 1910.306(b) -Cranes and Hoists Section 1910.306(c) -Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving Walks Section 1910.306(d) -Electric Welders: Disconnecting Means Section 1910.306(e) -Data Processing Systems: Disconnecting Means Section 1910.306(f) -X-ray Equipment Section 1910.306(g) -Induction and Dielectric Heating Equipment Section 1910.306(h) -Electrolytic Cells Section 1910.306(i) -Electrically Driven or Controlled Irrigation Machines Section 1910.306(j) -Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar Installations NOTE: Some sections of OSHA standards are labeled "Reserved." This label implies either that information has been deleted from the previous version of the standard or that additions to the standard are anticipated. Because standards often reference other standards, it is important that paragraph numbers remain consistent.Section 1910.306(a) -Electric Signs and Outline Lighting1910.306(a)(1) -Disconnecting Means. Signs operated by electronic or electromechanical controllers located outside the sign shall have a disconnecting means located inside the controller enclosure or within sight of the controller location, and it shall be capable of being locked in the open position. Such disconnecting means shall have no pole that can be operated independently, and it shall open all ungrounded conductors that supply the controller and sign. All other signs, except the portable type, and all outline lighting installations shall have an externally operable disconnecting means which can open all ungrounded conductors and is within the sight of the sign or outline lighting it controls. 1910.306(a)(2) -Doors or covers giving access to uninsulated parts of indoor signs or outline lighting exceeding 600 volts and accessible to other than qualified persons shall either be provided with interlock switches to disconnect the primary circuit or shall be so fastened that the use of other than ordinary tools will be necessary to open them.Section 1910.306(b) -Cranes and HoistsThis paragraph applies to the installation of electric equipment and wiring used in connection with cranes, monorail hoists, hoists, and all runways. 1910.306(b)(1) -Disconnecting Means. A readily accessible disconnecting means: (i) -shall be provided between the runway contact conductors and the power supply. (ii) -Another disconnecting means, capable of being locked in the open position, shall be provided in the leads from the runway contact conductors or other power supply on any crane or monorail hoist. (A) -If this additional disconnecting means is not readily accessible from the crane or monorail hoist operating station, means shall be provided at the operating station to open the power circuit to all motors of the crane or monorail hoist. (B) -The additional disconnect may be omitted if a monorail hoist or hand-propelled crane bridge installation meets all of the following: (1) -The unit is floor controlled; (2) -The unit is within view of the power supply disconnecting means; and (3) -No fixed work platform has been provided for servicing the unit.
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 31910.306(b)(2) -Control. A limit switch or other device shall be provided to prevent the load block from passing the safe upper limit of travel of any hoisting mechanism. 1910.306(b)(3) -Clearance. The dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts which may require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive shall be a minimum of 2 feet 6 inches. Where controls are enclosed in cabinets, the door(s) shall either open at least 90 degrees or be removable.Section 1910.306(c) -Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving Walks1910.306(c)(1) -Disconnecting Means. Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks shall have a single means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors for each unit. 1910.306(c)(2) -Warning Signs. If interconnections between control panels are necessary for operation of the system on a multicar installation that remains energized from a source other than the disconnecting means, a warning sign shall be mounted on or adjacent to the disconnecting means. The sign shall be clearly legible and shall read "Warning Parts of the control panel are not de-energized by this switch." (See 1910.302(b)(3).) 1910.306(c)(3) -Control Panels. If control panels are not located in the same space as the drive machine, they shall be located in cabinets with doors or panels capable of being locked closed.Section 1910.306(d) -Electric Welders: Disconnecting Means1910.306(d)(1) -A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit for each motor-generator arc welder, and for each AC transformer and DC rectifier arc welder which is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the welder. 1910.306(d)(2) -A switch or circuit breaker shall be provided by which each resistance welder and its control equipment can be isolated from the supply circuit. The ampere rating of this disconnecting means may not be less than the supply conductor ampacity.Section 1910.306(e) -Data Processing Systems: Disconnecting MeansA disconnecting means shall be provided to disconnect the power to all electronic equipment in data processing or computer rooms. This disconnecting means shall be controlled from locations readily accessible to the operator at the principal exit doors. There shall also be a similar disconnecting means to disconnect the air conditioning system serving this area.Section 1910.306(f) -X-Ray EquipmentThis paragraph applies to X-ray equipment for other than medical or dental use. 1910.306(f)(1) -Disconnecting Means (i) -A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit. The disconnecting means shall be operable from a location readily accessible from the X-ray control. For equipment connected to a 120-volt branch circuit of 30 amperes or less, a grounding-type attachment plug cap and receptacle of proper rating may serve as a disconnecting means. (ii) -If more than one piece of equipment is operated from the same high-voltage circuit, each piece or each group of equipment as a unit shall be provided with a high-voltage switch or equivalent disconnecting means. This disconnecting means shall be constructed, enclosed, or located so as to avoid contact by employees with its live parts. 1910.306(f)(2) -Control (i) -Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Types. Radiographic and fluoroscopic-type equipment shall be effectively enclosed or shall have interlocks that de-energize the equipment automatically to prevent ready access to live current-carrying parts.
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 4(ii) -Diffraction and Irradiation Types. Diffractionand irradiation-type equipment shall be provided with a means to indicate when it is energized unless the equipment or installation is effectively enclosed or is provided with interlocks to prevent access to live current-carrying parts during operation.Section 1910.306(g) -Induction and Dielectric Heating Equipment1910.306(g)(1) -Scope. Paragraphs (g)(2) and (g)(3) of this section cover induction and dielectric heating equipment and accessories for industrial and scientific applications, but not for medical or dental applications or for appliances. 1910.306(g)(2) -Guarding and Grounding (i) -Enclosures. The converting apparatus (including the DC line) and high-frequency electric circuits (excluding the output circuits and remote-control circuits) shall be completely contained within enclosures of noncombustible material. (ii) -Panel Controls. All panel controls shall be of dead-front construction. (iii) -Access to Internal Equipment. Where doors are used for access to voltages from 500 to 1000 volts AC or DC, either door locks or interlocks shall be provided. Where doors are used for access to voltages of over 1000 volts AC or DC, either mechanical lockouts with a disconnecting means to prevent access until voltage is removed from the cubicle, or both door interlocking and mechanical door locks, shall be provided. (iv) -Warning Labels. "Danger" labels shall be attached on the equipment and shall be plainly visible even when doors are open or panels are removed from compartments containing voltages of over 250 volts AC or DC. (v) -Work Applicator Shielding. Protective cages or adequate shielding shall be used to guard work applicators other than induction heating coils. Induction heating coils shall be protected by insulation and/or refractory materials. Interlock switches shall be used on all hinged access doors, sliding panels, or other such means of access to the applicator. Interlock switches shall be connected in such a manner as to remove all power from the applicator when any one of the access doors or panels is open. Interlocks on access doors or panels are not required if the applicator is an induction heating coil at DC ground potential or operating at less than 150 volts AC. (vi) -Disconnecting Means. A readily accessible disconnecting means shall be provided by which each unit of heating equipment can be isolated from its supply circuit. 1910.306(g)(3) -Remote Control. If remote controls are used for applying power, a selector switch shall be provided and interlocked to provide power from only one control point at a time. Switches operated by foot pressure shall be provided with a shield over the contact button to avoid accidental closing of the switch.Section 1910.306(h) -Electrolytic Cells1910.306(h)(1) -Scope. These provisions for electrolytic cells apply to the installation of the electrical components and accessory equipment of electrolytic cells, electrolytic cell lines, and process power supply for the production of aluminum, cadmium, chlorine, copper, fluorine, hydrogen peroxide, magnesium, sodium, sodium chlorate, and zinc. Cells used as a source of electric energy and for electroplating processes and cells used for production of hydrogen are not covered by these provisions. 1910.306(h)(2) -Definitions Applicable to this Paragraph Cell line -An assembly of electrically interconnected electrolytic cells supplied by a source of direct-current power. Cell line attachments and auxiliary equipment -Cell line attachments and auxiliary equipment include, but are not limited to: auxiliary tanks; process piping; duct work; structural supports; exposed cell line conductors; conduits and other raceways; pumps; positioning equipment and cell cutout or by-pass
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 5electrical devices. Auxiliary equipment also includes tools, welding machines, crucibles, and other portable equipment used for operation and maintenance within the electrolytic cell line working zone. In the cell line working zone, auxiliary equipment includes the exposed conductive surfaces of ungrounded cranes and crane-mounted cell-servicing equipment. Cell line working zone -The cell line working zone is the space envelope wherein operation or maintenance is normally performed on or in the vicinity of exposed energized surfaces of cell lines or their attachments. Electrolytic Cells -A receptacle or vessel in which electrochemical reactions are caused by applying energy for the purpose of refining or producing usable materials. 1910.306(h)(3) -Application. Installations covered by paragraph (h) of this section shall comply with all applicable provisions of this subpart, except as follows: (i) -Overcurrent protection of electrolytic cell DC process power circuits need not comply with the requirements of 1910.304(e). (ii) -Equipment located or used within the cell line working zone or associated with the cell line DC power circuits need not comply with the provisions of 1910.304(f). (iii) -Electrolytic cells, cell line conductors, cell line attachments, and the wiring of auxiliary equipment and devices within the cell line working zone need not comply with the provisions of 1910.303, and 1910.304 (b) and (c). 1910.306(h)(4) -Disconnecting Means (i) -If more than one DC cell line process power supply serves the same cell line, a disconnecting means shall be provided on the cell line circuit side of each power supply to disconnect it from the cell line circuit. (ii) -Removable links or removable conductors may be used as the disconnecting means. 1910.306(h)(5) -Portable Electric Equipment (i) -The frames and enclosures of portable electric equipment used within the cell line working zone may not be grounded. However, these frames and enclosures may be grounded if the cell line circuit voltage does not exceed 200 volts DC or if the frames are guarded. (ii) -Ungrounded portable electric equipment shall be distinctively marked and may not be interchangeable with grounded portable electric equipment. 1910.306(h)(6) -Power Supply Circuits and Receptacles for Portable Electric Equipment (i) -Circuits supplying power to ungrounded receptacles for hand-held, cordand plug-connected equipment shall be electrically isolated from any distribution system supplying areas other than the cell line working zone and shall be ungrounded. Power for these circuits shall be supplied through isolating transformers. (ii) -Receptacles and their mating plugs for ungrounded equipment may not have provision for a grounding conductor and shall be of a configuration which prevents their use for equipment required to be grounded. (iii) -Receptacles on circuits supplied by an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary shall have a distinctive configuration, shall be distinctively marked, and may not be used in any other location in the plant. 1910.306(h)(7) -Fixed and Portable Electric Equipment (i) -AC systems supplying fixed and portable electric equipment within the cell line working zone need not be grounded. (ii) -Exposed conductive surfaces, such as electric equipment housings, cabinets, boxes, motors, raceways and the like that are within the cell line working zone need not be grounded. (iii) -Auxiliary electrical devices, such as motors, transducers, sensors, control devices, and
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 6alarms, mounted on an electrolytic cell or other energized surface, shall be connected by any of the following means: (A) -Multiconductor hard usage or extra hard usage flexible cord; (B) -Wire or cable in suitable raceways; or (C) -Exposed metal conduit, cable tray, armored cable, or similar metallic systems installed with insulating breaks such that they will not cause a potentially hazardous electrical condition. (iv) -Fixed electric equipment may be bonded to the energized conductive surfaces of the cell line, its attachments, or auxiliaries. If fixed electric equipment is mounted on an energized conductive surface, it shall be bonded to that surface. 1910.306(h)(8) -Auxiliary Nonelectric Connections. Auxiliary nonelectric connections, such as air hoses, water hoses, and the like, to an electrolytic cell, its attachments, or auxiliary equipment may not have continuous conductive reinforcing wire, armor, braids, and the like. Hoses shall be of a nonconductive material. 1910.306(h)(9) -Cranes and Hoists (i) -The conductive surfaces of cranes and hoists that enter the cell line working zone need not be grounded. The portion of an overhead crane or hoist which contacts an energized electrolytic cell or energized attachments shall be insulated from ground. (ii) -Remote crane or hoist controls which may introduce hazardous electrical conditions into the cell line working zone shall employ one or more of the following systems: (A) -Insulated and ungrounded control circuit; (B) -Nonconductive rope operator; (C) -Pendant pushbutton with nonconductive supporting means and having nonconductive surfaces or ungrounded exposed conductive surfaces; or (D) -Radio.Section 1910.306(i) -Electrically Driven or Controlled Irrigation Machines(See 1910.302(b)(3).) 1910.306(i)(1) -Lightning Protection. If an electrically driven or controlled irrigation machine has a stationary point, a driven ground rod shall be connected to the machine at the stationary point for lightning protection. 1910.306(i)(2) -Disconnecting Means. The main disconnecting means for a center pivot irrigation machine shall be located at the point of connection of electrical power to the machine and shall be readily accessible and capable of being locked in the open position. A disconnecting means shall be provided for each motor and controller.Section 1910.306(j) -Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar Installations1910.306(j)(1) -Scope. Paragraphs (j)(2) through (j)(5) of this section apply to electric wiring for and equipment in or adjacent to all swimming, wading, therapeutic, and decorative pools and fountains, whether permanently installed or storable, and to metallic auxiliary equipment, such as pumps, filters, and similar equipment. Therapeutic pools in health care facilities are exempt from these provisions. 1910.306(j)(2) -Lighting and Receptacles (i) -Receptacles. A single receptacle of the locking and grounding type that provides power for a permanently installed swimming pool recirculating pump motor may be located not less than 5 feet from the inside walls of a pool. All other receptacles on the property shall be located at least 10 feet from the inside walls of a pool. Receptacles which are located within 15 feet of the inside walls of the pool shall be protected by ground-fault circuit interrupters. Note: In determining these dimensions, the distance to be measured is the shortest path the supply
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations -OSHA Standard 1910.306 7cord of an appliance connected to the receptacle would follow without piercing a floor, wall, or ceiling of a building or other effective permanent barrier. (ii) -Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Outlets (A) -Unless they are 12 feet above the maximum water level, lighting fixtures and lighting outlets may not be installed over a pool or over the area extending 5 feet horizontally from the inside walls of a pool. However, a lighting fixture or lighting outlet which has been installed before April 16, 1981, may be located less than 5 feet measured horizontally from the inside walls of a pool if it is at least 5 feet above the surface of the maximum water level and shall be rigidly attached to the existing structure. It shall also be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter installed in the branch circuit supplying the fixture. (B) -Unless installed 5 feet above the maximum water level and rigidly attached to the structure adjacent to or enclosing the pool, lighting fixtures and lighting outlets installed in the area extending between 5 feet and 10 feet horizontally from the inside walls of a pool shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter. 1910.306(j)(3) -Cordand Plug-Connected Equipment. Flexible cords used with the following equipment may not exceed 3 feet in length and shall have a copper equipment grounding conductor with a grounding-type attachment plug. (i) -Cordand plug-connected lighting fixtures installed within 16 feet of the water surface of permanently installed pools. (ii) -Other cordand plug-connected, fixed or stationary equipment used with permanently installed pools. 1910.306(j)(4) -Underwater Equipment (i) -A ground-fault circuit interrupter shall be installed in the branch circuit supplying underwater fixtures operating at more than 15 volts. Equipment installed underwater shall be approved for the purpose. (ii) -No underwater lighting fixtures may be installed for operation at over 150 volts between conductors. 1910.306(j)(5) -Fountains. All electric equipment operating at more than 15 volts, including power supply cords, used with fountains shall be protected by ground-fault circuit interrupters. (See 1910.302(b)(3).)