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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002907/00001
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Title: Using Fast-Growing Hardwoods In Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Rockwood, D.L.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1996
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Printed February 1996."
General Note: "EES-328"
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
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FactSheetEES-328 UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida1 D.L.Rockwood2Fast-growingtreesoffermanyenvironmentaland resourcebenefitsworldwide.InFlorida,potential applicationsofvigoroushardwoodspeciesthatcan grow10ormorefeetperyearincluderemediating environmentalproblems,providingenergyfeedstocks, andproducingcommercialproducts(Table1).EnvironmentalProblemsNumerousenvironmentalissuesinFloridacanbe addressedbygrowingtrees.GlobalwarmingandCO2mitigationconcernsarisingfromthestate'slarge populationandhighfossilfuelusecouldbesomewhat offsetbylarge-scaleplantingoffast-growingtrees. Waterquantityandqualityconcernscausedby wastewaterandrunoff(statewide,oneand60billion gallonsperday,respectively)mayberemediated throughtheuseoffast-growingtrees.EnergyFeedstocksTreescanprovideenergyfeedstocks.To maximizetheeconomicandenergeticbenefitsof growingtreesforenergyuses,managementmay includepracticessuchas:intensiveculture (environmentallysafesiteamendmentandweed controlpractices,closespacingoftrees);short rotation(timefromplantingtoharvestasshortas2 to10years);andcoppiceregeneration(rapid regrowthfromthestumpafterharvest).CommercialProductsCommercialmarketscurrentlyexistandmay bedevelopedforthesespecies.Hardwooddemand andpriceareincreasingintheSoutheast.The eucalyptsmayprovidemultipleproducts:landscape mulch,energywood,pulpwood. Eucalyptus in southernFloridapresentlyareharvestedfor landscapemulch.Energywoodisneededfor electricitygenerationinsouthernFlorida. Considerable Eucalyptus pulpisimportedintothe UnitedStates,andFlorida-grown Eucalyptus have veryacceptablepropertiesforpulpandpapermaking. Key,fast-growinghardwoods,whenplantedon suitablesitesandmanagedproperly,are:cottonwood (CW)andthree Eucalyptus species E.amplifolia (EA), E.camaldulensis (EC),and E.grandis (EG) (Table1).InTable1wepresentplantingguidelines forthesefourfast-growinghardwoodsanddescribe applicationsforwhichtheyaresuitedinFlorida. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetEES-328,aseriesoftheFloridaEnergyExtensionService,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,Instituteof FoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.PrintedFebruary1996. 2.D.L.Rockwood,professor,ForestGenetics,SchoolofForestResourcesandConservation,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences, UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheFloridaEnergyExtensionServicereceivesfundingfromtheEnergyOffice,DepartmentofCommunityAffairs,andisoperatedbytheUniversity ofFlorida'sInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesthroughtheCooperativeExtensionService.Theinformationcontainedhereinistheproduct oftheFloridaEnergyExtensionServiceanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewoftheFloridaEnergyoffice. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice.Florida CooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Director

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2UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida Page2Table1.GuidelinesontheestablishmentandmanagementofEucalyptusandcottonwoodinFlorida. Species E.grandis E.camaldulensis E.amplifolia Cottonwood Applications F,E,I,P,M F,E,S,I,P,M F,E,P,M F,E,P Florida Growing Region Southern CentralandSouthern NortheasternandCentral Northeasternand Northwestern Site Requirements Aglandorflatwoods Agland,flatwoodsor sandhills Agorforestland SI265;pH>5.5 Agland orriverbottoms Culture Diskonmuck;Chop, burn,1/2-tonGroundRock Phosphate/acre, andbedonflatwoods; AddNupto270lbs/acreon flatwoods.Plantinsummer Chopandburn onsandhills; Chop,burn,andbedon flatwoods. Plantinsummer Diskandherbicide; AddNupto250lbs/acre andPupto250lbs/acre. Plantinspringor summer Diskandherbicide; AddNupto325 lbs/acreand Pupto240lbs/acre. Plantinwinter Planting Stock Seedlings,Rootedcuttings, orPlantlets oftestedclones 28143,4and28173,4 Seedlings,Rooted cuttings,orPlantlets oftestedclones 45833and45905or 45875,6 Seedlingsor Rootedcuttings oftestedclones 48277and48547or 48798and50308 Unrootedcuttings oftestedclones ST2409andST2449 Growth 46fttallin2.5yrs onmuck; 33ftin2yrsand55ft in5yrsonflatwoods 30ftin2.75yrs onsandhills; 26ftin5yrs onflatwoods 46ftin3yrs onaglands 20ftin2yrs onaglands Rotation 2yrsonmuck; 5yrsonflatwoods 5-7yrs 2-5yrs 5-8yrs Coppicing (sproutfrom thestump) Goodinwinter, poorinsummer; 33ftin1.75yrsonmuck, 66ftin5yrsonflatwoods Goodinwinter andsummer; 13ftin2.25yrs onsandhills Excellentin winterandsummer; 16ftin6moson aglands Excellentinwinter; 10ftonaglands inoneyr Productivity (dryt/acre/yr) Upto16 Upto9 Upto11 Upto10 1F=energywood,E=Effluent,S=Stormwater,I=Irrigation,P=Pulpwood,M=Mulch2SiteIndex(baseage25years)forslashpine3PlantletsfromTwyfordInternational,SantaPaula,CA4CuttingsfromTwyfordInternational,Apopka,FLandLykesBros.ForestryDivision,Palmdale,FL5PlantletsfromSimpsonTimberCompany,Corning,CA6Stormwaterapplicationsonly7SeedfromSchoolofForestResourcesandConservation,UniversityofFlorida8Unavailablecommercially9UnrootedcuttingsfromLouisianaDept.ofAgriculture&Forestry,BatonRouge,LAPLANTINGGUIDELINESSuccessfulestablishmentandmanagementof thesefast-growinghardwoodshaveseveral components:GrowingRegionNosinglespeciesisthemostproductiveinall regionsofFloridanormostsuitableforall applications.Specieschoicebyregionreflectsfreeze

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3UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida Page3hardinessdifferences,particularlyinnorthernFlorida, whereonly CW isnaturallyadapted. EA isfreeze hardyenoughtobegrowninpeninsularFlorida whereithassufficienthardinesstogothrougha rotationwithminimalfreezedamage. EC hasfreeze toleranceappropriateforcentralandsouthern Florida.Thelimitedhardinessof EG limitsitto southernFlorida.SiteRequirementsAllfourhardwoodsgrowbestonagricultural lands.Landsrecentlyinagriculturaluseormarginal foragriculturalproductionaretypicallyideal. EA and CW requirehighqualityland,with EA alsorequiring highpH. EC hasawidesitetolerance. EG grows verywellonsandyororganicsoils. EG growsmore rapidlythan EC onallbutsandhillsitesinsouthern Florida. Alternatively,allspeciesmaybegrownonpoorer sitesifamendmentsareaddedtoraisenutrientlevels and/orpH. EC isthemostfloodtolerant Eucalyptus species,butsome EG cloneshaveacceptableflood tolerance.CulturalPracticesOnpoorlydrainedflatwoodsitesorinstormwater orirrigationapplicationsinvolvingwastewater flooding,beddingisanessentialpartofinitialculture. Bedsshouldbeatleast1foothighandallowedto settleforaboutthreemonthsbeforethetreesare planted. Allfourspeciessurviveandgrowbestwhen competingvegetationiswellcontrolledduringthe firsttwoyears.Theinitialsitepreparation,ifbedding isinvolved,isusuallysufficientforvegetationcontrol duringthefirstgrowingseason.Withgoodtree growthduringthefirstyear,thetreestypically dominateothervegetationfortherestoftherotation.PlantingStockSuperiorgenotypeshavebeenidentifiedwithin eachspeciesformaximizinggrowthandnutrient uptake.Therecommendedgenotypescanbe producedinvariouswaysandatdifferentcosts. Tested CW clonesareavailableasunrootedcuttings forabout$0.15pertree. EA, EC,and EG canbe propagatedasseedlingsorvegetativelyasrooted cuttingsorplantlets;thevegetativepropagulesgrow morerapidlyanduniformlythanseedlings.However, plantletsaremoreexpensivethancuttings(upto$.90 perplantletcomparedto$.50percutting).Bothcost morethanseedlings.Thebest EC clonesare currentlyavailableonlyasplantletsfromCalifornia. Presently,verylittle EA plantingstockisavailable commerciallyeitherasseedlingsorcuttings.ManagementRotationlengthvarieswithspecies,site,and application.Forthefastest-growingspeciesgrownfor energywood,thetimefromplantingtoharvestmay evenbeshorterthantwoyearsifplantedonahighqualitysiteatclosespacing(e.g., EG plantedon mucksoilsat4,000trees/acre).Aspeciesestablished onapoorsiteatwidespacingforpulpwood,suchas EC plantedondeepcentralFloridasandhillsat600 trees/acre,mayneeduptoeightyearstoreach harvestablesize. Allfourspeciescoppice(sproutfromthestump) afterharvest.Inthecoppicerotation,treegrowthis typicallyfasterthanintheinitialrotation,butthe timeofharvestiscriticaltocoppicingsuccess. EA coppiceswellthroughouttheyear,while EG harvests mustbedoneduringthewintertoinsuregood coppicing. Theseexotic Eucalyptus speciessurpassvirtually allnativetreespeciesformostapplicationsin peninsularFlorida.Theyhavecommercialvalueand arenotinvasive,havingbeenpresentinFloridafor35 to100yearswithoutspreading.Florida'sclimate limitsseedingin EA and EC,andclosespacingand shortrotationsgreatlyreducefloweringofallthree species. Eucalyptus hasaconsiderableadvantagefor nutrientuptakeandwateruseinremediationsystems. EC,forexample,hasfloodtolerancecomparableto cypressbutismuchfastergrowing.

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4UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida Page4Table2.Demonstrationsoffast-growinghardwoodapplicationsinFlorida. Application Species Location Description EffluentSpray CW Tallahassee Effluentappliedtotreesbycenterpivotirrigation EffluentPond EA,EC, EG Zephyrhills Treesplantedonberms StormwaterPond EA,EC, EG Tampa Treesin1.5-acrepondfloodedwithindustrialstormwater IrrigationPond EA,EC, EG BelleGlade Treesin0.6-acrepondfloodedwithagriculturalirrigationrunoff Energywood EA Gainesville Clonesandprogeniesplantedat6.6x3.3ftspacing Energywood EC,EG Mulberry Clonesonclaysettlingpondat10x3.3ftspacing Energywood EC,EG SouthBay Treesonmuckatvariousspacings Mulch EC,EG Palmdale Treesplantedat1 2x7fton beddedflatwoodsite Mulch EC,EG HainesCity Treesplantedat10x3.3ftonsandhillssiteAPPLICATIONS WastewaterSystemsThepotentialapplicationsforfast-growing hardwoodsinFlorida,rangingfrominnovative wastewaterremediationsystemstotraditionalforest products,aredemonstratedinvariouslocations (Table2). Theamountsofwaterandnutrientstakenupby CW, EA, EC,and EG inwastewatersystemsdepend onclimaticlimits,treeageandvigor,andthetiming andextentofthewastewaterapplications.Theupper limitonannualwateruptakeisapproximately65 inches.Apondbioremediationsystemmayreduce totaldissolvedphosphorusinsurfacewaterupto 48%.Annualnutrientaccumulationsbyvigorous EG mayreach190,35,95,80,and25pounds/acreof nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium,calcium,and magnesium,respectively.Thewateruseefficiencyof Eucalyptus speciesisadvantageousfortakingupthe greatestamountofnutrients. Inwastewaterbioremediationsystems,the managementgoalistoreachfullcanopydevelopment asrapidlyaspossible,maintainactivegrowth,harvest assoonasproductivitydiminishes,andsuccessfully regeneratethroughvigorouscoppicing.Coppice growthinthesecondrotationshouldexceedgrowth inthefirstrotationbysome20%andshouldshorten thetimetothesecondharvestbyatleastoneyear. Coppicecyclesmayberepeateduptosixtimes. Combiningtreecropproductionwithwastewater recyclinghasmanymutualadvantages,including increasingtreegrowth,recyclingnutrients,renovating wastewater,andproducingcommercialproducts. Wastewaterimpactsonwaterquantityandquality maybereducedbyutilizingtrees'evapotranspiration andnutrientuptakepotential. EA, EC, EG,and CW, variouslytolerantofhighwaterandnutrientlevels, maybioremediate:a)effluentfromsewagetreatment facilities,b)stormwaterinurbanandindustrialareas, andc)agriculturalirrigationwaterneedingpurification tomeetenvironmentalstandards.EffluentRemediationSewageeffluentproducedbyarapidlyexpanding populationmusthavenutrientsremovedtomeet waterqualitystandards.Effluentamendmentscan considerablyenhancetreegrowthandevenmake growthpossibleonpoorsites.Thesuccessfulgrowth of CW onsandhillsatTallahassee(Table2)isthe resultofapplyingabout3"ofeffluentweekly. Sewageeffluentpondbermscanbeeasilyand inexpensivelyconvertedfromgrasscovertotree cover,ashasbeendoneatZephyrhills(Table2).

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5UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida Page5Thedrawdownofeffluentintheponddependson severalfactors:excessofevapotranspirationover rainfall,amountofbermoccupiedbytrees,tree accesstotheeffluent,andtheratioofbermareato pondarea.Largerratiosofbermstopondsincrease drawdown,whilesmallerratiosdecreaseit. Analternativeforincreasingdrawdownisto deliverpondeffluenttoindividualtreesontheberms bydripirrigationorsprinklers.Dripirrigatingeach treefromthetimeofplantingleadstomorerapid earlygrowth,quickeraccesstothepondthroughroot contact,andfullercrowndevelopmentformaximum transpirationofeffluent.Anotherinnovative approachistoinstalltreesinoraroundanin-ground effluentdisposalfield.StormwaterRemediationStormwaterrunoffisthemajorsourceofsurface waterpollutioninthestate.Mostwetdetention systemsforstormwaterfailtoachievethe80% reductioninpollutantloadsthatFloridarequiresfor newdevelopments.TheTampastormwaterholding pond(Table2)isdesignedtoprovide100% treatmentofthe"firstflush"(1inch)ofstormwater runoff. EC toleratestheextremefloodingthatoccurs intree-stormwatersystems.Forsuccessful establishmentandrapidearlygrowth,thetreesmust beplantedonbedsatapproximately1,100trees/acre, andsiteamendmentssuchasfertilizer,mulch, compost,orsewagesludgeshouldbeaddedtolow fertilitysites.Stormwatershouldnotbeintroduced intotheponduntilthetreesare20feettall. EC coppicingisvigorous,butharvestsduringor precedingextendedfloodingshouldbeavoided. Thecostofastormwaterretrofitisapproximately $1,600/acreofcaptureareatocaptureanddeliver stormwaterandlessthan$9,000/acreofpondto installandplantaholdingpond.Thetargetdesign ratioforholdingpondsizetostormwatercollection areais0.27acreofpond/1.0acreofcollectionarea. Theresultingtotalinstallationcostforaretrofitis lessthan$4,000/acreofstormwaterdischargebasin.IrrigationRemediationPurificationofnutrientladenwaterfrom agriculturaloperationsisoftenneeded.Anirrigation runoffholdingpondsuchasatBelleGlade(Table2) isalow-costoptionforbioremediatingagricultural wastewater.Withexistingirrigationequipment,the onlycostisforconstructionof1.6footbermsaround thepond.Adeliverysystemisneededtodeliver runofftothehighendofthepond,andanoutflow structureisneededatthelowend. EC clonesmaybebestforrunoffsystemsthatare heavilyflooded,buttwo EG clonesmaycombine tolerancetofloodsofthreemonthdurationwith fastergrowth.Prolongedfloodingdoesnotaffecttree growthorsurvivalof4-5-year-old EC.Fifteen-monthold EG clonesonmucksoilsmaybeover20feettall.EnergyTomaximizetheeconomicandenergeticbenefits ofgrowingthesespeciesforenergyuses,as demonstratedatGainesville,Mulberry,andSouthBay (Table2),short-rotation,intensiveculturesystem methodsmaybefollowed:1)highplantingdensities of2,000to4,000treesperacre,2)intensivecultures includingsiteamendmentandweedcontrolpractices, 3)rotationsasshortas2tonomorethan10years dependingonspecies,plantingdensity,andculture, and4)asmanyassixrotationsbeforereplanting. Woodybiomasshasnumerousenergy-related applicationsincludingdirectcombustion,thermochemicalgasification,methaneproduction,and potentiallyalcoholproduction.ForestProductsTraditionalcultureofthesespeciesinFlorida,e. g.,atPalmdaleandHainesCity(Table2),isless intenseandconsistsof:1)plantingabout600trees peracre,2)basicamendmentonlyasneededbythe siteandminimalweedcontrol,3)8-10yearrotation, and4)twotothreerotations.Theirwoodissuitable andevenpreferredforpulpandpaper; EG isusedfor mulch.REFERENCESGeary,T.F.,G.F.Meskimen,andE.C.Franklin. 1983.GrowingeucalyptusinFloridafor industrialwoodproduction. USDAFor.Serv. Gen.Tech.Rpt.SE-23. 43p. Hopmans,P.,H.T.L.Stewart,D.W.Flinn,andT.J. Hilman.1990.Growth,biomass,productionand nutrientaccumulationbyseventreespecies irrigatedwithmunicipaleffluentatWodinga, Australia. For.Ecol.&Man. 30:203-211.

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6UsingFast-GrowingHardwoodsinFlorida Page6Kehoe,M.1993.Awater-qualitysurveyofwetlandstreatmentstormwaterponds-exceedenceof standards.In: Proc.3rd.BiennialStormwaterRes. Conf., Oct.7-8,1993,Tampa,FL.SWFlaWater Man.Dist.,Brooksville,FL.pp.276-298. Meskimen,G.F.,D.L.Rockwood,andK.V.Reddy. 1987.Developmentof Eucalyptus clonesfora summerrainfallenvironmentwithperiodicsevere frosts. NewForests 3:197-205. Porter,P.S.,G.H.Snyder,andC.W.Deren.1991. Flood-tolerantcropsforlowinputsustainable agricultureintheEvergladesAgriculturalArea. J.Sustain.Agr. 2(1):77-101. Riekerk,H.1986.Wasteutilizationonforestlands inFlorida. Fla.Coop.Ext.Serv.Circ.734. 11p. Rockwood,D.L.,C.W.Comer,D.R.Dippon,andJ.B. Huffman.1985.Woodybiomassproduction optionsforFlorida. Fla.Agr.Exp.Sta.Tech.Bul. 856. 29p. Rockwood,D.L.,R.J.Dinus,J.M.Kramer,T.J. McDonough,C.A.Raymond,J.V.Owen,andJ.T. Devalerio.1993.Geneticvariationforrooting, growth,frosthardiness,andwood,fiber,and pulpingpropertiesinFlorida-grown Eucalyptus amplifolia.In:Proc.22nd.SouthernFor.Tree ImprovementConf.,June14-17,1993,Atlanta, GA.pp.81-88. Rockwood,D.L.,R.J.Dinus,J.M.Kramer,andT.J. McDonough.1995.Geneticvariationinwood, pulping,andpaperpropertiesof Eucalyptus amplifolia and Egrandis growninFloridaUSA.In: Proc.CRC-IUFROConf.EucalyptPlantations: ImprovementofFibreYieldandQuality, Feb19-24, 1995,Hobart,Tasmania,Australia.pp.53-59. Rockwood,D.L.,andD.R.Dippon.1989.Biological andeconomicpotentialof Eucalyptusgrandis and slashpineasbiomassenergycrops. Biomass 20(3&4):155-166. Rockwood,D.L.,N.N.Pathak,andP.C.Satapathy. 1993.Woodybiomassproductionsystemsfor Florida. Biomass&Bioenergy 5(1):23-34. Rockwood,D.L.,G.H.Snyder,andR.R.Sprinkle. 1994.Woodybiomassproductioninwaste recyclingsystems.In: Proc.Bioenergy94,6thNat'l BioenergyConf. October2-6,1994,Reno/Sparks, NV.pp.351-358. Rockwood,D.L.,E.E.Warrag,K.Javanshir,andK. Kratz.1989.Geneticimprovementof Eucalyptus grandis forsouthernFlorida.In: Proc.20th SouthernForestTreeImprovementConf., June2729,1989,Charleston,SC.p.403-410. Smith,W.H.,andJ.O.Evans.1977.Special opportunitiesandproblemsinusingforestsoils fororganicwasteapplication.In: Proc.Soilsfor Man.ofOrganicWastesandWasteWaters. pp. 428-454.